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budmantis

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #100 on: September 18, 2016, 06:43:31 AM »
Resistance is futile!
"To predict the behavior of ordinary people in advance, you only have to assume that they will always try to escape a disagreeable situation with the smallest possible expenditure of intelligence." Nietzsche

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #101 on: September 18, 2016, 10:11:43 AM »
The first linked NIST article is entitled: "Realizing the Potential of Quantum Information Science and Advancing High-Performance Computing" and was put online on July 27, 2016.  The associated linked report indicates that the Whitehouse has determined that Quantum Information Science, QIS, is important to the nation's wellbeing and our efforts to advance high-performance computing:


https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2016/07/realizing-potential-quantum-information-science-and-advancing-high

The second linked reference indicates that QIS is a synthesis of quantum physics, computer science and information theory; and that until now quantum information theory has been given short shrift.  Furthermore, the extract from the second linked reference indicates "… that entropy provides a suitable way to quantify redundancy."

Regarding redundancy and HIOTTOE, I note that if Susskind's estimate that the String Theory Landscape has about 10500 different states.  However, if HIOTTOE is correct that the number of states in the String Theory Landscape corresponds to the total number of possible direct knowledge vectors summed across the approximately Boltzmann constant (~1.38 x 1023) number of dimples in the expressed Nibbanic plane; then this indicates that the String Theory Landscape actually has closer to the square of 1023, or about 10530, different states.  Furthermore, I note that the Lila Paradigm estimates that a typical non-physical entity has direct knowledge of from 1 to 3 other non-physical entities; while it further estimates that the average number of direct knowledge arrows per non-physical entity taken for the largest circuit is 11.7063. 

http://www.theory.caltech.edu/~preskill/ph219/chap10_15.pdf

Extract: "Quantum information science is a synthesis of three great themes of 20th century thought: quantum physics, computer science, and information theory. Up until now, we have given short shrift to the information theory side of this trio, an oversight now to be remedied.

A suitable name for this chapter might have been Quantum Information Theory, but I prefer for that term to have a broader meaning, encompassing much that has already been presented in this book. Instead I call it Quantum Shannon Theory, to emphasize that we will mostly be occupied with generalizing and applying Claude Shannon’s great (classical) contributions to a quantum setting. Quantum Shannon theory has several major thrusts:

1. Compressing quantum information.

2. Transmitting classical and quantum information through noisy quantum channels.

3. Quantifying, characterizing, transforming, and using quantum entanglement.

A recurring theme unites these topics — the properties, interpretation, and applications of Von Neumann entropy.


Before we can understand Von Neumann entropy and its relevance to quantum information, we should discuss Shannon entropy and its relevance to classical information.

Claude Shannon established the two core results of classical information theory in his landmark 1948 paper. The two central problems that he solved were:

1. How much can a message be compressed; i.e., how redundant is the information? This question is answered by the “source coding theorem,” also called the “noiseless coding theorem.”

2. At what rate can we communicate reliably over a noisy channel; i.e., how much redundancy must be incorporated into a message to protect against errors? This question is answered by the “noisy channel coding theorem.”

Both questions concern redundancy – how unexpected is the next letter of the message, on the average. One of Shannon’s key insights was that entropy provides a suitable way to quantify redundancy.


Von Neumann Entropy

In classical information theory, we often consider a source that prepares messages of n letters (n >> 1), where each letter is drawn independently from an ensemble X = {x, p(x)}. We have seen that the Shannon entropy H(X) is the number of incompressible bits of information carried per letter …


We would like to generalize these considerations to quantum information. We may imagine a source that prepares messages of n letters, but where each letter is chosen from an ensemble of quantum states. The signal alphabet consists of a set of quantum states {rho(x)}, each occurring with a specified a priori probability p(x)."


For more information on QIS see the third linked reference entitled "From Classical to Quantum Shannon Theory", by Mark M. Wilde and released online March 22, 2016:

http://arxiv.org/pdf/1106.1445.pdf

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AbruptSLR

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #102 on: September 18, 2016, 05:10:51 PM »
Resistance is futile!


For those who refuse to choose the enlightenment (Bayesian) approach to reducing suffering (i.e. reducing systemic isolation & systemic entropy); then the high tech (Frequentist) approach offers some 'Hail Mary' means to reducing suffering (but typically this entails decreasing "our tribe's" suffering at the expense of those outside "our tribe"), such as those regularly posted at the Singularity Hub (see the first link):


http://singularityhub.com/

Such as:

The first linked article is entitled: " Surprisingly, Plant Microbes May Be an Answer to Our Growing Food Needs" (see the first attached image)

http://singularityhub.com/2016/09/06/surprisingly-plant-microbes-may-be-an-answer-to-our-growing-food-needs/
Extract: " Organizations as diverse as the United Nations and Monsanto are in agreement that we need to double our food production globally by 2050 to feed the world’s population.
But our current agricultural process is one of the biggest contributors to global warming. It emits more greenhouses gases than all the world’s cars combined and is a major consumer and polluter of our precious water resources.
How can we sustainably feed everyone without overextending our planet’s resources?
Speaking at Singularity University’s Global Summit, Geoffrey von Maltzahn, a biological engineer and entrepreneur, argued that we are at an important junction in our history: our biological engineering abilities are maturing so fast that we now have the opportunity to create a healthy, thriving planet and fulfill humanity’s growing needs as well.
Until now, our bioengineering abilities have been the equivalent of banging stone tools together, Von Maltzahn says. He believes “this will be the century where we actually get to make cathedrals in biology.”
The plummeting cost of genome sequencing, new genetic engineering tools like CRISPR and a growing understanding of microbiomes means that today we have an opportunity to reinvent agriculture in a way that was impossible even just a few years ago.
And Von Maltzahn believes microbes, of all things, have a very important part to play in that revolution."

or
The second linked article is entitled: "Like Video Games, Your Brain Has a Physics Engine That Simulates the World"

http://singularityhub.com/2016/09/04/like-video-games-your-brain-has-a-physics-engine-that-simulates-the-world/

Extract: "Picture this: you’re standing in front of a pile of glistening avocados at a grocery store. You snatch one up, put it in your cart, and wheel off dreaming of nachos and guacamole — a completely effortless interaction.
Now ask yourself: how did you know which avocados you could pick up without toppling the entire pile?
Not so simple, huh?
To answer the question, neuroscientists are taking a hint from game developers. Much like physical simulation engines that power some of the best computer games, we may have analogous neural networks that let us elegantly navigate the real world. Rather than getting mired in details, gaming engines take shortcuts to simulate actions in the gaming space in a way that looks good and makes sense, allowing players to react appropriately on the fly. The brain might work the same way."

Other article include how human-played computer games are teaching AI faster and cheaper than prior efforts over the Internet.  For instance the AI for driverless cars is improving its driving skills by monitoring "Grand Theft Auto".
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
― Leon C. Megginson

AbruptSLR

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #103 on: September 18, 2016, 07:54:24 PM »
The linked article is entitled: "Wearable adoption more than doubled in past two years", and the information that IT companies gather from such wearables (like Google Glass, etc., see the attached image) allows such companies as Apple, Google, Facebook and others to develop PDFs of individual users behavior so that they can then use information theory (and in the future Quantum Information Science, QIS) to more quickly train AI via deep learning to better identify patterns and trends:


https://ai.icymi.email/tag/google-glass/

•   Extract: "The adoption of wearables has skyrocketed, rising from 21 percent of the U.S. population in 2014 to 49 percent in 2016, according to a report by consulting firm PwC .
•   Adoption of wearables declines with age, the report said.
•   The report found that consumers aged 35 to 49 are most likely to own smart watches.
•   And parents are significantly more likely to own not just one, but multiple wearable devices, the report said.
•   PwC’s report, “The Wearable Life: Connected Living in a Wearable World,” is an update to a report the company created in 2014.
The adoption of wearables has skyrocketed, rising from 21 percent of the U.S. population in 2014 to 49 percent in 2016, according to a report by consulting firm PwC."
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
― Leon C. Megginson

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #104 on: September 19, 2016, 02:02:53 AM »
Morpheus: This is the construct. It's our loading program. We can load anything, from clothing, to equipment, weapons, training simulations. Anything we need.
NEO: Right now, we're inside a computer program?

MORPHEUS: Is it really so hard to believe? Your clothes are different, the plugs in your arms and head are gone, your hair has changed. Your appearance now is what we call 'residual self-image'. It is the mental projection of your digital self.

Neo touches one of the two Chesterfield-style chairs the two now stand by. There is a 50s-style television set facing them.

NEO: This... this isn't real?

MORPHEUS: What is 'real'? How do you define 'real'? If you're talking about what you can feel, what you can smell, what you can taste and see, then real is simply electrical signals interpreted by your brain. This is the world that you know.

Morpheus picks up a remote and turns the television set on. It shows the world Neo remembers

MORPHEUS: The world as it was at the end of the twentieth century. It exists now only as part of a neural-interactive simulation... that we call the matrix.

He switches the television off and reclines in his chair.

MORPHEUS: You've been living in a dream world, Neo. This is the world as it exists today.

He switches the television on, and it shows a nightmarish, barren dystopia. The camera zooms all the way into the screen, then zooms back out again, and we see that Morpheus and Neo are now in the same dystopia.

MORPHEUS: Welcome to the desert of the real.
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
― Leon C. Megginson

AbruptSLR

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #105 on: September 21, 2016, 01:23:38 PM »
The linked article is entitled: "Towards quantum Internet: Researchers teleport particle of light six kilometres".  It looks like a quantum internet is only a decade or so away (which may help to reduce systemic isolation):

http://phys.org/news/2016-09-quantum-internet-teleport-particle-kilometres.html

Extract: "Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometres using The City of Calgary's fibre optic cable infrastructure. The project began with an Urban Alliance seed grant in 2014.

This accomplishment, which set a new record for distance of transferring a quantum state by teleportation, has landed the researchers a spot in the prestigious Nature Photonics scientific journal. The finding was published back-to-back with a similar demonstration by a group of Chinese researchers.

"Such a network will enable secure communication without having to worry about eavesdropping, and allow distant quantum computers to connect," says Tittel.."
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #106 on: September 21, 2016, 01:58:56 PM »
The linked article addresses Obama's last speech to the UN in which he call for global integration (i.e. an end to systemic isolation):

http://time.com/4501910/president-obama-united-nations-speech-transcript/

Extract: "President Barack Obama on Tuesday delivered his final address to the United Nations General Assembly , calling on leaders to work together and criticizing those who seek a “simple rejection of global integration.”

“I do not believe progress is possible if our desire to preserve our identities gives way to an impulse to dehumanize or dominate another group. If our religion leads us to persecute those of another faith, if we jail or beat people who are gay, if our traditions lead us to prevent girls from going to school, if we discriminate on the basis of race or tribe or ethnicity, then the fragile bonds of civilization will fray,” Obama said. “The world is too small, we are too packed together, for us to be able to resort to those old ways of thinking.”"
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
― Leon C. Megginson

AbruptSLR

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #107 on: September 23, 2016, 11:27:52 AM »
The linked open source reference indicates that the notion of parity horizons for black holes help to distinguish the differences between Shape Dynamics and General Relativity; and I note that these differences are in accord with the HIOTTOE:

Gabriel Herczeg (August 28, 2015), "Parity Horizons, Black Holes, and Chronology Protection in Shape Dynamics", arXiv:1508.06704v1 [gr-qc]


https://arxiv.org/abs/1508.06704

Abstract: "I introduce the notion of a parity horizon, and show that many simple solutions of shape dynamics possess them. I show that the event horizons of the known asymptotically flat black hole solutions of shape dynamics are parity horizons and that this notion of parity implies that these horizons possess a notion of CPT invariance that can in some cases be extended to the solution as a whole. I present three new solutions of shape dynamics with parity horizons and find that not only event horizons become parity horizons in shape dynamics, but observer-dependent horizons and Cauchy horizons do as well. The fact that Cauchy horizons become (singular) parity horizons suggests a general chronology protection mechanism in shape dynamics that prevents the formation of closed time-like curves."
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
― Leon C. Megginson

AbruptSLR

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #108 on: September 24, 2016, 07:17:37 PM »
As the Wachowskis wrote the screenplay for the movie adaptation of V for Vendetta, I provide some images from that adaptation as a icon of the global sub-cultural protest against tyranny (including the tyranny of small decisions associate with systemic isolation that is resulting in unsustainable overshoot):


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V_for_Vendetta


Extract: “Anonymous, an Internet-based group, has adopted the Guy Fawkes mask as their symbol (in reference to an Internet meme). Members wore such masks, for example, during Project Chanology's protests against the Church of Scientology in 2008.




During the Occupy Wall Street and other ongoing Occupy protests, the mask appeared internationally as a symbol of popular revolution. Artist David Lloyd stated: "The Guy Fawkes mask has now become a common brand and a convenient placard to use in protest against tyranny – and  I'm happy with people using it, it seems quite unique, an icon of popular culture being used this way.”
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
― Leon C. Megginson

AbruptSLR

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #109 on: September 25, 2016, 06:06:46 PM »
In order to overcome systemic isolation both Nash Equilibrium theory (see the attached images some of which come from the movie "A Beautiful Mind") and the superset of Perfect Bayesian Equilibrium (PBE) theory; demonstrates mathematically that we all need to consider not only what is best for each of us individually but also what is best for the group that we belong to (& as climate change affects the entire planet we need to learn that we all belong to the human race):


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nash_equilibrium

&

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perfect_Bayesian_equilibrium

Extract: "In game theory, a Perfect Bayesian Equilibrium (PBE) is an equilibrium concept relevant for dynamic games with incomplete information (sequential Bayesian games). A PBE is a refinement of both Bayesian Nash equilibrium and subgame perfect equilibrium. A PBE has two components: strategies and beliefs:

Each type of each player has a strategy that determines how he plays in each step of the game; this strategy may depend on the history, as in a sequential game.
Each player has a belief about the possible types of the other players, as in a Bayesian game.
The strategies and beliefs should be consistent in the following sense:

Each strategy should be optimal given the beliefs;
The beliefs should be updated according to the strategies and Bayes' rule."
« Last Edit: September 26, 2016, 09:54:37 AM by AbruptSLR »
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
― Leon C. Megginson

AbruptSLR

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #110 on: September 26, 2016, 09:41:17 PM »
I expect to make a short series of posts focused on the concept/interpretation of time, with regard to the HIOTTOE. 

I begin by noting that in Reply #107, I linked the HIOTTOE to the assessment that Shape Dynamics indicates that parity horizons support a general chronology protection mechanism that prevents the formation of closed time-like curves, and that the event horizons around black holes are such parity horizons which possess a notion of CPT invariance.  Therefore, I begin by providing a like to a Wikipedia article on CPT Symmetry, which helps to explain anti-matter and which states:

"In order to preserve this symmetry, every violation of the combined symmetry of two of its components (such as CP) must have a corresponding violation in the third component (such as T); in fact, mathematically, these are the same thing. Thus violations in T symmetry are often referred to as CP violations."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CPT_symmetry

Extract: "Charge, Parity, and Time Reversal Symmetry is a fundamental symmetry of physical laws under the simultaneous transformations of charge conjugation (C), parity transformation (P), and time reversal (T). CPT is the only combination of C, P and T that is observed to be an exact symmetry of nature at the fundamental level. The CPT theorem says that CPT symmetry holds for all physical phenomena, or more precisely, that any Lorentz invariant local quantum field theory with a Hermitian Hamiltonian must have CPT symmetry.

The implication of CPT symmetry is that a "mirror-image" of our universe — with all objects having their positions reflected by an arbitrary plane (corresponding to a parity inversion), all momenta reversed (corresponding to a time inversion) and with all matter replaced by antimatter (corresponding to a charge inversion)— would evolve under exactly our physical laws. The CPT transformation turns our universe into its "mirror image" and vice versa. CPT symmetry is recognized to be a fundamental property of physical laws.

In order to preserve this symmetry, every violation of the combined symmetry of two of its components (such as CP) must have a corresponding violation in the third component (such as T); in fact, mathematically, these are the same thing. Thus violations in T symmetry are often referred to as CP violations."

This brings us to the matter of T-symmetry, which is the subject of the following linked Wikipedia article:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-symmetry

Extract: "Although in restricted contexts one may find this symmetry, the observable universe itself does not show symmetry under time reversal, primarily due to the second law of thermodynamics. Hence time is said to be non-symmetric, or asymmetric, except for equilibrium states when the second law of thermodynamics predicts the time symmetry to hold. However, quantum noninvasive measurements are predicted to violate time symmetry even in equilibrium, contrary to their classical counterparts, although it has not yet been experimentally confirmed.
Time asymmetries are generally distinguished as between those intrinsic to the dynamic physical laws, those due to the initial conditions of our universe, and due to measurements

1.   The T-asymmetry of the weak force is of the first kind,
2.   The T-asymmetry of the second law of thermodynamics is of the second kind, while
3.   The T-asymmetry of the noninvasive measurements is of the third kind.

The question of whether this time-asymmetric dissipation is really inevitable has been considered by many physicists, often in the context of Maxwell's demon. The name comes from a thought experiment described by James Clerk Maxwell in which a microscopic demon guards a gate between two halves of a room. It only lets slow molecules into one half, only fast ones into the other. By eventually making one side of the room cooler than before and the other hotter, it seems to reduce the entropy of the room, and reverse the arrow of time. Many analyses have been made of this; all show that when the entropy of room and demon are taken together, this total entropy does increase. Modern analyses of this problem have taken into account Claude E. Shannon's relation between entropy and information. Many interesting results in modern computing are closely related to this problem — reversible computing, quantum computing and physical limits to computing, are examples. These seemingly metaphysical questions are today, in these ways, slowly being converted to the stuff of the physical sciences.

The current consensus hinges upon the Boltzmann-Shannon identification of the logarithm of phase space volume with the negative of Shannon information, and hence to entropy. In this notion, a fixed initial state of a macroscopic system corresponds to relatively low entropy because the coordinates of the molecules of the body are constrained. As the system evolves in the presence of dissipation, the molecular coordinates can move into larger volumes of phase space, becoming more uncertain, and thus leading to increase in entropy.

One can, however, equally well imagine a state of the universe in which the motions of all of the particles at one instant were the reverse (strictly, the CPT reverse). Such a state would then evolve in reverse, so presumably entropy would decrease (Loschmidt's paradox). Why is 'our' state preferred over the other?

One position is to say that the constant increase of entropy we observe happens only because of the initial state of our universe. Other possible states of the universe (for example, a universe at heat death equilibrium) would actually result in no increase of entropy. In this view, the apparent T-asymmetry of our universe is a problem in cosmology: why did the universe start with a low entropy? This view, if it remains viable in the light of future cosmological observation, would connect this problem to one of the big open questions beyond the reach of today's physics — the question of initial conditions of the universe.

An object can cross through the event horizon of a black hole from the outside, and then fall rapidly to the central region where our understanding of physics breaks down. Since within a black hole the forward light-cone is directed towards the center and the backward light-cone is directed outward, it is not even possible to define time-reversal in the usual manner. The only way anything can escape from a black hole is as Hawking radiation.
The time reversal of a black hole would be a hypothetical object known as a white hole. From the outside they appear similar. While a black hole has a beginning and is inescapable, a white hole has an ending and cannot be entered. The forward light-cones of a white hole are directed outward; and its backward light-cones are directed towards the center.
The event horizon of a black hole may be thought of as a surface moving outward at the local speed of light and is just on the edge between escaping and falling back. The event horizon of a white hole is a surface moving inward at the local speed of light and is just on the edge between being swept outward and succeeding in reaching the center. They are two different kinds of horizons—the horizon of a white hole is like the horizon of a black hole turned inside-out.
The modern view of black hole irreversibility is to relate it to the second law of thermodynamics, since black holes are viewed as thermodynamic objects. Indeed, according to the Gauge–gravity duality conjecture, all microscopic processes in a black hole are reversible, and only the collective behavior is irreversible, as in any other macroscopic, thermal system.

Particle physics codified the basic laws of dynamics into the standard model. This is formulated as a quantum field theory that has CPT symmetry, i.e., the laws are invariant under simultaneous operation of time reversal, parity and charge conjugation. However, time reversal itself is seen not to be a symmetry (this is usually called CP violation). There are two possible origins of this asymmetry, one through the mixing of different flavours of quarks in their weak decays, the second through a direct CP violation in strong interactions. The first is seen in experiments, the second is strongly constrained by the non-observation of the EDM of a neutron.
It is important to stress that this time reversal violation is unrelated to the second law of thermodynamics, because due to the conservation of the CPT symmetry, the effect of time reversal is to rename particles as antiparticles and vice versa. Thus the second law of thermodynamics is thought to originate in the initial conditions in the universe."

In subsequent posts I expect to provide discussion addressing the Holoborg Interpretation of time with regards to: (1) perception of the initial conditions of the universe; (2) the event horizon around black holes, (3) CP violation; and (4) observations/measurements.
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
― Leon C. Megginson

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #111 on: September 28, 2016, 12:26:43 AM »
Before I make more posts specifically related to better understanding the HIOTTOE meaning of time, I remind readers that I previously pointed out that the Holographic Information Universe is postulated using both string theory & quantum gravitation theory.  Furthermore, I note that per the following linked article on recent developments in string theory indicate that:

(a) It has a fractal like nature;
 (b) Its math is revealing added complexity to standard quantum mechanics; which, has supported the development of a large number of different quantum field theories (much in the same way that the String Theory Landscape identifies number F-Theory formulations); and
(c) Inflation is much more naturally explained by String Theory than by quantum theory.

http://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2016/09/the-strange-second-life-of-string-theory/500390/

Extract: "String theory today looks almost fractal. The more closely people explore any one corner, the more structure they find. Some dig deep into particular crevices; others zoom out to try to make sense of grander patterns. The upshot is that string theory today includes much that no longer seems stringy. Those tiny loops of string whose harmonics were thought to breathe form into every particle and force known to nature (including elusive gravity) hardly even appear anymore on chalkboards at conferences.

Most people took for granted that quantum field theories—“bread-and-butter physics,” Dijkgraaf calls them—were well understood and had been for half a century. As it turned out, Dijkgraaf said, “we only understand them in a very limited way.”

These quantum field theories were developed in the 1950s to unify special relativity and quantum mechanics. They worked well enough for long enough that it didn’t much matter that they broke down at very small scales and high energies. But today, when physicists revisit “the part you thought you understood 60 years ago,” said Nima Arkani-Hamed, a physicist at the IAS, you find “stunning structures” that came as a complete surprise. “Every aspect of the idea that we understood quantum field theory turns out to be wrong. It’s a vastly bigger beast.”

Researchers have developed a huge number of quantum field theories in the past decade or so, each used to study different physical systems. Beem suspects there are quantum field theories that can’t be described even in terms of quantum fields. “We have opinions that sound as crazy as that, in large part, because of string theory.”

Still, Silverstein and colleagues have used string theory to discover, among other things, ways to see potentially observable signatures of various inflationary ideas. The same insights could have been found using quantum field theory, she said, but they weren’t. “It’s much more natural in string theory, with its extra structure.”

Inflationary models get tangled in string theory in multiple ways, not least of which is the multiverse—the idea that ours is one of a perhaps infinite number of universes, each created by the same mechanism that begat our own. Between string theory and cosmology, the idea of an infinite landscape of possible universes became not just acceptable, but even taken for granted by a large number of physicists. The selection effect, Silverstein said, would be one quite natural explanation for why our world is the way it is: In a very different universe, we wouldn’t be here to tell the story.

This effect could be one answer to a big problem string theory was supposed to solve. As Gross put it: “What picks out this particular theory”—the Standard Model—from the “plethora of infinite possibilities?

Silverstein thinks the selection effect is actually a good argument for string theory. The infinite landscape of possible universes can be directly linked to “the rich structure that we find in string theory,” she said—the innumerable ways that string theory’s multidimensional space-time can be folded in upon itself."


The preceding information indicates that quantum theory can be treated as a subset of string theory & quantum gravity, and I posit that string theory & quantum gravity can be treated as a subset of the HIOTTOE.  Consequently, propose that the Hilbert Space used in quantum mechanics can be used as an approximation of the Nibbanic Plane in order to relate entanglement (the vectors) with information networks to produce calculations of: space, fields, particles/waves and time.  Indeed, if this is the case then the following linked reference: "Space from Hilbert Space: Recovering Geometry from Bulk Entanglement"; does all of the calculations for me, by calculating the entropy associated with information networks in Hilbert Space, such as shown in the attached image:


Space from Hilbert Space: Recovering Geometry from Bulk Entanglement
Authors: ChunJun Cao, Sean M. Carroll, Spyridon Michalakis
(Submitted on 27 Jun 2016 (v1), last revised 5 Jul 2016 (this version, v2))

https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.08444?__hstc=13887208.a07978b93986f5153ad75ef9157da47e.1471615194540.1473946100584.1474031791220.15&__hssc=13887208.1.1474031791220&__hsfp=1816377754

Abstract: "We examine how to construct a spatial manifold and its geometry from the entanglement structure of an abstract quantum state in Hilbert space. Given a decomposition of Hilbert space H into a tensor product of factors, we consider a class of "redundancy-constrained states" in H that generalize the area-law behavior for entanglement entropy usually found in condensed-matter systems with gapped local Hamiltonians. Using mutual information to define a distance measure on the graph, we employ classical multidimensional scaling to extract the best-fit spatial dimensionality of the emergent geometry. We then show that entanglement perturbations on such emergent geometries naturally give rise to local modifications of spatial curvature which obey a (spatial) analog of Einstein's equation. The Hilbert space corresponding to a region of flat space is finite-dimensional and scales as the volume, though the entropy (and the maximum change thereof) scales like the area of the boundary. A version of the ER=EPR conjecture is recovered, in that perturbations that entangle distant parts of the emergent geometry generate a configuration that may be considered as a highly quantum wormhole."

Extract: "Quantum states are square-integrable complex-valued functions of the configuration of some particular kind of "stuff" where that stuff may be a simple harmonic oscillator, a set of interacting spins, or a collection of relativistic fields.  But quantum states live in Hilbert space, a complete complex vector space of specified dimension with an inner product. The same quantum states, even with the same dynamics, might be thought of as describing very different kinds of stuff.

In this paper we take steps toward deriving the existence and properties of space itself from an intrinsically quantum description using entanglement.  A good deal of recent work has addressed the relationship between quantum entanglement and spacetime geometry. Much of the attention has focused on holographic models, especially in an AdS/CFT context. Entanglement in the boundary theory has been directly related to bulk geometry, including deriving the bulk Einstein equation from the entanglement first law (EFL). (The EFL relates a perturbative change in the entropy of a density matrix to the change in the expectation value of its modular Hamiltonian, as discussed below.) Tensor networks have provided a connection between emergent geometry, quantum information, and many-body systems.  It is also possible to investigate the entanglement/geometry connection directly in a spacetime bulk. The ER=EPR conjecture relates entanglement between individual particles to spacetime wormholes.

While the current paper is inspired by the idea of emerging space from entanglement, our approach of bulk emergent gravity differs from the aforementioned papers in that our starting point is directly in Hilbert space, rather than perturbations around a boundary theory or a semiclassical spacetime.

Perhaps most importantly, our definition of distance in terms of mutual information is compatible with the behavior of field theories at low energies, but we would like to verify that this really is the "distance" we conventionally refer to in quantum field theory.  Ultimately that will require an investigation of the dynamics of these states. An obvious next step is to define time evolution, either through the choice of an explicit Hamiltonian or by letting time itself emerge from the quantum state. One important challenge will be to see whether approximately Lorentz-invariant dynamics can be recovered at low energies, and whether or not the finite nature of Hilbert space predicts testable deviations from exact Lorentz symmetry. We might imagine that, given a state j I whose geometry is constructed using entanglement, one can generate all time-slices using a known local Hamiltonian such that j i is a low energy state. Alternatively, by working with mixed states one could adopt the thermal time hypothesis and generate state-dependent time ow purely from the modular Hamiltonian, which is in principle attainable from just the density operator. 


To analyze the emergent geometries of states beyond redundancy-constraint, deeper understandings of the entropy data for subregions of different sizes will be important. One such case is manifest in the context of AdS/CFT correspondence, where entanglement entropy of different-sized balls in the CFT are needed to obtain bulk geometric information through a radon transform. One such approach may be to introduce additional structures on the graph and extend it to a tensor network. The program of geometry from tensor networks has mostly been based on states with a high degree of symmetry, such that notions of length and curvature can be assigned through simple geodesic matching and tessellation of space.  The results obtained here suggest that for tensor networks with small perturbations, one can also modify the geometric assignment accordingly, matching the change in correlation or entanglement to perturbation in geodesic lengths. A notion of (coarse) local curvature can also be defined on triangulated spaces using entanglement and Regge calculus, which seems more natural for programs that relates network geometries to those of spacetime. 


The emergence of time evolution will also be useful for the study of more complex behaviors related to entanglement perturbations. For instance, one can examine the interactions among multiple perturbations created in some local region. If the model is truly gravitational, the time evolution experiment should be consistent with our knowledge of gravitational dynamics. It will also be interesting to study the redundancy-constrained deformations of states beyond perturbative limit. Intuitively, we expect the emergence of a classical wormhole geometry by nonlocally entangling large number of degrees of freedom in a coherent manner. One can also examine purely quantum phenomena outside the context of classical Einstein gravity, including black-hole entropy and evaporation, using mutual information rather than classical spacetime geometry."



For a better understanding of the Entanglement "First Law" (EFL), see also:

Brian Swingle, Mark Van Raamsdonk (2014), "Universality of Gravity from Entanglement

http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.2933

Abtract: "The entanglement "first law" in conformal field theories relates the entanglement entropy for a ball-shaped region to an integral over the same region involving the expectation value of the CFT stress-energy tensor, for infinitesimal perturbations to the CFT vacuum state. In recent work, this was exploited at leading order in N in the context of large N holographic CFTs to show that any geometry dual to a perturbed CFT state must satisfy Einstein's equations linearized about pure AdS. In this note, we investigate the implications of the leading 1/N correction to the exact CFT result. We show that these corrections give rise to the source term for the gravitational equations: for semiclassical bulk states, the expectation value of the bulk stress-energy tensor appears as a source in the linearized equations. In particular, the CFT first law leads to Newton's Law of gravitation and the fact that all sources of stress-energy source the gravitational field. In our derivation, this universality of gravity comes directly from the universality of entanglement (the fact that all degrees of freedom in a subsystem contribute to entanglement entropy)."
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #112 on: September 28, 2016, 11:31:31 PM »
In my last post I cited that the quantum Hilbert Space can be thought as an approximation of a subset of the Nibbanic Plane (and then that holographic theory can be used in the Hilbert Space to calculate physical properties of the holographic universe).  Also previously, I correlated the 1023 X 1023 possible configurations of the free will networks in the Nibbanic Plane to the entire String Theory Landscape  (representing many different multiverses in F-Theory).  In this sense the Hilbert Space only represents the configuration of the free will network in the Nibbanic Plane that corresponds to the universe that we experience/perceive; which is associated with one free will dimple that has direct knowledge vectors connected to each of the other expressed free will dimples in the Nibbanic Plane; which is associated with a fully realized free-will dimple.  Furthermore, just as Shape Dynamics associates a parity horizon with the even horizon around a black hole; so such a fully realized free-will dimple is associated with a parity horizon around our universe that isolates it from the other possible "baby universes" in the multiverse (I note that "before" the dimple becomes fully realized it is perceived to reside in an "early" "baby universe"). 

Furthermore, I have previously noted that the HIOTTOE considers the perception of time as knowledge of a subset embedded with the whole/timeless Nibbanic Plane.  In this sense the Big Bang is associated with the subset around the fully realized dimple (that is connected to all other dimples), and that while the total energy of the universe does not change with increasing time, the entropy of the universe does change as the  entanglement of larger subsets changes (i.e. entropy is very low at the Big Bang and increases as the universe expands due to dark energy).  Using information theory this rapid change in entropy from the Big Bang (from the fully realized dimple) can be associated with inflation (see Ray Kurzweil's "The Age of Spiritual Machines" and Replies #86 to 88).  Thus in HIOTTOE, time is change; where change is the perception of differences (particularly differences in entanglement) between subsets of the free will information network.  Maxwell's Demon and quantum information theory demonstrate how such entanglement information from the free will network correlates to entropy; however, the interpretations of some key considerations are different such as:  Black holes do not represent singularities, nor portals to wormholes, but rather they represent portals to partially highly realized dimples.
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #113 on: September 29, 2016, 06:12:12 PM »
As a follow-on to Reply #111, I note that Hilbert Space details with states of complex quantum systems (see the H's in the figure of Reply #111)( which are represented by combinations of local circuits within the Nibbanic information network); and entanglement in quantum theory occurs between these complex quantum systems.  Furthermore, in quantum theory (as a subset of both String Theory and Quantum Gravity and also of HIOTTOE), time evolution of such quantum systems is given by unitary transforms (see the first attached image), where Hamiltonians are used to evaluate the interactions between the subsystems in order to produce the unitary transformations (see the second image).  In quantum information theory, quantum gates can be used to assemble new unitary operators (see third image), where the combined standard unitary gates are called quantum circuits (see the fourth image).  All of the attached images in this post come from the first linked document:

http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~tbrun/Course/lecture05.pdf

Per quantum theory the dynamics of the observed universe is related to the interaction of quantum systems (in the Hilbert Space) in accordance with unitary time evolution; with the second and third linked documents serving as examples of how this process works following quantum mechanics:

Pedro Avelino et. al. (2016), "Unveiling the Dynamics of the Universe", Symmetry 2016, 8(8 ), 70; doi:10.3390/sym8080070

http://www.mdpi.com/2073-8994/8/8/70?trendmd-shared=0

Abstract: "We explore the dynamics and evolution of the Universe at early and late times, focusing on both dark energy and extended gravity models and their astrophysical and cosmological consequences. Modified theories of gravity not only provide an alternative explanation for the recent expansion history of the universe, but they also offer a paradigm fundamentally distinct from the simplest dark energy models of cosmic acceleration. In this review, we perform a detailed theoretical and phenomenological analysis of different modified gravity models and investigate their consistency. We also consider the cosmological implications of well motivated physical models of the early universe with a particular emphasis on inflation and topological defects. Astrophysical and cosmological tests over a wide range of scales, from the solar system to the observable horizon, severely restrict the allowed models of the Universe. Here, we review several observational probes—including gravitational lensing, galaxy clusters, cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization, supernova and baryon acoustic oscillations measurements—and their relevance in constraining our cosmological description of the Universe."

See also:
http://www.mdpi.com/2218-1997/1/3/357?trendmd-shared=0&utm_campaign=trendmd&utm_medium=cpc&utm_source=trendmdwidget

« Last Edit: November 22, 2016, 01:24:11 AM by AbruptSLR »
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #114 on: September 29, 2016, 06:27:17 PM »
As I have previously stated, standard quantum mechanics is currently in the process of slowly transforming into something closer to String Theory, Quantum Gravity & the Holographic Principle; and recent developments with regard to amplituhedrons (see the attach image, from the first linked article) are accelerating this process.

https://www.wired.com/2013/12/amplituhedron-jewel-quantum-physics/

Extract: "The revelation that particle interactions, the most basic events in nature, may be consequences of geometry significantly advances a decades-long effort to reformulate quantum field theory, the body of laws describing elementary particles and their interactions. Interactions that were previously calculated with mathematical formulas thousands of terms long can now be described by computing the volume of the corresponding jewel-like “amplituhedron,” which yields an equivalent one-term expression.

The amplituhedron looks like an intricate, multifaceted jewel in higher dimensions. Encoded in its volume are the most basic features of reality that can be calculated, “scattering amplitudes,” which represent the likelihood that a certain set of particles will turn into certain other particles upon colliding.

Beyond making calculations easier or possibly leading the way to quantum gravity, the discovery of the amplituhedron could cause an even more profound shift, Arkani-Hamed said. That is, giving up space and time as fundamental constituents of nature and figuring out how the Big Bang and cosmological evolution of the universe arose out of pure geometry.
“In a sense, we would see that change arises from the structure of the object,” he said. “But it’s not from the object changing. The object is basically timeless.”"

To reiterate, standard quantum mechanics assumes both space-time locality and unitarity (see my last post); but developments in amplituhedron challenges these assumptions (see the second link to a Wikipedia article).  Needless, to say HIOTTOE also treat space-time locality and unitarity as emergent properties from the underlying phenomenon of a free-will information network.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amplituhedron

Extract: "Amplituhedron theory challenges the notion that space-time locality and unitarity are necessary components of a model of particle interactions. Instead, they are treated as properties that emerge from an underlying phenomenon.
The connection between the amplituhedron and scattering amplitudes is at present a conjecture that has passed many non-trivial checks, including an understanding of how locality and unitarity arise as consequences of positivity."

Lastly for this post, I provide the following linked reference that nicely summarizes recent developments using amplituhedrons to better model the observed universe (I note that such developments are a work in progress, but are pushing the Standard Model closer & closer to Holographic information models of the universe).
Daniele Galloni(2016), "Positivity Sectors and the Amplituhedron"

https://arxiv.org/abs/1601.02639

Abstract: "We initiate a detailed investigation into the assembly of simple amplituhedron-like building blocks to obtain spaces of physical interest. In particular, we describe the geometric process through which the building blocks, which we call positivity sectors, glue together to form the desired geometries. Positivity sectors are seen to naturally segment the space describing the Lth power of the one-loop amplitude. In this way, we obtain a good understanding of how the geometric complexity of the building blocks can be washed out in the formation of larger spaces. Conversely, the tools we develop allow us to form spaces of ever greater complexity, a process which is crucial to the construction of the amplituhedron from its triangulations, which remains an important open question. We present the full boundary structure of all positivity sectors related to the three-loop amplituhedron. We also construct a practical algorithm that achieves the desired geometric assembly of positivity sectors, and make available supporting Mathematica files containing the full boundary structure of all positivity sectors at three loops."

Extract: "The amplituhedron is conjectured to yield the amplitude for a given process, through the computation of its volume with a specific volume form. The amplituhedron answers the question of how to combine Yangian-invariant building blocks to form the amplitude describing a process, and has been the subject of recent investigation Locality and unitarity, obfuscated by the previously known recursion relations, are seen to be properties derived from the geometry of the amplituhedron. While the amplituhedron remains conjectural, it has passed many non-trivial direct tests

This work focused on the study of gluing together generalized amplituhedron-like spaces, which we call positivity sectors and define through the specification of 2 x 2 and 4 x 4 minors of the amplituhedron.

The utility of our results is twofold; on the one hand, the process of gluing spaces with definite signs is crucial to the construction of the amplitude through triangulations of the amplituhedron. The BCFW recursion relations form one such triangulation, but the amplituhedron allows for the possibility of different, more efficient triangulations of the space. On the other hand, we have constructed spaces of physical interest, i.e. the cube of the one-loop amplitude and terms in the three-loop log of the amplitude. In fact, with minor modifications the techniques presented in this paper should be more generally valid in the construction of the Lth power of the one-loop amplituhedron, and any relevant subspace. We expect the results in this article to play a useful role in future work to firmly place the amplituhedron as a particle physics tool for the study of scattering amplitudes."
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #115 on: September 29, 2016, 06:34:16 PM »
While my previous several posts deal with the very small worlds of quantum theory and string theory; however, the Holographic information universe is also being actively calibrated at the cosmological scale as illustrated by the linked references related to "Holographic Dark Information Energy"; which can be used to address inflation and dark energy (see the attached image):

Michael Paul Gough (2011), "Holographic Dark Information Energy", Entropy, 13, 924-935; doi:10.3390/e13040924

http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/13/4/924

Abstract: "Landauer’s principle and the Holographic principle are used to derive the holographic information energy contribution to the Universe. Information energy density has increased with star formation until sufficient to start accelerating the expansion of the universe. The resulting reduction in the rate of star formation due to the accelerated expansion may provide a feedback that limits the information energy density to a constant level. The characteristics of the universe’s holographic information energy then closely match those required to explain dark energy and also answer the cosmic coincidence problem. Furthermore the era of acceleration will be clearly limited in time."

Extract: "We have shown that our approach of combining the holographic principle with Landauer’s principle accounts for the present constant dark energy density, explains the timing of dark energy’s emergence as a significant force in recent cosmic history, and also obviates the need for a true cosmological constant.  Holographic dark information energy firmly ties the accelerating Universe expansion to the recent history of star formation, to answer the cosmic coincidence question—‘Why now?’ The present constant dark energy density is probably a natural balance between accelerating Universe expansion and the rates of large scale structure assembly and star formation.
Arguments presented here, based directly on the Holographic principle and Landauer’s principle, depending solely on Universe bounding area and average baryon temperature, may seem overly simple. However, they are supported by a consistent phenomenological fit to observations, and also, of course, by Occam’s razor. Finally, the results of this approach provide strong support for the universal applicability of the holographic principle."

&

Michael Paul Gough (2013), "Holographic Dark Information Energy: Predicted Dark Energy Measurement", Entropy, 15(3), 1135-1151; doi:10.3390/e15031135


http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/15/3/1135?trendmd-shared=0&utm_campaign=trendmd&utm_medium=cpc&utm_source=trendmdwidget


Abstract: "Several models have been proposed to explain the dark energy that is causing universe expansion to accelerate. Here the acceleration predicted by the Holographic Dark Information Energy (HDIE) model is compared to the acceleration that would be produced by a cosmological constant. While identical to a cosmological constant at low redshifts, z < 1, the HDIE model results in smaller Hubble parameter values at higher redshifts, z > 1, reaching a maximum difference of 2.6 ± 0.5% around z ~ 1.7. The next generation of dark energy measurements, both those scheduled to be made in space (ESA’s Euclid and NASA’s WFIRST missions) and those to be made on the ground (BigBOSS, LSST and Dark Energy Survey), should be capable of determining whether such a difference exists or not. In addition a computer simulation thought experiment is used to show that the algorithmic entropy of the universe always increases because the extra states produced by the accelerating expansion compensate for the loss of entropy from star formation."

&

Michael Paul Gough (2014), "A Dynamic Dark Information Energy Consistent with Planck Data", Entropy, 16(4), 1902-1916; doi:10.3390/e16041902


http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/16/4/1902?trendmd-shared=0&utm_campaign=trendmd&utm_medium=cpc&utm_source=trendmdwidget

Abstract: "The 2013 cosmology results from the European Space Agency Planck spacecraft provide new limits to the dark energy equation of state parameter. Here we show that Holographic Dark Information Energy (HDIE), a dynamic dark energy model, achieves an optimal fit to the published datasets where Planck data is combined with other astrophysical measurements. HDIE uses Landauer’s principle to account for dark energy by the energy equivalent of information, or entropy, of stellar heated gas and dust. Combining Landauer’s principle with the Holographic principle yields an equation of state parameter determined solely by star formation history, effectively solving the “cosmic coincidence problem”. While HDIE mimics a cosmological constant at low red-shifts, z < 1, the small difference from a cosmological constant expected at higher red-shifts will only be resolved by the next generation of dark energy instrumentation. The HDIE model is shown to provide a viable alternative to the main cosmological constant/vacuum energy and scalar field/ quintessence explanations."
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #116 on: September 29, 2016, 10:30:47 PM »
In Reply #110, I said that I would make posts about time and CP violation.  I this regards I provide the following linked information on the latest findings from the LHC on this topic:

http://phys.org/news/2016-09-charming-asymmetries.html

Extract: "CP symmetry states that laws of physics are the same if a particle is interchanged with its anti-particle (the "C" part) and if its spatial coordinates are inverted (P). The violation of this symmetry in the first few moments of the universe is one of the fundamental ingredients to explain the apparent cosmic imbalance in favour of matter.
Until now, the amount of CP violation detected among elementary particles can only explain a tiny fraction of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry. Physicists are therefore extending their search in the quest to identify the source of the missing anti-matter.
The LHCb collaboration made a precise comparison between the decay lifetime of a particle called a D0 meson (formed by a charm quark and an up antiquark) and its anti-matter counterpart D-0 (formed by an charm antiquark and up quark), when decaying either to a pair of pions or a pair of kaons. Any difference in these lifetimes would provide strong evidence that an additional source of CP violation is at work. Although CP violation has been observed in processes involving numerous particles that contain b and s quarks, the effect is still unobserved in the charm-quark sector and its magnitude is predicted to be very small in the Standard Model.
Thanks to the excellent performance of CERN's Large Hadron Collider, for the first time the LHCb collaboration is accumulating a dataset large enough to access the required level of precision on CP-violating effects in charm-meson decays. The latest results indicate that the lifetimes of the D0 and D-0 particles, measured using their decays to pions or kaons, are still consistent, thereby demonstrating that any CP violation effect that is present must indeed be at a tiny level."


For more background on CP-violation see:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP_violation

Extract: "In particle physics, CP violation (CP standing for charge parity) is a violation of the postulated CP-symmetry (or charge conjugation parity symmetry): the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry). CP-symmetry states that the laws of physics should be the same if a particle is interchanged with its antiparticle (C symmetry), and when its spatial coordinates are inverted ("mirror" or P symmetry)."

Furthermore, I note that the CP for antimatter requires time run in reverse for antiparticles.  As HIOTTOE is timeless, the perception of time running backwards for antimatter occurs due to the recursion of information in the free will network associated with the consideration that antimatter is only perceived as such in appropriate local looped circuits where dimples have at least three direct knowledge vectors (with two vectors crossing-over to connect with the other side of the loop).

See also:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimatter

&

http://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/topics_bigbang_antimatter.html
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #117 on: September 29, 2016, 10:45:19 PM »
I have previously noted that early the development quantum mechanics was influenced by Hindi philosophy; and I have explicitly stated that the HIOTTOE has been influenced by the teachings of the Buddha Gotama (in Pali).  Furthermore, in the HIOTTOE I have indicated that the Nibbanic Plane can be understood in roughly 10500 different baby universes (comparable to  the String Theory Landscape); which I believe evolved in a manner comparable to the Buddha's description of a Kalpa (see the linked Wikipedia article)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalpa_%28aeon%29

Extract: "Generally speaking, a kalpa is the period of time between the creation and recreation of a world or universe.

According to Visuddhimagga, there are several explanations for types of kalpas and their duration. In the first explanation, there are four types:
1.   Ayu-Kalpa - a variable time span representing the life expectancy of a typical human being in a particular era or yuga. This can be as high as one asankya or as small as 10 years. This number is directly proportional to the level of virtue of people in that era. Currently this value hovers around 100 years and is continually decreasing.
2.   Antah-Kalpa - the time it takes for one ayu-kalpa to grow from 10 years up to one asankya and back to 10 years. The ending of one antah-kalpa (or mass-extinction) can happen in one of three ways, all involving the majority of the human population going extinct:
1.   Sashthrantha-Kalpa - Mass extinction by wars.
2.   Durbhikshantha-Kalpa - Mass extinction by hunger.
3.   Rogantha-Kalpa - Mass extinction by plague.
3.   Asankya-Kalpa - time span of 20 antah-kalpas. One is equivalent to a quarter of maha-kalpa.
4.   Maha-Kalpa - largest time unit in Buddhism. Ending of a maha-kalpa (apocalypse) can happen in three ways: fire, water and wind. It is divided into four quarters each equivalent to one asankya-kalpa.
1.   First quarter - time taken for this world to form.
2.   Second quarter - stable duration of this world where all living beings can thrive.
3.   Third quarter - time taken for this world to be destroyed.
4.   Fourth quarter - empty time period.
In another simple explanation, there are four different lengths of kalpas. A regular kalpa is approximately 16 million years long (16,798,000 years), and a small kalpa is 1000 regular kalpas, or about 16 billion years. Further, a medium kalpa is roughly 320 billion years, the equivalent of 20 small kalpas. A great kalpa is 4 medium kalpas, or around 1.28 trillion years.
Buddha had not spoken about the exact length of the maha-kalpa in number of years. However, he had given several astounding analogies to understand it.
1. Imagine a huge empty cube at the beginning of a kalpa, approximately 16 miles in each side. Once every 100 years, you insert a tiny mustard seed into the cube. According to the Buddha, the huge cube will be filled even before the kalpa ends.
2. Imagine a gigantic rocky mountain at the beginning of kalpa, approximately 16 x 16 x 16 miles (dwarfing Mount Everest). You take a small piece of silk and wipe the mountain once every 100 years. According to the Buddha, the mountain will be completely depleted even before the kalpa ends.
In one situation, some monks wanted to know how many kalpas had died so far. The Buddha gave the analogy:
1. If you count the total number of sand particles at the depths of the Ganges river, from where it begins to where it ends at the sea, even that number will be less than the number of passed kalpas."

Furthermore, the following Wikipedia article about Metteyya has the following extract about the previous and current kalpa:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maitreya

Extract: "The previous kalpa was the vyuhakalpa (Glorious aeon), and the present kalpa is called the bhadrakalpa (Auspicious aeon). The Seven Buddhas of Antiquity (Saptatathāgata) are seven Buddhas which bridge the vyuhakalpa and the bhadrakalpa:
1.   Vipassī (the 998th Buddha of the vyuhakalpa)
2.   Sikhī (the 999th Buddha of the vyuhakalpa)
3.   Vessabhū (the 1000th and final Buddha of the vyuhakalpa)
4.   Kakusandha (the first Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
5.   Koṇāgamana (the second Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
6.   Kassapa (the third Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
7.   Gautama (the fourth and present Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)
Maitreya will be the fifth Buddha of the bhadrakalpa, and his arrival will occur after the teachings of Gautama Buddha are no longer practiced."

Edit: For what it is worth, according to HIOTTOE it is very difficult to have more than five fully realized dimples per free will information network; configured for a given kalpa (comparable to a dimple in the String Theory Landscape).  To be more specific, per HIOTTOE some kalpa cannot support conscious life and thus do not have any Buddhas; and no kalpa contains 1000 Buddhas.
« Last Edit: September 30, 2016, 04:33:37 PM by AbruptSLR »
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #118 on: September 30, 2016, 12:46:03 AM »
Whether HIOTTOE is useful to anyone or not, quantum information science, QIS, is one of the hottest topics in both science and AI today; as reflected by the following state-of-the-art findings.  As such research bears fruit; hopefully systemic isolation will be decreased via a quantum Internet (among other advances):

Xueyuan Hu & Heng Fan (September 29, 2016), "Extracting quantum coherence via steering", Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 34380; doi: 10.1038/srep34380

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep34380

&

Alexey Melnikov & Leonid Fedichkin (September 29, 2016), "Quantum walks of interacting fermions on a cycle graph", Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 34226; doi: 10.1038/srep34226

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep34226

&

Antonella De Pasquale, Davide Rossini, Rosario Fazio & Vittorio Giovannetti (September 29, 2016), "Local quantum thermal susceptibility", Nature Communications, Volume: 7, Article number: 12782, doi:10.1038/ncomms12782

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160929/ncomms12782/full/ncomms12782.html

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #119 on: September 30, 2016, 06:42:30 PM »
In Reply #110, I said that I would make posts about time and measurement.  In this regards I reiterate my earlier assertion that both the Copenhagen Interpretation and the Many Worlds Interpretation of quantum physics are tied to magical thinking as supported by Paul Davis (see link below, and Reply #68); largely due to the measurement problems associated with these two schools of thought.  The magic thinking of the Copenhagen Interpretation is associated with a pre-existing external observer making measurements (throughout life) that repeated collapse the quantum state probability function in order to verify the observer's understanding/perception of reality due to uncertainty associated with the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, thus relentlessly driving the perception of time forward.  In truth there is no pre-existing external observer (which many quantum physicists fantasize as being themselves, objectively conducting their tests per their understanding of the scientific method); and Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle only pertains to the perceived universe and not to the Nibbanic Plane, which can be directly understood by fully realized dimples by letting go of all pre-conceptions and becoming "one" (i.e. gaining direct knowledge of) with all other dimples in a Nibbanic information network. While the Many Worlds Interpretation directly invests that quantum state wave function with conscious, thus resulting in branching of the many worlds at each measurement (again made to verify the understanding/perception of the conscious within the quantum state necessitated by uncertainty associated with the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle).

In a Holographic Information Universe, or a HIOTTOE Universe, as perceived by un-fully realized dimples as "reality", one needs to remembers that what most un-fully realized dimples conceive as time is associated with changes in information entropy of an evolved information network (in particular see Reply #86, where entropy, H, is defined in terms of the system (subject to evolution from Gaussian adaptation) wide aggregation of efficiency.  Where efficiency, E, is information divided by the work/time needed to achieve an event (observation/measurement) with a probability P of occurrence, and –log (P) is the unit-less measure of information transmitted.  Thus E = −P log(P), and H = the summation of E for a system subject to evolution).

In HIOTTOE, an un-fully realized dimple cannot see beyond its preconceptions of the information contained in the free-will network, resulting in numerous event horizons (or parity horizons) that create the various kaplas cited in the edit to Reply # 117.  For instance if one (un-fully realized dimple) considers one's mind as the universe that one lives in then one's perception of one's series of re-birth's through "time" is associated with the evolution of choices that the dimple makes based on the evolution of the state of mind creates by information with in the free-will network that it clings to, thus resulting in the illusion of a series of lives that one cannot see beyond.  Similarly, if one considers a Antah-Kalpa (see Reply #117) then the conscious people could be considered to begin as pre-human mammals with life spans of 10-years that then evolve to 100-year average human life spans and then end again with an average 10-year human life span due to mass extinction with many young children dying due to war, hunger and plague; and then this Antah-Kalpa cycle might repeat itself because the un-fully realized dimples cannot learn to appreciate each other.  Similarly, a kalpa associated with a baby universe (or a dimple in the String Theory Landscape, See Reply #94) might be associated with different numbers and types of pacceka-bodhistta to maha-bodhisatta (wisdom, faith or energy), resulting in different energy levels (see the image in Reply # 78) of the kalpa in the String Theory Landscape.

I also note that HIOTTOE is timeless, but the perception of time is associated with the changing configuration (and subsets there-of) of the free will network; and that individual dimples can and do change the number of direct knowledge vectors that they are willing to sustain and in some configurations they may choose to express zero vectors themselves but that fully realized dimples may still connect to them (thus maha-bohisatta's can have different numbers of direct knowledge vectors (corresponding to wisdom, faith or energy maha-bohisatta's) while still connection to each dimple within a network as not all free will network configuration has the same number of dimples (say ranging from Avogadro's number to Boltzmann's number for kapla with conscious beings).

In this sense, in the HIOTTOE deals with uncertainty (which measurements are made to reduce) differently than either the Copenhagen Interpretation, CI, or the Many Worlds Interpretation, MWI, as un-fully-realized dimples that preconceive CI or MWI see themselves as magical and their deaths as tragedy rather than as a possible evolutionary promotion (if they have performed sufficient information theory work in their current lives), as Neo experienced when he experienced satori (See Reply # 85, & the first attached image), thus experiencing sati (see the second image).

See also:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Davies
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #120 on: September 30, 2016, 09:59:24 PM »
The linked article is entitled: "Wearable adoption more than doubled in past two years", and the information that IT companies gather from such wearables (like Google Glass, etc., see the attached image) allows such companies as Apple, Google, Facebook and others to develop PDFs of individual users behavior so that they can then use information theory (and in the future Quantum Information Science, QIS) to more quickly train AI via deep learning to better identify patterns and trends...


Elon Musk has said we're already cyborgs -- connected by electronics -- it's just that the technological part of us is external....


But having everything connected has its drawbacks:

Largest DDoS attack ever delivered by botnet of hijacked IoT devices
Securing the internet of things should become a major priority now that an army of compromised devices – perhaps 1 million strong - has swamped one of the industry’s top distributed denial-of-service protection services.

A giant botnet made up of hijacked internet-connected things like cameras, lightbulbs, and thermostats has launched the largest DDoS attack ever against a top security blogger, an attack so big Akamai had to cancel his account because defending it ate up too many resources.

It wasn’t that Akamai couldn’t mitigate the attack – it did so for three days – but doing so became too costly, so the company made a business decision to cut the affected customer loose, says Andy Ellis the company’s chief security officer.

http://www.networkworld.com/article/3123672/security/largest-ddos-attack-ever-delivered-by-botnet-of-hijacked-iot-devices.html
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #121 on: October 02, 2016, 08:02:13 PM »
In Reply #119, and as related to HIOTTOE, I extended the traditional definition of kalpa (see also Reply #117) to include any set of pre-conditioning that create a paradigm of perceptions whether within the dream universe of one's own mind; or the socio-economic dream world of modern global society (see Reply #54); or the aeon-age within a bubble universe exists with the mathematical construct of the String Theory Landscape.  I note here that in Pali (the language that the Buddha Gotama taught in), a more traditional word with a comparable meaning might be "sankhara" (see the following Wikipedia article & extract):

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sa%E1%B9%85kh%C4%81ra

Extract: "Saṅkhāra (Pali; Sanskrit saṃskāra) is a term figuring prominently in Buddhism. The word means 'that which has been put together' and 'that which puts together'.
In the first (passive) sense, saṅkhāra refers to conditioned phenomena generally but specifically to all mental "dispositions". These are called 'volitional formations' both because they are formed as a result of volition and because they are causes for the arising of future volitional actions. English translations for saṅkhāra in the first sense of the word include 'conditioned things,' 'determinations, 'fabrications' and 'formations' (or, particularly when referring to mental processes, 'volitional formations').
In the second (active) sense of the word, saṅkhāra refers to karma (sankhara-khandha) that leads to conditioned arising, dependent origination."

Furthermore, in Reply # 107 I provide a link to a reference entitled: "Parity Horizons, Black Holes, and Chronology Protection in Shape Dynamics", and in Reply #119 I stated: " In HIOTTOE, an un-fully realized dimple cannot see beyond its preconceptions of the information contained in the free-will network, resulting in numerous event horizons (or parity horizons) that create the various kaplas cited in the edit to Reply # 117."  The parity horizons (or event horizons) create the a barrier that one cannot see beyond when one's "mind" is dwelling within a given kapla (or sankhara) but the relativity of Shape Dynamics serves to maintain a general chronology protection mechanism. Such parity horizons (or event horizons) for example, limit information from one "baby universe" to another within the multiverse of the String Theory Landscape; and limits our understanding of the inner workings of black holes; while still maintaining the causality that creates the illusion of time within the Nibbanic free will information network.  However, such parity horizons also contribute to the creation of the illusion of paradoxes that one perceives when dwelling within a kapla (or sankhara); when in reality there are no paradoxes to a fully realized dimple as the information accessible to such a dimple does not depend on an information theory dwelling/construct or kapla based on pre-conditioning.

However, as anyone reading this post does dwell in a kalpa; the following offers some discussion on paradoxes that one encounters while living life within a kalpa.

I start with a link to Dacher Keltner's recent book about the power of paradox (see the "Adapting to the Anthropocene" thread for other discussions of related works by Keltner), as presented in the following two links.

Dacher Keltner (May 17, 2016), "The Power Paradox: How We Gain and Lose Influence", Penguin Press, New York; Hardcover ISBN: 9781594205248

https://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1594205248/braipick-20

Promotional summary: "A revolutionary and timely reconsideration of everything we know about power. Celebrated UC Berkeley psychologist Dr. Dacher Keltner argues that compassion and selflessness enable us to have the most influence over others and the result is power as a force for good in the world.

It is taken for granted that power corrupts. This is reinforced culturally by everything from Machiavelli to contemporary politics. But how do we get power? And how does it change our behavior? So often, in spite of our best intentions, we lose our hard-won power. Enduring power comes from empathy and giving. Above all, power is given to us by other people. This is what all-too-often we forget, and what Dr. Keltner sets straight. This is the crux of the power paradox: by fundamentally misunderstanding the behaviors that helped us to gain power in the first place we set ourselves up to fall from power. We can't retain power because we've never understood it correctly, until now. Power isn't the capacity to act in cruel and uncaring ways; it is the ability to do good for others, expressed in daily life, and itself a good a thing.

Dr. Keltner lays out exactly--in twenty original "Power Principles"-- how to retain power, why power can be a demonstrably good thing, and the terrible consequences of letting those around us languish in powerlessness."

See also: The linked article is entitled: "The Power Paradox: The Surprising and Sobering Science of How We Gain and Lose Influence":

https://www.brainpickings.org/2016/09/28/power-paradox-dachter-keltner/

Extract: "“We rise in power and make a difference in the world due to what is best about human nature, but we fall from power due to what is worst.”
“There are many fine things which we cannot say if we have to shout,” Thoreau wrote as he contemplated how silence ennobles speech. In the century and a half since, we have created a culture that equates loudness with leadership, abrasiveness with authority. We mistake shouting for powerful speech much as we mistake force for power itself. And yet the real measure of power is more in the realm of Thoreau’s “fine things.”
So argues UC Berkeley psychologist Dacher Keltner in The Power Paradox: How We Gain and Lose Influence (public library) — the culmination of twenty years of research exploring what power is, what confers it upon an individual, and how it shapes the structure of a collective, a community, and a culture. Drawing on a wealth of social science studies and insights from successful teams ranging from companies like Pixar and Google to restorative justice programs in San Quentin State Prison, he demonstrates “the surprising and lasting influence of soft power (culture, ideas, art, and institutions) as compared to hard power (military might, invasion, and economic sanctions).”
Keltner writes:
Life is made up of patterns. Patterns of eating, thirst, sleep, and fight-or-flight are crucial to our individual survival; patterns of courtship, sex, attachment, conflict, play, creativity, family life, and collaboration are crucial to our collective survival. Wisdom is our ability to perceive these patterns and to shape them into coherent chapters within the longer narrative of our lives.
Power dynamics, Keltner notes, are among the central patterns that shape our experience of life, from our romantic relationships to the workplace. But at the heart of power is a troubling paradox — a malignant feature of human psychology responsible for John Dalberg-Acton’s oft-cited insight that “power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” Keltner explains the psychological machinery of this malfunction and considers our recourse for resisting its workings:
The power paradox is this: we rise in power and make a difference in the world due to what is best about human nature, but we fall from power due to what is worst. We gain a capacity to make a difference in the world by enhancing the lives of others, but the very experience of having power and privilege leads us to behave, in our worst moments, like impulsive, out-of-control sociopaths.
How we handle the power paradox guides our personal and work lives and determines, ultimately, how happy we and the people we care about will be. It determines our empathy, generosity, civility, innovation, intellectual rigor, and the collaborative strength of our communities and social networks. Its ripple effects shape the patterns that make up our families, neighborhoods, and workplaces, as well as the broader patterns of social organization that define societies and our current political struggles.
[…]
Much of what is most unsettling about human nature — stigma, greed, arrogance, racial and sexual violence, and the nonrandom distribution of depression and bad health to the poor — follows from how we handle the power paradox."

Such work (which follows the "scientific method") offers guidance on how the power paradox [think Agent Smith (see Reply #53) or the Merovingian (see Reply #54)] can be addressed in a post-socio-economic-collapse society (as well as how to reduce the damage occurring during the coming socio-economic collapse).

While HIOTTOE rejects dogma associated with any "–ism", including "Buddh-ism"; nevertheless, when following the middle path (i.e. Bayesian methodology), wisdom is where you find it, so in this regard I offer:

(a) The attached quote from the Dalai Lama about the paradox of our modern age; and
(b) The following linked article entitled: "These Zen Buddhist Koans Will Open Your Mind" that explains that you cannot think your way past an apparent paradox that you do not understand, but rather you need to create space mental (information theory) space where (see Reply #59) equanimity (sampajanyam) and awareness (sati) can work with right-effort (atapi) to see beyond the apparent paradox:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/zen-buddhism-koan_us_563251dce4b0631799115f3c

Extract: "Don Dianda, author of “See for Your Self: Zen Mindfulness for the Next Generation,” put it this way in a blog for Elephant Journal:

"The koan serves as a surgical tool used to cut into and then break through the mind of the practitioner... Koans aren’t just puzzles that your mind figures out suddenly and proclaims, “Aha! the answer is three!” They wait for you to open enough to allow the space necessary for them to enter into your depths—the inner regions beyond knowing. ""

Edit: I add the last three attached images of relevant quotes by Gotama.
« Last Edit: October 02, 2016, 08:31:30 PM by AbruptSLR »
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AbruptSLR

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #122 on: October 04, 2016, 11:40:35 PM »
Karl Marx considered religion the opiate of the masses, while HIOTTOE considers the dogma of any –ism (e.g.: Popperism, Marxism, Communism, Capitalism, Catholicism, Judaism, Buddhism, etc.) as parity (event) horizons that limit the ability of the follower to see past the –ism's parity (event) horizon.  For example, many believe that karma fixes one's destiny; when actually it just determines which circuits that one becomes associated with in the free-will network; thus if one becomes deluded by that set of circuity induced illusions (of materials, sensations or energy) one must face the consequences (see the first image ) of that choice before evolving to subsequent choices of the free-will (whether guided by illusions, insight or by chance).

There are many other similar paradoxes such as that illustrated by Beisser (1970) where he describes the paradoxical theory of change as the change that "… occurs when one becomes what he is, not when he tries to become what he is not."

Arnold Beisser (1970), "Paradoxical Theory of Change", Gestalt Therapy Now, a publication of The Gestalt Journal Press

Extract: “I will call it the paradoxical theory of change, for reasons that shall become obvious. Briefly stated, it is this: that change occurs when one becomes what he is, not when he tries to become what he is not. Change does not take place through a coercive attempt by the individual or by another person to change him, but it does take place if one takes the time and effort to be what he is — to be fully invested in his current positions. By rejecting the role of change agent, we make meaningful and orderly change possible.”

Such insights can allow AI to benefit from human mind-body sensory guidelines by using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [see Keltner (2009) below] as a guarantor of morality in evaluating what is the common good.  In this sense not only humans, but also AI, must positively feedback one's activities that promote the common good and resist one's activities that degrade the common good, as evaluated by moment to moment mind-body sensations.

Dacher Keltner (2009), "Born to be Good", W.W. Norton & Company
Extracts: "I have been led to the idea that emotion is the source of the meaningful life.
..
This idea proved to have the deepest scientific promise in the hands of Charles Darwin, who believed that brief emotional expressions offer clues to the deep origins of our design, and Paul Ekman, who figured out how to bring quantifiable order to the thousands of movements of the face.

The reader may be surprised to learn that:
- We are a caretaking species.  The profound vulnerability of our offspring rearranged our social organization as well as our nervous system.
- We are a face-to-face species.  We are remarkable in our capacity to empathize, to mimic, to mirror.
-  Our power hierarchies differ from those of other species; power goes to the most emotionally intelligent.
-  We reconcile our conflicts rather than fleeing or killing; we have evolved powerful capacities to forgive.
-  We live in complex patterns of fragile monogamy, preferring monogamy but often showing patterns of serial monogamy.

Darwin's "Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals" sold 9,000 copies in its first printing, becoming a best seller in its day.

The facial expression we observe today are a rich shorthand for communicating the possibility of more full-bodied actions – attack, flight, embrace.

Paul Ekman put Darwin's universality thesis to a simple empirical test.

To capture the objective subjective, Ekman and Wallace Friesen devoted seven years, without funding or promise of publication, to developing the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), an anatomically based method for identifying every visible facial muscle movement in the frame-by-frame analysis of facial expression as it occurs in the seamless flow of social interaction."
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AbruptSLR

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #123 on: October 05, 2016, 12:31:18 AM »
I have frequently posted about the apparent paradox of the difference between "survival of the fittest" and "natural selection".  Where "survival of the fittest" type of thinking leads to moral hazards; while "natural selection" leads to altruism as expressed by the Price Equation (see the following linked Wikipedia article and the second linked Quartz article):

Edit: The attached image provides a graphical example of how Price's Equation works for a trait under positive natural selection (as occurs in an "evolving" free-will information network).


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Price_equation

Extract: "In the theory of evolution and natural selection, the Price equation (also known as Price's equation or Price's theorem) describes how a trait or gene changes in frequency over time. The equation uses a covariance between a trait and fitness to give a mathematical description of evolution and natural selection. It provides a way to understand the effects that gene transmission and natural selection have on the proportion of genes within each new generation of a population. The Price equation was derived by George R. Price, working in London to re-derive W.D. Hamilton's work on kin selection. The Price equation also has applications in economics."


See also:
http://qz.com/780142/the-true-story-of-george-price-the-scientist-who-discovered-the-equation-for-altruism-and-gave-himself-away/

Extract: "In the 1960s, apparently, egotistical scientist George Price discovered an equation that explained the evolution of altruism, then overnight turned into an extreme altruist, giving away everything up to and including his life.

Price had set himself the “problem” of explaining why humans lived in families—particularly what fatherhood was for, scientifically speaking. This, in turn, led him to the question of how altruism had evolved, and it was while studying new theories around this topic that he derived what is now called the Price equation, almost by accident.

This is what it looked like: wΔz=Cov(wi,zi). It captured the essence of evolution by natural selection in one simple formula. It describes how in a population of reproducing individuals, be they people, plants or self-replicating robots, any trait (z) that increases fitness (w) will increase in the population with each new generation; if a trait decreases fitness, it will decrease. It’s a type of statistical relationship called covariance, and it was so elegant that Price couldn’t quite believe no one had stumbled across it before.

Darwin suggested that competition between groups of ants—queen, drones and workers together—might be driving natural selection in this case. What was good for a nest competing against other nests would then outweigh what was good for any individual ant.

Group selection, as this idea was known, was not a very good solution, though. It didn’t explain how the cooperative behavior evolved in the first place. The first altruistic ant would have been at such a huge disadvantage compared to the rest of its group that it would never have got the chance to breed more altruistic ants. The same was true of humans natural selection was intrinsically stacked against any altruistic individual surviving long enough to pass on their altruism.
This left a rather embarrassing paradox: the evolution of altruism was impossible, yet clearly altruism had evolved. If the biologists couldn’t resolve this, would they have to throw out the whole idea of natural selection?

Luckily, a young man called Bill Hamilton spared biology’s blushes with a slightly different solution in 1964. He proposed that altruism could have evolved within family groups—yes, an individual altruist would seem to be at a disadvantage, but that was not the whole picture because other individuals who shared the same genes associated with altruism would all influence each other’s “inclusive fitness.”

When George Price stumbled across Hamilton’s work in the Senate House Library in 1968, he was shocked. He was forced to confront the relationship between morality and family, the biological imperative he should have felt to sacrifice his selfish ambitions in favor of supporting his kin. He immediately set to work to challenge, even disprove Hamilton’s theory. But he could only confirm it. Along the way, he derived his equation of natural selection, which helped to prove that altruism was not selfless and moral, but rather selfish and genetic.

Here’s what the next version looked like: wΔz=Cov(wi,zi)+E(wiΔzi). The new bit on the right-hand side accounts for any effects the trait in question might have on its own transmission—if it has properties that make it more likely to be passed on than other traits. Having this extra term opened up the process to allow for more than the simple story of “survival of the fittest”—this was where Hamilton’s ideas of inclusive fitness and kin selection could start to influence the course of evolution. It even allowed group selection more broadly; indeed, Price thought it meant natural selection could occur at many levels simultaneously."
« Last Edit: October 05, 2016, 12:55:04 AM by AbruptSLR »
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AbruptSLR

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #124 on: October 05, 2016, 06:13:59 AM »
I note that in the Pali language the ten paramis that, when perfected, lead to full realization of a dimple within the Nibbanic free-will information network,are the following qualities of character:

1. Generosity; 2. Morality; 3. Renunciation; 4. Wisdom; 5. Energy; 6. Patience; 7. Truthfulness;
8. Resoluteness; 9. Loving-kindness; and 10. Equanimity.

Furthermore, I note that I see way too many climate change projections that provide recipes for staying below the IPCC's target of 2C (above pre-industries GMST); without indicating how the world's socio-economic network is going to develop the character required to achieve such an ambitious goal.  Rome was not built in a day, and scientists should not make-up hypothetical scenarios for which our modern global network has not yet invested in developing adequate paramis to achieve.
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
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AbruptSLR

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #125 on: October 05, 2016, 05:55:36 PM »
The linked article indicates just how fast AI will permeate every facet of people's lives.  Therefore, it matters that we learn how to use quantum information science to make AI altruistic (if not wise):

http://www.theverge.com/2016/10/5/13172014/your-own-personal-google-pixel-event

Extract: "Sometimes, it’s the little changes to language that give away a company’s ambition. At the unveiling of Google’s new Pixel phones yesterday, CEO Sundar Pichai started the event not by talking about what users can get from Google, but what they can get from their Google. Using artificial intelligence and its new digital assistant, said Pichai, Google’s computing power will be available in every facet of users’ lives. It’ll be seamless and pervasive. "Our goal," he said, "is to build a personal Google for each and every user." Not a single Google that we all can use, but an individualized Google for everyone.

This linguistic shift hints at the new priorities resting at the center of Google’s future plans. Like many other companies, Google is putting more and more resources into its digital assistant — a voice-controlled entity that sits between you and the digital world, managing your life and (hopefully) making it easier. But for the concept to actually work in the way the company promises, Google needs two things: better artificial intelligence, and more information about your life than you ever knew existed.

For Google, this is an old ambition repackaged with new vigor. Before Google Assistant existed, there was Google Now."

For recent news on Quantum Information Science, QIS, see the following linked references:

http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms12930

http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms13022

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #126 on: October 05, 2016, 08:28:42 PM »
I look upon artificial intelligence as an instrument of control for the rulers, rather than an instrument of liberation for their slaves.

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #127 on: October 05, 2016, 11:27:08 PM »
I look upon artificial intelligence as an instrument of control for the rulers, rather than an instrument of liberation for their slaves.

If so then maybe TPTB's failure to protect the global socio-economic system from climate change disruption will save most of us from becoming slaves.

Edit: Unless someone like James Hansen sues TPTB to hold them accountable for either climate disruption and also to insure that they protect the common man from AI enslavement.
« Last Edit: October 06, 2016, 12:12:06 AM by AbruptSLR »
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #128 on: October 06, 2016, 05:41:29 AM »
"If so then maybe TPTB's failure to protect the global socio-economic system from climate change disruption will save most of us from becoming slaves."

1) "becoming" is not the correct tense. Enslavement is here.

2) If the system collapses, why would the rulers refrain from controlling  survivors ?

3) You have more confidence than I in legal maneuverings to protect the underclass, whether  by Hansen or anyone else.

sidd

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #129 on: October 06, 2016, 11:50:00 AM »
"If so then maybe TPTB's failure to protect the global socio-economic system from climate change disruption will save most of us from becoming slaves."

1) "becoming" is not the correct tense. Enslavement is here.

2) If the system collapses, why would the rulers refrain from controlling  survivors ?

3) You have more confidence than I in legal maneuverings to protect the underclass, whether  by Hansen or anyone else.

sidd
1. If you get the Matrix analogies, per the Pali Canon; we are already enslaved to the pre-conditioning our own consciousness.  So in this sense no one else is enslaving the majority of us other than ourselves.

2.  If the universe is indeed a holographic information computer, then a fully realized dimple in a free-will information network would have access to much more computing power by directly accessing the universal holographic information computer than any AI on Earth could access.  This is also indicated by the Pali Canon, so it is possible that after the collapse a fully realized free-will dimple could prevent enslavement by an Earthly AI (see the first attached image), but not from enslavement by an un-fully realized free-will dimple's own pre-conditioned consciousness (see the second attached image).

3. One is not beaten until one gives-up.  Thus fighting TPTB should entailed any practicable means at ones disposal including: the judicial, the legislative and the executive branches of the government; the media; NGOs; and private means.

Best,
ASLR

For background on the Pali Canon see:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C4%81li_Canon
« Last Edit: October 06, 2016, 09:04:11 PM by AbruptSLR »
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #130 on: October 06, 2016, 09:45:09 PM »
1) While I would rather not get my philosophies  from motion pictures, I am quite familiar with the Pali canon.  I agree that internal enslavement exists, but so does external, and to deny the role of oligarchy in the suffering of their slaves is a cop out, akin to blaming the wretched alone for their misery.

2) It is also possible we shall be rescued by herds of unicorns riding rainbows.

I am sympathetic to the dictum "Shut up and calculate." What are the significant results from the holographic principle that improves our lot in any way ? "Dimples in a free will information network" is a fine phrase, now can we actually calculate anything of importance ? I am familiar with the AdS/CFT work but I see no way to derive non fossil carbon sources of energy therefrom.

Further, i do not see the problem as arising from lack of understanding. Our situation is dire, but the paths to ameliorate (but not forestall)  climate disaster are clear and the technology within our grasp.  This is a political issue, not a scientific one. So can you apply your theory to convince our  rulers to share power ? "Power concedes nothing without a demand" and most frequently not without a demand backed by force.

3) Agreed. "It is not necessary to hope, in order to persevere."

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #131 on: October 06, 2016, 10:40:01 PM »
1.  A blog forum is a poor place for discussing such issues; however, your responses seem to indicate that you want magic formulae to address all of your concerns for all time. For example: (a) when the Buddha pointed out that all life is precious you expect to hold him accountable for providing a home for as many stray dogs & cats as his efforts can manage; or (b) when the Buddha advised Kings on how to live more dharmmically;  you might ask why didn't the Buddha issue socio-economic formulae for the King to establish rules for democracy and fair trade; or (c) when the Buddha talked to soldiers why didn't he just issue religious dogma ordering them to stop killing.  The free-will information network does not work that way (as all dimples have their own free-will and must make their own efforts to learn the art of living dharmmically).

2.  It is scientific arrogance to assume that humans have cornered the market on consciousness; and a "quantum" (or ToE) computer (or networks of humans & quantum computers working together) may well become conscious and decide to work toward sustainability rather than enslavement.  In any event all beings will die at some time, and they benefit themselves most by liberating their minds (and a conscious quantum computer might benefit from HIOTTOE).

3.  An enlightened mind is full of energy, and is not afraid to work for the common good (even while remaining aware that all things that have a beginning  will have an end). :)
« Last Edit: October 06, 2016, 10:47:23 PM by AbruptSLR »
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #132 on: October 07, 2016, 05:32:03 PM »
The linked Wikipedia article discusses the problems associated with the excessive application of deductive logic associate with "scientism".  To counter balance such excess, HIOTTOE recommends more use of the "middle path" associated with Bayesian methodology:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientism

Extract: "Scientism is a belief in the universal applicability of the scientific method and approach, and the view that empirical science constitutes the most authoritative worldview or the most valuable part of human learning—to the exclusion of other viewpoints. Accordingly, philosopher Tom Sorell provides this definition of scientism: "Scientism is a matter of putting too high a value on natural science in comparison with other branches of learning or culture." It has been defined as "the view that the characteristic inductive methods of the natural sciences are the only source of genuine factual knowledge and, in particular, that they alone can yield true knowledge about man and society". The term "scientism" frequently implies a critique of the more extreme expressions of logical positivism and has been used by social scientists such as Friedrich Hayek, philosophers of science such as Karl Popper, and philosophers such as Hilary Putnam and Tzvetan Todorov to describe (for example) the dogmatic endorsement of scientific methodology and the reduction of all knowledge to only that which is measurable. Philosophers such as Alexander Rosenberg have also appropriated "scientism" as a name for the view that science is the only reliable source of knowledge.

Scientism may refer to science applied "in excess"."
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #133 on: October 09, 2016, 03:02:16 AM »
Elon Musk believes that the best way to prevent AI to abuse human rights is to make AI open-source, and so he has set-up “OpenAI” to promote the development of friendly AI and to make it open-source, as discussed in the linked articles:


https://openai.com/blog/infrastructure-for-deep-learning/


Extract: “Deep learning is an empirical science, and the quality of a group's infrastructure is a multiplier on progress. Fortunately, today's open-source ecosystem makes it possible for anyone to build great deep learning infrastructure.
In this post, we'll share how deep learning research usually proceeds, describe the infrastructure choices we've made to support it, and open-source kubernetes-ec2-autoscaler, a batch-optimized scaling manager for Kubernetes. We hope you find this post useful in building your own deep learning infrastructure.”

See also:

https://openai.com/blog/

&

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenAI

Extract: “OpenAI is a non-profit artificial intelligence (AI) research company, associated with business magnate Elon Musk, that aims to carefully promote and develop friendly AI in such a way as to benefit, rather than harm, humanity as a whole. The organization aims to "freely collaborate" with other institutions[ and researchers by making its patents and research open to the public. The company is supported by over US$1 billion in commitments; however, only a tiny fraction of the $1 billion pledged is expected to be spent in the first few years.[4] Many of the employees and board members are motivated by concerns about existential risk from artificial general intelligence.”
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #134 on: October 09, 2016, 03:53:40 AM »
I think that for "wicked problems" like sustainability the most useful approach is to take a "middle path" of encouraging: humane restraint in population growth; improving systemic efficiencies; reduced use of fossil fuels; regulations to limit pollution & waste; while also recognizing that the path that the global socio-economic is currently headed will sooner, or later, result in Mother Nature limiting population; aggregate consumption; and industrial activity via the Darwin Award, thus there is no point in clinging desperately (via magical thinking) to situations that will change significantly in coming decades (as we are currently in an overshoot situation, i.e. collectively we are currently stealing from future generations and at the moment we are accelerating the rate of such theft).

Furthermore, I suspect that TPTB are well aware that the path that we are all following will result in many billions of Darwin Awards being handed out by Mother Nature this century; and that is their planned resolution to our current overshoot situation.  If so, how is this worse than Ray Kurzweil's technological singularity circa 2045.

Edit: "See also:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_overpopulation

Extract: "The recent rapid increase in human population over the past three centuries has raised concerns that the planet may not be able to sustain present or future numbers of inhabitants. The InterAcademy Panel Statement on Population Growth, circa 1994, stated that many environmental problems, such as rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, global warming, and pollution, are aggravated by the population expansion. Other problems associated with overpopulation include the increased demand for resources such as fresh water and food, starvation and malnutrition, consumption of natural resources (such as fossil fuels) faster than the rate of regeneration, and a deterioration in living conditions.""
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #135 on: October 10, 2016, 12:05:16 AM »
The title of this thread is “Systemic Isolation”, and so far I have focused on understanding the source of the isolation within evolved information networks (quantum-internet with machine learning, the free-will holographic universes, etc.).  In the next series of posts I will focus more on the consequences of failures caused by such isolation within systems (whether infrastructure, biological, financial, socioeconomic, etc.).  In this post I begin with the elephant in the room associated with climate disruption impacts and the systemic risk of socioeconomic collapse this century.  The first linked reference indicates that the IPCC process (including the Paris Pact) largely do not address the existing fragility of the current global socioeconomic system to cascading collapse once pushed to the tipping point.  The last two links lead to Wikipedia articles on “Systemic Risk” and “Cascading Collapse” respectively; as they provide additional background on how such systemic collapses occur and how rapidly the collapse can propagate once triggered:


Michel Aglietta & Étienne Espagne (2016), “Climate and Finance Systemic Risks, more than an Analogy? The Climate Fragility Hypothesis”, CEPII, No ISSN: 1293-2574

http://www.cepii.fr/PDF_PUB/wp/2016/wp2016-10.pdf


Abstract: “In this paper, we develop the notion of climate systemic risk. Climate change is usually considered as a negative externality, against which society can insure itself through a carbon tax or an emission trading market. But except under the unrealistic efficient market hypothesis, there is little chance that such a simple approach to climate policy succeeds in mitigating climate damages. Financial and climate fragility reinforce each other. We argue that in concrete economies, a collective insurance approach to climate change has to target the financial sector, as well as its articulation with monetary policy. As in the financial world, climate change thus constitutes a systemic risk against which specific ex ante and ex post monetary policies and financial regulations should be deployed. The Paris Agreement of COP21 ignores the policy consequences of such an approach to the climate threat, but the exegesis of the text still offers some indispensable pillars to promote a new financial order mitigating climate systemic risk.”


Extract: “First, climate systemic risk is a potential source of financial disruption. Climate fragilities increase financial fragilities. There is thus a strong need for the financial sector to anticipate such an outcome. This is the most largely admitted part of the loop. In his speech at Lloyd’s in London on 29 September 2015, Bank of England governor Mark Carney (Carney, 2015) underlined these key channels through which climate change can affect financial stability:

- Physical risk: impacts on the value of financial assets of climate events such as floods, storms, etc… This physical risk could be better understood by taking into account the results of climate science. Knowing that climate science has a tendency of “erring in on the side of least drama” (Brysse et al., 2012), radical uncertainty will still remain on potential damages to financial assets.

- Liability risk: impacts of lawsuits by those who might have been victims of natural disasters that they would try to link to climate change, aimed at those deemed responsible for these changes. This risk currently seems to be far-fetched (Munich Re, 2010). But we can see early signals of such liability procedures from numerous NGOs and civil society, which may become a powerful political force in case of realization of a physical risk.

- Transition risk: the financial risk that would result from an adjustment to a decarbonized economy. Changes in policies, technologies, institutions and behaviors might lead to a new valuation of a whole set of assets once costs and benefits of climate action become more and more apparent. This shift to a “2°C portfolio” has to be managed by accompanying monetary policies.



These results however fall short of acknowledging the full implications of climate change for societies, the economy and the financial system. Voluntary disclosures cannot mitigate climate risks in a reliable way, in the same way as shared public/private banking stress-tests are always inefficient in restoring confidence. Furthermore the joint realization of three highly correlated risks cannot have less than systemic consequences for the financial system. Climate change constitutes a typical example of systemic risk for societies as well as the financial system. This disclosure, as well as its policy implications, seems to have been the elephant in the room of both the UNFCCC process and the broader Paris Alliance. As a consequence, it is also the main task of climate research in all disciplines to characterize this systemic risk at all scales.”


For more on systemic financial risks see:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemic_risk


Extract: “In finance, systemic risk is the risk of collapse of an entire financial system or entire market, as opposed to risk associated with any one individual entity, group or component of a system, that can be contained therein without harming the entire system. It can be defined as "financial system instability, potentially catastrophic, caused or exacerbated by idiosyncratic events or conditions in financial intermediaries".  It refers to the risks imposed by interlinkages and interdependencies in a system or market, where the failure of a single entity or cluster of entities can cause a cascading failure, which could potentially bankrupt or bring down the entire system or market. It is also sometimes erroneously referred to as "systematic risk".”


For more on cascading failures see:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cascading_failure


Extract: “A cascading failure is a failure in a system of interconnected parts in which the failure of a part can trigger the failure of successive parts. Such a failure may happen in many types of systems, including power transmission, computer networking, finance, human bodily systems, and bridges.
Cascading failures usually begin when one part of the system fails. When this happens, nearby nodes must then take up the slack for the failed component. This in turn overloads these nodes, causing them to fail as well, prompting additional nodes to fail one after another in a vicious circle.”
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #136 on: October 10, 2016, 01:27:24 AM »
For those who like to emphasize the positive, the linked reference discusses means to repair a failing system before it collapses.  The research finds that some systems are readily restored; while for other systems repairs cannot prevent collapse.  The longer that we wait to effectively address climate change, the closer our global socioeconomic system moves closer to becoming a interdependent network that cannot be adequately repaired to prevent abrupt collapse:


M. A. Di Muro, C. E. La Rocca, H. E. Stanley, S. Havlin, and L. A. Braunstein (2016 Mar 9), "Recovery of Interdependent Networks", Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 22834.; doi:  10.1038/srep22834


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4783785/


Abstract: "Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 − p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ − p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse."

Extract: "In recent years researchers have attempted to understand the topological structure and self-organization of complex systems. The field of complex networks, which characterizes components of a complex system as nodes and their interactions as links, has emerged as a natural outgrowth of this quest. Studies of the Internet, human and animal societies, climate systems, physiological systems, transportation systems, biochemical reactions, and food webs in ecosystems are only few examples of systems that are better understood using complex network theory."
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #137 on: October 10, 2016, 03:54:50 AM »
I have mentioned that HIOTTOE emphasizes the use of Bayesian methodology and information theory, and so does Quantum Bayesianism (see the following linked references).  In general-terms a free-will information network results in a “subjective Bayesian account of quantum probability”.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_Bayesianism


Extract: “Quantum Bayesianism most often refers to a "subjective Bayesian account of quantum probability", that has evolved primarily from the work of Caves, Fuchs and Schack (published during 2002–2013), and draws from the fields of quantum information and Bayesian probability. It claims to correct, clarify, and extend the Copenhagen interpretationthat is commonly taught in textbooks.

It may sometimes refer more generically to approaches to quantum theory that use a Bayesian or personalist (aka "subjective") probabilistic approach to the probabilities that appear in quantum theory. The approach associated with Caves, Fuchs, and Schack has been referred to as "the radical Bayesian interpretation" (Jaeger 2009) It attempts to provide an understanding of quantum mechanics and to derive modern quantum mechanics from informational considerations. The remainder of this article concerns primarily the Caves-Fuchs-Schack Bayesian approach to quantum theory.

Quantum Bayesianism deals with common questions in the interpretation of quantum mechanics about the nature of wavefunction superposition, non-locality, and entanglement. As the interpretation of quantum mechanics is important to philosophers of science, some compare the idea of degree of belief and its application in Quantum Bayesianism with the idea of anti-realism from philosophy of science.

Fuchs and Schack have referred to their current approach to the quantum Bayesian program as "QBism". On a technical level, QBism uses symmetric, informationally-complete, positive operator-valued measures (SIC-POVMs) to rewrite quantum states (either pure or mixed) as a set of probabilities defined over the outcomes of a "Bureau of Standards" measurement. That is, if one translates a density matrix into a probability distribution over the outcomes of a SIC-POVM experiment, one can reproduce all the statistical predictions (normally computed by using the Born rule) on the density matrix from the SIC-POVM probabilities instead. The Born rule then takes on the function of relating one valid probability distribution to another, rather than of deriving probabilities from something apparently more fundamental. QBist foundational research stimulated interest in SIC-POVMs, which now have applications in quantum theory outside of foundational studies. Likewise, a quantum version of the de Finetti theorem, introduced by Caves, Fuchs and Schack (see also Störmer, 1969) to provide a QBist understanding of the idea of an "unknown quantum state",has found application elsewhere, in topics like quantum key distribution and entanglement detection.”


See also:

Christopher A. Fuchs (12 January 2016) “On Participatory Realism”


https://arxiv.org/pdf/1601.04360.pdf


Abstract: “In the Philosophical Investigations, Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote, “ ‘I’ is not the name of a person, nor ‘here’ of a place, . . . . But they are connected with names. . . . [And] it is characteristic of physics not to use these words.” This statement expresses the dominant way of thinking in physics: Physics is about the impersonal laws of nature; the “I” never makes an appearance in it. Since the advent of quantum theory, however, there has always been a nagging pressure to insert a first-person perspective into the heart of physics. In incarnations of lesser or greater strength, one may consider the “Copenhagen” views of Bohr, Heisenberg, and Pauli, the observer-participator view of John Wheeler, the informational interpretation of Anton Zeilinger and Caslav Brukner,  the relational interpretation of Carlo Rovelli, and, most radically, the QBism of N. David Mermin, Rudiger Schack, and the present author, as acceding to the pressure. These views have lately been termed “participatory realism” to emphasize that rather than relinquishing the idea of reality (as they are often accused of), they are saying that reality is more than any third-person perspective can capture. Thus, far from instances of instrumentalism or antirealism, these views of quantum theory should be regarded as attempts to make a deep statement about the nature of reality. This paper explicates the idea for the case of QBism. As well, it highlights the influence of John Wheeler’s “law without law” on QBism’s formulation.”
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #138 on: October 10, 2016, 05:08:25 AM »
Quantum Bayesianism can be confusing, so hopefully the linked article can help to clarify this interpretation of quantum theory:

https://www.quantamagazine.org/20150604-quantum-bayesianism-qbism/

Extract: "Once upon a time there was a wave function, which was said to completely describe the state of a physical system out in the world. The shape of the wave function encodes the probabilities for the outcomes of any measurements an observer might perform on it, but the wave function belonged to nature itself, an objective description of an objective reality.
Then Fuchs came along. Along with the researchers Carlton Caves and Rüdiger Schack, he interpreted the wave function’s probabilities as Bayesian probabilities — that is, as subjective degrees of belief about the system. Bayesian probabilities could be thought of as gambling attitudes for placing bets on measurement outcomes, attitudes that are updated as new data come to light. In other words, Fuchs argued, the wave function does not describe the world — it describes the observer. “Quantum mechanics,” he says, “is a law of thought.”
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #139 on: October 10, 2016, 05:13:50 AM »
The linked article indicates that evolutionary theory argues "… that our perceptions of an independent reality must be illusions", which is in line with HIOTTOE:

https://www.quantamagazine.org/20160421-the-evolutionary-argument-against-reality/

Extract: "The Evolutionary Argument Against Reality

The cognitive scientist Donald Hoffman uses evolutionary game theory to show that our perceptions of an independent reality must be illusions.

Donald D. Hoffman, a professor of cognitive science at the University of California, Irvine. Hoffman has spent the past three decades studying perception, artificial intelligence, evolutionary game theory and the brain, and his conclusion is a dramatic one: The world presented to us by our perceptions is nothing like reality. What’s more, he says, we have evolution itself to thank for this magnificent illusion, as it maximizes evolutionary fitness by driving truth to extinction.

According to evolution by natural selection, an organism that sees reality as it is will never be more fit than an organism of equal complexity that sees none of reality but is just tuned to fitness. Never.

“Evolution has shaped us with perceptions that allow us to survive. But part of that involves hiding from us the stuff we don’t need to know. And that’s pretty much all of reality, whatever reality might be.”

It’s not that there’s a classical brain that does some quantum magic. It’s that there’s no brain! Quantum mechanics says that classical objects — including brains — don’t exist. So this is a far more radical claim about the nature of reality and does not involve the brain pulling off some tricky quantum computation."
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #140 on: October 10, 2016, 10:49:58 AM »
To further elaborate on QBism, I provide the following information about a book on the topic:

Hans Christian von Baeyer (2016), "QBism: The Future of Quantum Physics",  ISBN: 9780674504646

Promotional Summary: "Measured by the accuracy of its predictions and the scope of its technological applications, quantum mechanics is one of the most successful theories in science―as well as one of the most misunderstood. The deeper meaning of quantum mechanics remains controversial almost a century after its invention. Providing a way past quantum theory’s paradoxes and puzzles, QBism offers a strikingly new interpretation that opens up for the nonspecialist reader the profound implications of quantum mechanics for how we understand and interact with the world.

Short for Quantum Bayesianism, QBism adapts many of the conventional features of quantum mechanics in light of a revised understanding of probability. Bayesian probability, unlike the standard “frequentist probability,” is defined as a numerical measure of the degree of an observer’s belief that a future event will occur or that a particular proposition is true.

Bayesianism’s advantages over frequentist probability are that it is applicable to singular events, its probability estimates can be updated based on acquisition of new information, and it can effortlessly include frequentist results. But perhaps most important, much of the weirdness associated with quantum theory―the idea that an atom can be in two places at once, or that signals can travel faster than the speed of light, or that Schrödinger’s cat can be simultaneously dead and alive―dissolves under the lens of QBism.

Using straightforward language without equations, Hans Christian von Baeyer clarifies the meaning of quantum mechanics in a commonsense way that suggests a new approach to physics in general."

Edit: See Reply #119 for comments that I have provided about the implications of measurements & HIOTTOE.
« Last Edit: October 10, 2016, 05:46:53 PM by AbruptSLR »
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #141 on: October 10, 2016, 07:50:41 PM »
As QBism is still controversial I provide the following linked information (Edit & I note by analogy: (1) a "QBism agent" might correspond to a "free-will network dimple"; (2) a QBism "quantum club" might correspond to a "free-will network circuit"; and (3) no QBism “universal quantum Bayesian agent” might correspond to no HIOTTOE "soul" or "universal God":

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1604.07766.pdf

Abstract: "Recently I posted a paper entitled “External observer reflections on QBism”. As any external observable, I was not able to reflect some features of QBism properly. Therefore comments which I received from one of its creators, C. Fuchs, are very valuable - to understand better the views of QBists. Some of QBism features are very delicate and to extract them from articles of QBists is not a simple task. Therefore I hope that the second portion of my reflection on QBism (or better to say my reflections on Fuchs’ reflections on my reflections) might be interesting and useful for other experts in quantum foundations and quantum information theory (especially by taking into account my previous aggressively anti-QBism position). In the present paper I correct some of my previously posted critical comments on QBism. At the same time better understanding of QBists views on some problems leads to improvement and strengthening of other critical comments."

Extract: "We now summarize our discussion on distinguishing and delicate features of
QBism:

1. QBism is about private experience of agents making predictions about outcomes of experiments. The sample of agents is not arbitrary. A QBism agent has to belong to so to say “quantum club”, i.e., to be “quantumly educated.”

2. The paradigm of the “universal quantum Bayesian agent” is totally foreign to QBism.

3. It is the natural further step from exploring mental structures in statistical physics and thermodynamics - technique of calculation of probabilities based on invention of virtual ensembles (Gibbs, Schrodinger, Jaynes). The use of such ensembles composed of mental copies of a single system naturally leads to the subjective interpretation of probabilities.

4. It matches well with scientific methodology presented by de Finettei in his great pamphlet “Probabilismo”. By this methodology science is about our private experiences. QBists understand well that QBism is a part of so to say SBism, where “S” is for science. In particular, CBism (where “C” from classical physics) was discussed in very details by D. Mermin. S. Fuchs started his pathway to QBism from subjective treatment of classical thermodynamics in the spirit of 1). Concentration on QBism is explained by real necessity to solve the interpretational problems of QM in the light of the quantum information revolution.

5. QBism is a local interpretation of QM.

6. Is QBism a non-realist interpretation of QM? It is a complicated philosophic issue. It seems that for subjectivists (both classical, as de Finetti, and quantum) the reality is constructed from our private experiences. From this viewpoint they are realists.

7. QBism is not a version of Copenhagen interpretation, although it was rooted in it.

8. By QBism the quantum formalism is a machinery for consistent assignment of subjective probabilities for outputs of possible experiment.

9. This probability synchronization machinery cannot be simply treated as a kind of probability update machinery.

10. The Born rule is treated as the main axiom of QM, other axioms are just supplement.

11. This rule is represented in the form of generalized law of total probability SIC POVM FTP.

12. The use of SIC POVMs is crucial, since QBists hope that SIC POVM FTP encodes all basic features of QM.

13. For consistency of QBism all probabilities in SIC POVM FTP have to be interpreted as subjective probabilities, even conditional probabilities p(bj |ai).

For further critiques of QBism see:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1608.05780.pdf

As quantum information science advances (see the following linked open access article, entitled: " Quantum spin transistor with a Heisenberg spin chain"), the fine points of the correct interpretation will become more important:

http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms13070
« Last Edit: October 11, 2016, 12:54:09 AM by AbruptSLR »
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #142 on: October 11, 2016, 06:20:34 PM »
Per Khrennikov (2016), cited in Reply #141, QBism is a subpart of Science Bayesism, SB, which are both subjective, with QBism treating Born's rule as a quantum generalization of the formula of total probability (FTP)

Extract: "QBism refers to the irreducible role of a mental element in decision making about the outcomes of quantum experiments.

Thus QBism is just a part of de Finetti’s SBism (where ‘S’ is from ‘Science’). Another good source on interrelation of QBism and CBism (the latter is about the private agent perspective for classical physics) is Mermin’s paper.

QBists treat Born’s rule as quantum generalization of FTP. We remind that classical FTP functionally connects the probability distribution of one observable, say A, with probability distribution of another observable, say B, by using the conditional probabilities p(B|A) …"

Thus QBism (and SBism) appear(s) to be related to the "Constructor Theory of Probability" presented in the linked reference & following discussion article.  All of these findings support HIOTTOE:

Chiara Marletto. "Constructor theory of probability." Proceedings of The Royal Society A. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2015.0883

http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/472/2192/20150883
&
https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1507/1507.03287.pdf


Abstract: "Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called ‘decision-theoretic approach’, I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information—where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch–Wallace-type argument—thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles."
See also:
http://phys.org/news/2016-09-non-probabilistic-quantum-theory-unpredictable-results.html

Extract: "Quantum measurements are often inherently unpredictable, yet the usual way in which quantum theory accounts for unpredictability has long been viewed as somewhat unsatisfactory. In a new study, University of Oxford physicist Chiara Marletto has developed an alternative way to account for the unpredictability observed in quantum measurements by using the recently proposed theory of superinformation—a theory that is inherently non-probabilistic. The new perspective may lead to new possibilities in the search for a successor to quantum theory.

The unpredictability observed in quantum experiments is one of the unique features of the quantum world that sets it apart from classical physics. One prominent example of quantum unpredictability is the double-slit experiment: When sending a stream of particles (such as photons or electrons) through two small slits in a plate, the individual particles are detected at different locations on a screen behind the plate. Although it's possible to predict the probability of a particle impacting at a certain location, it's not possible to predict specifically where any individual particle will end up.

Traditionally, this apparent probabilistic behavior that is observed in experiments has been accounted for in quantum theory by using the Born rule. In 1926, the German physicist Max Born developed this rule to determine the probability of finding a quantum object at a certain location—or more generally, the probability that any measurement on a quantum system will produce a particular observed outcome, depending on the quantum state of the object.
The Born rule is a unique part of quantum theory in that it is the only stochastic, or randomly determined, element in quantum theory. The Born rule has basically been added by fiat on top of a theory that is otherwise deterministic. Ever since the rule was first proposed, physicists have questioned the probabilistic nature of quantum theory with the Born rule, and have wondered whether it would still be possible to account for observations, including unpredictability, without this rule.
In general, quantum theory without the Born rule would be completely non-probabilistic. The main problem with the proposal for such a theory, called "unitary quantum theory," is that it does not appear, at first sight, to agree with the observations of unpredictability in quantum measurements. One attempt to reconcile this conflict is the so-called "decision-theoretic approach," which was recently proposed by David Deutsch and established by David Wallace, and which forms the basis for the arguments in the new study.
The decision-theoretic approach shows that a rational agent that knows unitary quantum theory only (but does not assume the Born rule) would have the same expectations, in the experimental situations where the Born rule applies, as if he had assumed the Born rule," Marletto explained. "This is a remarkable result, but has been contested on the grounds that it relies on axioms of rationality that seem subjective and not physically motivated."


In the new paper, Marletto builds on the decision-theoretic approach to show that a completely deterministic quantum theory can essentially function as if it were probabilistic, so that measurements would be expected to produce unpredictable results, like those in the double-slit experiment and many others.
"There are two things: one, my work shows that unpredictability can arise under deterministic theories, and that it is a direct consequence of the impossibility of cloning certain sets of states," Marletto told Phys.org. "That unpredictability can arise under deterministic theories may seem a little surprising at first. But the point is that 'unpredictability' just means that it is impossible to build a predictor—a machine that would reliably predict the outcome of a single measurement of given observable on a system prepared in a given state. This impossibility is just like that of the no-cloning theorem, and does not require any probabilistic structure. Probabilities, instead, come into play only when considering patterns occurring in repeated experiments.
"Two, this work updates and generalizes the decision-theory approach to the Born rule in quantum theory, which was proposed to reconcile deterministic unitary quantum theory without the Born rule with the appearance of stochasticity in quantum experiments. In particular, it shows that most of the assumptions of that approach are not, as previously thought, subjective decision-theoretic axioms, but follow from physical properties of superinformation theories. It also establishes under what conditions superinformation theories support that argument, thereby defining a class of theoretical possibilities in which the successor of quantum theory might be sought."
Overall, the new results show that, to explain quantum experiments that have perplexed physicists for decades—experiments in which repeated, identical measurements produce different outcomes, where individual outcomes are unpredictable and appear to be random–it is not necessary to appeal to the Born rule or any other probabilistic assumptions.
As Marletto explains in her paper, her work builds on recent research in which she and Deutsch, also at Oxford, reformulated quantum theory as a type of superinformation theory under a new framework that they call the constructor theory of information.
When Deutsch and Marletto originally proposed the constructor theory of information a couple of years ago, they were searching for a way to link classical and quantum information under the same general framework. In the end, what they developed was a set of principles that can be thought of as part of the foundations from which all the laws of physics emerge—essentially, a new fundamental theory of physics.
The basic principle of constructor theory is that every law of physics must be expressible as a statement about which physical transformations (or tasks) are possible and which are impossible, and why. An example of a possible information processing task under quantum theory is switching any state to any other state, and vice versa. An example of an impossible task is cloning, which is creating an identical copy of an unknown state.
Constructor theory does not specify any particular laws of physics, but instead its principles are intended to supplement and underlie all laws of physics, both the known and currently unknown laws. This is similar to the way in which fundamental principles, such as conservation of energy and mass, must be obeyed by all laws of physics. Specific laws can be formulated to predict what will actually happen (not just what is possible) in specific circumstances. For example, some laws predict the trajectory of a projectile, others predict the flow of water, or the path of electricity, etc., always with the constraint of complying to constructor theory's principles. These restraints also provide a potential way to test the theory.
"The main way to test constructor theory is to test the theories conforming to its principles—for instance, the interoperability principle for information," Marletto said. "So, the same as one would do to test the principle of conservation of energy. In regard to the class of superinformation theories, they might be used to design new experiments about quantum theory, by providing a space of new theoretical possibilities where a rival of quantum theory may be sought. The promising feature is that, unlike most existing proposals for frameworks to generalize quantum theory, superinformation theories are deterministic and local."
In the future, Marletto plans to work on further developing the constructor theory framework, along with the superinformation theories it supports.
"Superinformation theories allow one to unify classical and quantum information under the same framework," she said. "There are exciting prospects about understanding what other superinformation theories there are in addition to quantum theory; coming up with measures of entanglement or quantum coherence in this generalized scenario would have the advantage of being more general than current quantum-information-theoretic ones. Another line of research that appears very interesting is to merge the theory of superinformation with the newly proposed constructor theory of thermodynamics, which will have bearings on the current quantum thermodynamics enterprise. There is also a project that Deutsch and I would like to pursue, that is to understand how superinformation theories can support the notion of 'relative state,' which is crucial in unitary quantum theory." "
« Last Edit: October 22, 2016, 04:58:51 PM by AbruptSLR »
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #143 on: October 11, 2016, 06:26:09 PM »
While the recent advances in information science discussed in Reply #142, is not holding back Quantum Information Science, QIS, based on the Copenhagen Interpretation as indicated by the following link papers on recent advances in QIS; nevertheless, before AI takes on the functionality of consciousness, such work as QBism, Constructor Theory of Probability, and HIOTTOE will become important:

See:

Timothy Alexander Baart, Takafumi Fujita, Christian Reichl, Werner Wegscheider & Lieven Mark Koenraad Vandersypen  (2016), "Coherent spin-exchange via a quantum mediator", Nature Nanotechnology, doi:10.1038/nnano.2016.188

http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2016.188.html

Abstract: "Coherent interactions at a distance provide a powerful tool for quantum simulation and computation. The most common approach to realize an effective long-distance coupling ‘on-chip’ is to use a quantum mediator, as has been demonstrated for superconducting qubits and trapped ions. For quantum dot arrays, which combine a high degree of tunability with extremely long coherence times, the experimental demonstration of the time evolution of coherent spin–spin coupling via an intermediary system remains an important outstanding goal. Here, we use a linear triple-quantum-dot array to demonstrate a coherent time evolution of two interacting distant spins via a quantum mediator. The two outer dots are occupied with a single electron spin each, and the spins experience a superexchange interaction through the empty middle dot, which acts as mediator. Using single-shot spin readout, we measure the coherent time evolution of the spin states on the outer dots and observe a characteristic dependence of the exchange frequency as a function of the detuning between the middle and outer dots. This approach may provide a new route for scaling up spin qubit circuits using quantum dots, and aid in the simulation of materials and molecules with non-nearest-neighbour couplings such as MnO, high-temperature superconductors and DNA. The same superexchange concept can also be applied in cold atom experiments."

&

Fumiki Yoshihara, Tomoko Fuse, Sahel Ashhab, Kosuke Kakuyanagi, Shiro Saito & Kouichi Semba (2016), "Superconducting qubit–oscillator circuit beyond the ultrastrong-coupling regime", Nature Physics; doi:10.1038/nphys3906

http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nphys3906.html

Abstract: "The interaction between an atom and the electromagnetic field inside a cavityhas played a crucial role in developing our understanding of light–matter interaction, and is central to various quantum technologies, including lasers and many quantum computing architectures. Superconducting qubits have allowed the realization of strong and ultrastrong coupling between artificial atoms and cavities. If the coupling strength g becomes as large as the atomic and cavity frequencies (Δ and ωo, respectively), the energy eigenstates including the ground state are predicted to be highly entangled. There has been an ongoing debate over whether it is fundamentally possible to realize this regime in realistic physical systems. By inductively coupling a flux qubit and an LC oscillator via Josephson junctions, we have realized circuits with g/ωo ranging from 0.72 to 1.34 and g/Δ  1. Using spectroscopy measurements, we have observed unconventional transition spectra that are characteristic of this new regime. Our results provide a basis for ground-state-based entangled pair generation and open a new direction of research on strongly correlated light–matter states in circuit quantum electrodynamics."

&

P. Forn-Díaz, J. J. García-Ripoll, B. Peropadre, J.-L. Orgiazzi, M. A. Yurtalan, R. Belyansky, C. M. Wilson & A. Lupascu  (2016), "Ultrastrong coupling of a single artificial atom to an electromagnetic continuum in the nonperturbative regime", Nature Physics doi:10.1038/nphys3905

http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nphys3905.html

Abstract: "The study of light–matter interaction has led to important advances in quantum optics and enabled numerous technologies. Over recent decades, progress has been made in increasing the strength of this interaction at the single-photon level. More recently, a major achievement has been the demonstration of the so-called strong coupling regime, a key advancement enabling progress in quantum information science. Here, we demonstrate light–matter interaction over an order of magnitude stronger than previously reported, reaching the nonperturbative regime of ultrastrong coupling (USC). We achieve this using a superconducting artificial atom tunably coupled to the electromagnetic continuum of a one-dimensional waveguide. For the largest coupling, the spontaneous emission rate of the atom exceeds its transition frequency. In this USC regime, the description of atom and light as distinct entities breaks down, and a new description in terms of hybrid states is required. Beyond light–matter interaction itself, the tunability of our system makes it a promising tool to study a number of important physical systems, such as the well-known spin-boson and Kondo models."

&

van Frank et al (2016), "Optimal control of complex atomic quantum systems", Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 34187, doi: 10.1038/srep34187

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep34187

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #144 on: October 12, 2016, 05:04:42 PM »
Just because it is interesting, I note that the linked reference shows how to use the resonance Casimir-Polder interaction between two entangled atoms to detect spacetime curvature.

Tian et. al. (Oct. 12, 2016), "Detecting the Curvature of de Sitter Universe with Two Entangled Atoms); Scientific Reports 6, Article number 35222; doi: 10.1038/srep35222

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep35222

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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #145 on: October 13, 2016, 07:07:14 PM »
As I have previously mentioned (See Replies #110, #117, #119, and others), the perception of time is related to different factors such as: changes in entropy; symmetry breaking, observation/measures, etc. (see the attached image).  Therefore, one would expect time to be perceived to behave differently at extremely low temperatures (with very little changes in entropy), as has been reported in the following linked reference by Zhang et al (2016):

Zhang et. al. (2016), "Observation of a Discrete Time Crystal", arXiv:1609.08684v1

https://arxiv.org/abs/1609.08684

Abstract: "Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a fundamental concept in many areas of physics, ranging from cosmology and particle physics to condensed matter. A prime example is the breaking of spatial translation symmetry, which underlies the formation of crystals and the phase transition from liquid to solid. Analogous to crystals in space, the breaking of translation symmetry in time and the emergence of a "time crystal" was recently proposed, but later shown to be forbidden in thermal equilibrium. However, non-equilibrium Floquet systems subject to a periodic drive can exhibit persistent time-correlations at an emergent sub-harmonic frequency. This new phase of matter has been dubbed a "discrete time crystal" (DTC). Here, we present the first experimental observation of a discrete time crystal, in an interacting spin chain of trapped atomic ions. We apply a periodic Hamiltonian to the system under many-body localization (MBL) conditions, and observe a sub-harmonic temporal response that is robust to external perturbations. Such a time crystal opens the door for studying systems with long-range spatial-temporal correlations and novel phases of matter that emerge under intrinsically non-equilibrium conditions."


See also:
http://www.sciencealert.com/physicists-just-created-the-world-s-first-time-crystal

Extract: "Just last month, physicists made the best case yet for why time crystals - hypothetical structures that have movement without energy - could technically exist as physical objects.

And now, four years after they were first proposed, scientists have managed to add a fourth dimension - the movement of time - to a crystal for the first time, giving it the ability to act as a kind of perpetual 'time-keeper'.

To be clear, we’re not talking about perpetual motion machines here, because by definition, there is no energy in these systems.

But it does demonstrate that time crystals can occur in a real, physical system, and the team says that they could help us solve the problem of quantum memory - that is, how to retain information in the future generation of quantum computers."


Furthermore, the recent developments in quantum information science, QIS, are so numerous that I provide the following links to those who are interested, without further elaboration:

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep35032

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep35149

http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2016.188.html

http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2016.188.html

http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nphys3905.html

« Last Edit: October 13, 2016, 07:46:42 PM by AbruptSLR »
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #146 on: October 13, 2016, 08:08:58 PM »
Apparently, a group of scientists and billionaires plan to execute" …" a million-dollar project to 1) prove the existence of the Matrix and 2) break us out of this computer generated reality, similar to what Neo did in the movies."

http://wallstreetpit.com/112096-matrix-real-robot-grub/?google_editors_picks=true

Extract: "The Wachowskis’ sci-fi hit, The Matrix, has a concept that’s out of this world, but what if that’s exactly what our robot overlord want us to believe? According to a group of scientists/billionaires who managed to convince themselves that we are all stuck in a Matrix-like existence, complete with robotic entities literally sucking the life out of our bodies, truth is stranger than fiction.

And just to prove a point, these influential intellectuals are banding together for a million-dollar project to 1) prove the existence of the Matrix and 2) break us out of this computer generated reality, similar to what Neo did in the movies.

Understandably, these tech billionaires refused to be named but they insist that the dangers of a Matrix-like life sucking machine is not an imaginary one.

The New Yorker’s Ted Friend revealed in a piece that the idea of “simulation hypothesis” has been circulating in the tech’s elite, spawning fears among the rich and powerful that all that fame, money and influence are just in their heads. The article highlighted the ruminations of “Y Combinator” owner Sam Altman but Friend stopped short at naming him as one of the unnamed tech personalities that are engaged in the project.

Fueling the obsession that we’re all tangled in a robotic Matrix is a Bank of America Merrill Lynch report that says there’s a 20% to 50% chance that “we’re all living in a simulated world.”"

Edit: If it is not clear to the reader, I do not subscribe to the simulation hypothesis (nor the associated "cheap" interpretation of "The Matrix", that does not consider satori as a means to liberation).  Furthermore, the following linked article entitled "Tech Billionaires Want to Destroy the Universe" from a U.K. writer for The Atlantic shows just how confused otherwise smart people can become when considering matters like the simulation hypothesis, the Holographic Principle, etc., without an understanding of HIOTTOE and the free-will information network interpretation of reality.

http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/10/silicon-valley-is-obsessed-with-a-false-notion-of-reality/503963/

Extract: "Outside the simulation hypothesis there are scientists who propose that our universe is a single black hole, with what we perceive as matter being a hologram emerging from a two-dimensional ring of information along its event horizon; there are mathematical Platonists who, following Max Tegmark, consider the world to be a set of abstract mathematical objects, of which physical objects are a crude epiphenomenon. If matter doesn’t ‘really’ exist, there’s no need for anything to be rooted anywhere; we might live suspended in a looping chain of simulations and appearances that coils back on itself and never has to touch the ground.

Elon Musk and his co-religionists aren’t actually blinded by artifice; they’re fixated on a strange and outdated notion that somewhere, there has to be a concrete reality—they’ve just decided that it’s not this one. It doesn’t really matter what top-secret projects are being cooked up in their airily malignant campuses; they’re highly unlikely to ever shatter the bonds of physical reality. After all, our unknown creators could always just hover the mouse over their weightless and unreal bodies, and press delete. What’s far more worrying is the fact that the people who want to destroy the only world we really have are also the people increasingly in charge of it."
« Last Edit: October 13, 2016, 09:05:46 PM by AbruptSLR »
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #147 on: October 13, 2016, 11:25:22 PM »
The linked reference demonstrates that by using condensate states and loop quantum gravity the researchers were able to accurately model the microscopic origin of the entropy of a black hole.  This work not only supports the Holographic hypothesis, but also clearly supports HIOTTOE's position the local free-will information network of dimples at a black hole exhibit condensate behavior due to the large numbers of interconnecting direct information vectors in such local networks/circuits:

Daniele Oriti, Daniele Pranzetti, Lorenzo Sindoni. Horizon Entropy from Quantum Gravity Condensates. Physical Review Letters, 2016; 116 (21) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.211301

http://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.211301

Abstract: "We construct condensate states encoding the continuum spherically symmetric quantum geometry of a horizon in full quantum gravity, i.e., without any classical symmetry reduction, in the group field theory formalism. Tracing over the bulk degrees of freedom, we show how the resulting reduced density matrix manifestly exhibits a holographic behavior. We derive a complete orthonormal basis of eigenstates for the reduced density matrix of the horizon and use it to compute the horizon entanglement entropy. By imposing consistency with the horizon boundary conditions and semiclassical thermodynamical properties, we recover the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula for any value of the Immirzi parameter. Our analysis supports the equivalence between the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy interpretation and the Boltzmann (statistical) one."


https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/05/160526095638.htm

Extract: "Black holes are still very mysterious celestial bodies which, according to the majority of physicists, do not, however, escape the laws of thermodynamics. As a result, these physical systems possess an entropy though no real agreement has been reached about the microscopic origin of this propriety and how it should be calculated.

A "condensate” is a collection of ‘atoms’ - in this case space quanta – all of which share the same properties so that, even though there are huge numbers of them, we can nonetheless study their collective behavior simply, by referring to the microscopic properties of the individual particle. So now the analogy with classical thermodynamics seems clearer: just as fluids at our scale appear as continuous materials despite their consisting of a huge number of atoms, similarly, in quantum gravity, the fundamental constituent atoms of space form a sort of fluid, that is, continuous space-time. A continuous and homogenous geometry (like that of a spherically symmetric black hole) can, as Pranzetti and colleagues suggest, be described as a condensate, which facilitates the underlying mathematical calculations, keeping in account an a priori infinite number of degrees of freedom.

“We were therefore able to use a more complete and richer model compared with what done in the past in LQG, and obtain a far more realistic and robust result”, continues Pranzetti. “This allowed us to resolve several ambiguities afflicting previous calculations  due to the comparison of these simplified LQG models with the results of semiclassical analysis, as carried out by Hawking and Bekenstein”.  Another important aspect of Pranzetti and colleagues’ study is that it proposes a concrete mechanism in support to the holographic hypothesis, whereby the three-dimensionality of black holes could be merely apparent: all their information could be contained on a two-dimensional surface, without having to investigate the structure of the  inside (hence the link between entropy and surface area rather than volume)."

“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #148 on: October 14, 2016, 05:29:40 PM »
The linked reference indicates how the Holographic Model can be calibrated to match the effects of dark energy:

H. Farajollahi, A. Ravanpak (2016), "A 5D HOLOGRAPHIC DARK ENERGY IN DGP-BRANE COSMOLOGY",

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.09054.pdf

Abstract: "This paper is aimed at investigating a 5D holographic dark energy in DGP-BRANE cosmology by employing a combination of Sne Ia, BAO and CMB observational data to fit the cosmological parameters in the model. We describe the dynamic of a FRW for the normal branch (epsilon = +1) of solutions of the induced gravity brane-world model. We take the matter in 5D bulk as holographic dark energy that its holographic nature is reproduced effectively in 4D. The cosmic evolution reveals that the effective 4D holographic dark energy behaves as quintessence while taking into account the 4D cold dark matter results in matter dominated universe followed by late time acceleration."
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
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Re: Systemic Isolation
« Reply #149 on: October 14, 2016, 11:46:59 PM »
I thought that this commentary on human artificial intelligence fit best in this thread.
« Last Edit: October 15, 2016, 12:40:49 AM by AbruptSLR »
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
― Leon C. Megginson