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Author Topic: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD  (Read 230899 times)

budmantis

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #900 on: December 26, 2016, 06:19:58 AM »
http://www.cnn.com/2016/12/11/us/vanishing-sutter-franklins-bumblebee/index.html

This CNN article titled "The old man and the bee" discusses the loss of diversity and it's impact.

Extract: There are roughly 20,000 species of bees in the world -- that's more than birds or amphibians or reptiles or mammals -- and the Western honey bee, the one you usually hear about, the one that lives in big, social hives and is domesticated to produce honey -- is just one of those species.
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Shared Humanity

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #901 on: December 26, 2016, 06:33:52 PM »
The animation at the linked article shows the change in lobster catch distribution off the northeast U.S. from 1967 to 2014. Lobster populations have moved steadily northward through the decades, upending fishing communities along the coast.

Warming ocean temperatures push lobster populations north
Ocean temperatures around the globe have risen about 0.12°C per decade since 1980. In the coastal Northeast, sea surface temperatures warmed by nearly double the global rate from 1982 to 2006.  These warming sea surface temperatures from climate change are pushing populations of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) farther north than ever before. ...
https://www.climate.gov/news-features/featured-images/warming-ocean-temperatures-push-lobster-populations-north

All living species (both plants and animals) have adapted and established ranges on the planet based on a rapidly disappearing climate. This is just one example of species migrating north in the Atlantic, Atlantic Cod is another. These migrations are being played out across the planet. Even plants which can't literally pull up roots and head north are colonizing regions that were previously hostile, an inexorable march north. This migration is accelerating. Other species, never bothering to invest large amounts of capital in their environs (cities and such) which serve to anchor human populations in place and lacking the technology (air conditioning) to alter their living conditions, adjust rather quickly to the changing climate. Make no mistake, at some point our technology will begin to fail us as it struggles to address the accelerating changes and we will migrate north as well, leaving untold wealth behind and the system of capitalism which created it.

It will have the appearance of the Bataan death march on a global scale.

Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #902 on: December 28, 2016, 08:01:00 PM »
Hundreds of thousands face starvation and death in Africa in the growing crisis no one is talking about
'As we enter 2017, over 37 million people across Africa are without food,' warns International Development Secretary Priti Patel
During the drought that devastated the Horn of Africa in 2010 and 2011, women bound their waists with rope to deaden the pangs of hunger as they gave what little food they had to their children.

In stark contrast to such selfless acts, the international community stood back and watched until it was too late for the 260,000 people who starved to death.

Now aid workers are increasingly concerned that 2017 could see a tragedy on a similar scale with droughts – and floods – meaning some parts of southern and east Africa have not had a significant harvest for three years.
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/africa-drought-starvation-crisis-international-aid-zimbabwe-malawi-madagascar-horn-of-africa-a7493221.html
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ritter

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #903 on: December 29, 2016, 05:47:19 AM »
The animation at the linked article shows the change in lobster catch distribution off the northeast U.S. from 1967 to 2014. Lobster populations have moved steadily northward through the decades, upending fishing communities along the coast.

Warming ocean temperatures push lobster populations north
Ocean temperatures around the globe have risen about 0.12°C per decade since 1980. In the coastal Northeast, sea surface temperatures warmed by nearly double the global rate from 1982 to 2006.  These warming sea surface temperatures from climate change are pushing populations of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) farther north than ever before. ...
https://www.climate.gov/news-features/featured-images/warming-ocean-temperatures-push-lobster-populations-north

All living species (both plants and animals) have adapted and established ranges on the planet based on a rapidly disappearing climate. This is just one example of species migrating north in the Atlantic, Atlantic Cod is another. These migrations are being played out across the planet. Even plants which can't literally pull up roots and head north are colonizing regions that were previously hostile, an inexorable march north. This migration is accelerating. Other species, never bothering to invest large amounts of capital in their environs (cities and such) which serve to anchor human populations in place and lacking the technology (air conditioning) to alter their living conditions, adjust rather quickly to the changing climate. Make no mistake, at some point our technology will begin to fail us as it struggles to address the accelerating changes and we will migrate north as well, leaving untold wealth behind and the system of capitalism which created it.

It will have the appearance of the Bataan death march on a global scale.

This shifting of habitable zones is interesting in the face of food security. So many folk say "we'll just move food production north!" as a way of forestalling the inevitable. Problem is, like so many native species, our food crops are not adapted to "north". Wrong weather regimes and light/dark periods, not to mention soil characteristics. And this says nothing about our lack of infrastructure to move such goods.

oren

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #904 on: December 30, 2016, 10:55:15 AM »
This shifting of habitable zones is interesting in the face of food security. So many folk say "we'll just move food production north!" as a way of forestalling the inevitable. Problem is, like so many native species, our food crops are not adapted to "north". Wrong weather regimes and light/dark periods, not to mention soil characteristics. And this says nothing about our lack of infrastructure to move such goods.
Another problem of course is that there is no "we". When Sudan loses half of its food production capabilities, it will not help the Sudanese much that someone in Siberia can grow more crops (even assuming this is true).

Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #905 on: January 01, 2017, 02:37:49 AM »
Dana Nuccitelli:  Never a good sign when a headline begins "Yes, this is real": Michigan just banned banning plastic bags...  #Facepalm
https://twitter.com/dana1981/status/815352521526939648

Yes, this is real: Michigan just banned banning plastic bags
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/12/30/yes-this-is-real-michigan-just-banned-banning-plastic-bags/
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #906 on: January 03, 2017, 07:52:15 PM »
Eric Blake: Gulf of Mexico and SE coastal waters still near record warm- easy to see why warm records falling in Florida!
https://twitter.com/ericblake12/status/816334825858727936
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #907 on: January 05, 2017, 04:35:34 PM »
One report put the population of bluefin tuna at 2.6 percent of its "unfished" size, down from an earlier assessment of 4.2 percent.

Bluefin Tuna Sells for $632,000 at Tsukiji's New Year Auction
http://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/bluefin-tuna-sells-632-000-tsukiji-s-new-year-auction-n703396
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #908 on: January 15, 2017, 03:51:06 AM »
More than 70 percent of Japan’s largest coral reef has died
Japan’s largest coral reef system has become the latest casualty in a long series of coral bleaching events around the world. More than 90 percent of coral in the Sekisei Lagoon, located in the Okinawa prefecture, has bleached, according to a new survey just released by Japan’s Ministry of the Environment. And a whopping 70 percent of the reef has died.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/01/13/more-than-70-percent-of-japans-largest-coral-reef-has-died/
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logicmanPatrick

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #909 on: January 18, 2017, 09:57:22 AM »
Today, the Earth got a little hotter, and a little more crowded.

And the chances of Donald Trump’s family and fortune surviving climate change are small, dwindling daily and irreversibly.

Climate change this week from Huffpo - but you might need a week to follow all the links and read the full stories.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/mary-ellen-harte/climate-change-this-week_b_14238034.html

New Changing Combinations of Species Mark Novelty Areas undergoing ecological change, as changing temperatures and precipitation create new weather regimes, and species shuffle, or die out. Areas high in such change are red, descending through yellow to blue.

si hoc legere scis nimium eruditionis habes

Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #910 on: January 20, 2017, 09:48:51 PM »
Australia is seeing a mouse plague arise.

A (mouse) plague o’ both your houses
...
Why so serious?

A plague of mice on a farm
Two mice becomes 500 mice pretty quickly in the right conditions.

Spreading disease aside, mice do much more than run about leaving droppings everywhere.

In 1993, Australia’s worst ever mouse plague caused an estimated $96 million worth of damage, destroyed thousands of hectares of crops, blighted piggeries and ravaged poultry farms. The whiskered marauders chewed their way through rubber and electrical insulation, damaged farm vehicles, ruined cars and buildings.

Another plague in 2010/11 was almost as bad, affecting 3 million ha of crops in NSW’s central west and the Riverina, as well as parts of Victoria and South Australia....

http://blog.csiro.au/mouse-plague-o-houses/
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jai mitchell

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #911 on: January 21, 2017, 03:50:21 PM »
Harvests in the U.S. to suffer from climate change, according to study

..For every single day above 30°C, maize and soybean plants can lose about 5 percent of their harvest. The simulations have shown that the models capture the effects of small heat increases beyond this threshold, which result in abrupt and substantial yield losses. Such temperatures will be more frequent under unabated climate change and can severely harm agricultural productivity. Harvest losses from elevated temperatures of 20 percent for wheat, 40 percent for soybean and almost 50 percent for maize, relative to non-elevated temperatures, can be expected at the end of our century without efficient emission reductions. These losses do not even consider extremely high temperatures above 36°C, which are expected to lower yields further...
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DrTskoul

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #912 on: January 21, 2017, 04:08:25 PM »
Thanks..Could not find it the other day.
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Chuck Yokota

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #913 on: February 02, 2017, 11:19:05 AM »
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/jan/31/bay-bengal-depleted-fish-stocks-pollution-climate-change-migration

Bay of Bengal: depleted fish stocks and huge dead zone signal tipping point

Long treated as a bottomless resource pit, over-exploitation of the ocean, pollution and rising sea levels are having a catastrophic impact on life in the bay

The Bay of Bengal’s basin contains some of the most populous regions of the earth. No less than a quarter of the world’s population is concentrated in the eight countries that border the bay. Approximately 200 million people live along the Bay of Bengal’s coasts and of these a major proportion are partially or wholly dependent on its fisheries.

For the majority of those who depend on it, the Bay of Bengal can provide no more than a meagre living: 61% of India’s fisherfolk already live below the poverty line. Yet the numbers dependent on fisheries are only likely to grow in years to come, partly because of climate change. In southern India drought and water scarcity have already induced tens of thousands of farmers to join the fishing fleet. Rising sea levels are also likely to drive many displaced people into the fishing industry.

But the fisheries of the Bay of Bengal have been under pressure for decades and are now severely depleted. Many once-abundant species have all but disappeared. Particularly badly affected are the species at the top of the food chain. The bay was once feared by sailors for its man-eating sharks; they are now rare in these waters. Other apex predators like grouper, croaker and rays have also been badly hit. Catches now consist mainly of species like sardines, which are at the bottom of the marine food web.
<snip>

Archimid

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #914 on: February 03, 2017, 09:25:50 PM »
Iceberg lettuces and broccoli rationed as vegetable crisis hits supermarkets

http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-38851097

Extract: Some supermarkets are rationing the number of iceberg lettuce and broccoli customers can buy - blaming poor growing conditions in southern Europe for a shortage in UK stores.
Tesco is limiting shoppers to three iceberg lettuces, as bad weather in Spain caused "availability issues".
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AbruptSLR

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #915 on: February 06, 2017, 03:15:26 AM »
The linked article is entitled: “Fall armyworm 'threatens African farmers' livelihoods'.

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-38859851

Extract: “Scientists are calling for urgent action to halt the spread of a pest that is destroying maize crops is spreading rapidly across Africa.
...
The armyworm, so called because it eats its way through most of the vegetation in its way as it marches through crops, is native to North and South America but was identified for the first time in Africa last year.

Cabi chief scientist Dr Matthew Cock said: "This invasive species is now a serious pest spreading quickly in tropical Africa and with the potential to spread to Asia.

"Urgent action will be needed to prevent devastating losses to crops and farmers' livelihoods."

Scientists think the caterpillar or its eggs may have reached the continent through imported produce.

Once established in an area, the adult moths can fly large distances and spread rapidly.“
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #916 on: February 09, 2017, 06:20:00 PM »
Olive Oil Prices Are Going Through the Roof
Oil hoarding of a new kind after terrible harvests in Italy, Spain and Greece.
Hot, muggy weather in Italy attracted olive fruit flies and helped bacteria to flourish, damaging groves. The nation's production is expected to plunge as much as 50% this season. In Greece, last spring's heat waves are poised to cut output by about one-fourth. Floods in Andalusia, Spain's main growing region, ruined its harvest.
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-02-09/olive-oil-prices-surging-after-bad-weather-in-italy-spain-and-greece
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #917 on: February 15, 2017, 11:54:24 PM »
A remarkable possibility: Another mass coral bleaching event in the Great Barrier Reef may be underway—this time without an El Niño.

Coral bleaching threatens Sydney and returns to Great Barrier Reef amid unusually warm waters
Unusually warm sea temperatures and the prospect of more to come have reef scientists worried that the Great Barrier Reef may experience another major coral bleaching event. Sydney's corals may also be at risk.

The reef suffered its worst recorded bleaching event on record last year with some regions losing more than 80 per cent of their coral. Early signs point to a return of bleaching near the Palm Islands, north-west of Townsville.

New footage shows the bleak aftermath of the extreme underwater heatwave last summer on the northern region of the Great Barrier Reef, from Researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies.

"Currently we're seeing abnormal, widespread but relatively modest levels of bleaching," said Terry Hughes, the Townsville-based director of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies. "We'll know in a week or two if another major event is unfolding."

The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority said it had been receiving reports from along a huge stretch of the reef that corals were starting to bleach. ...
http://www.smh.com.au/environment/climate-change/coral-bleaching-hits-sydney-and-returns-to-great-barrier-reef-amid-unusually-warm-waters-20170214-gud46c.html
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DrTskoul

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #918 on: February 16, 2017, 03:06:41 AM »
Oxygen is an essential necessity of life on land. The same applies for almost all organisms in the ocean. However, the oxygen supply in the oceans is threatened by global warming in two ways: Warmer surface waters take up less oxygen than colder waters. In addition, warmer water stabilizes the stratification of the ocean. This weakens the circulation connecting the surface with the deep ocean and less oxygen is transported into the deep sea. Therefore, many models predict a decrease in global oceanic oxygen inventory of the oceans due to global warming. The first global evaluation of millions of oxygen measurements seems to confirm this trend and points to first impacts of global change.


Decline in global oceanic oxygen content during the past five decades

https://m.phys.org/news/2017-02-global-ocean-de-oxygenation-quantified.html

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Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #919 on: February 16, 2017, 06:46:19 PM »
Way to bury the leed, DrTskoul.  ;)

Bill McKibben tweeted:  God almighty. As earth warms, OUR OCEANS HAVE LOST 2% OF THEIR DISSOLVED OXYGEN SINCE 1960, headed for 7% by 2100.

Scientists have just detected a major change to the Earth’s oceans linked to a warming climate
Because oxygen in the global ocean is not evenly distributed, the 2 percent overall decline means there is a much larger decline in some areas of the ocean than others.

Moreover, the ocean already contains so-called oxygen minimum zones, generally found in the middle depths. The great fear is that their expansion upward, into habitats where fish and other organism thrive, will reduce the available habitat for marine organisms.

In shallower waters, meanwhile, the development of ocean “hypoxic” areas, or so-called “dead zones,” may also be influenced in part by declining oxygen content overall.
...
“Far-reaching implications for marine ecosystems and fisheries can be expected,” they write.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/02/15/its-official-the-oceans-are-losing-oxygen-posing-growing-threats-to-marine-life/
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Archimid

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #920 on: February 20, 2017, 06:36:56 PM »
The supermarket food gamble may be up

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/feb/20/supermarket-food-gamble-brexit-climate-migrant

Extract:

Brexit, migration and climate pressures mean our ‘too big to fail’ global food chain could unravel
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DrTskoul

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #921 on: February 20, 2017, 09:50:50 PM »
The supermarket food gamble may be up

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/feb/20/supermarket-food-gamble-brexit-climate-migrant

Extract:

Brexit, migration and climate pressures mean our ‘too big to fail’ global food chain could unravel

The horsemen's horses are getting ready....
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #922 on: February 21, 2017, 02:10:43 AM »
Famine declared in South Sudan; 4.9 million people need urgent help
(CNN)Famine in South Sudan has left 100,000 people on the verge of starvation and almost 5 million people, more than 40% of the country's population, in need of urgent help, aid agencies say.

People are already dying of hunger, and another 1 million people are on the brink of famine, UN agencies said.

Years of civil war, a refugee crisis and a collapsing economy have taken their toll on South Sudan since it gained its independence in 2011....
http://www.cnn.com/2017/02/20/africa/south-sudan-famine/index.html
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AbruptSLR

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #923 on: February 21, 2017, 04:02:44 PM »
The link leads to the "Economics of Land Degradation", ELD, website; which addresses the importance of fighting land degradation w.r.t. food production (& the preservation of the remaining wild areas).

http://www.eld-initiative.org/
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #924 on: February 27, 2017, 12:14:07 AM »
Bill McKibben:  Ocean temperatures off the charts--note especially the Gulf of Mexico, setting new records for this time of year
https://twitter.com/billmckibben/status/835905956382978049
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #925 on: March 07, 2017, 12:33:42 AM »
Prof. Terry Hughes:  Starting next week, we'll have to re-do our 2016 aerial surveys - 4th major bleaching of the #GreatBarrierReef
https://twitter.com/profterryhughes/status/838849024178302976

"GBR BLEACHING is BACK. Shallow Orpheus Island sites are hit hard w/ some corals as white as ghosts @JCUOIRS @CoralCoE @AustCoralReefs"
https://twitter.com/cuttothechase6/status/838688924868304896
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DrTskoul

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #926 on: March 08, 2017, 08:40:45 PM »
Rising CO2 due to climate change may not improve agriculture, model shows

Purdue University researchers tested the effects of increased CO2 and warmer temperatures on plant water use. Although increased carbon dioxide and warmer temperatures generally improve photosynthesis, in these experiments the researchers found that pores on plant leaves, known as the stomata, were predicted to narrow in these conditions, reducing the amount of moisture plants release into the air.

Although this change may mean some plants are more efficient in their water use in some arid regions, overall this change in plant physiology will have its own climate effects, resulting in less rainfall in some regions, damaging plants and crop yields, says Qianlai Zhuang, professor of earth and atmospheric science.

"This study reveals that while increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide can directly strengthen plant uptake of CO2, it can also reduce plant transpiration, influence global precipitation patterns, and increase warming locally," he says.

The research was published in a recent issue of Geophysical Research Letters. Zhuang's graduate student Zhu is the lead author on the paper


Peng Zhu et al. Elevated atmospheric COnegatively impacts photosynthesis through radiative forcing and physiology-mediated climate feedback, Geophysical Research Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071733
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Andre

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #927 on: March 10, 2017, 09:43:43 PM »
Bill McKibben:  Ocean temperatures off the charts--note especially the Gulf of Mexico, setting new records for this time of year
https://twitter.com/billmckibben/status/835905956382978049


Crossposting from the Consequences thread, as it neatly ties in with your post:

Improved estimates of ocean heat content from 1960 to 2015

http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/3/e1601545.full

Abstract:
We found that changes in OHC are relatively small before about 1980; since then, OHC has increased fairly steadily and, since 1990, has increasingly involved deeper layers of the ocean. In addition, OHC changes in six major oceans are reliable on decadal time scales. All ocean basins examined have experienced significant warming since 1998, with the greatest warming in the southern oceans, the tropical/subtropical Pacific Ocean, and the tropical/subtropical Atlantic Ocean. This new look at OHC and EEI changes over time provides greater confidence than previously possible, and the data sets produced are a valuable resource for further study.


One of the co-authors of the study also wrote a piece for the Guardian:

Earth's oceans are warming 13% faster than thought, and accelerating

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2017/mar/10/earths-oceans-are-warming-13-faster-than-thought-and-accelerating

Abstract:
First, we corrected past data for known biases in measurements. Second, we related the temperature measurements to results calculated from advanced climate computer models. Third, we applied temperature knowledge to larger areas so that a single measurement was representative of a large space around the measurement site. Finally, we used their knowledge of recent and well-observed temperatures to show that the method produced excellent results.

We were able to extend our techniques back to the late1950s and show that the rate of global warming has changed significantly in the past 60 years. One main outcome of the study is that it shows we are warming about 13% faster than we previously thought. Not only that but the warming has accelerated. The warming rate from 1992 is almost twice as great as the warming rate from 1960. Moreover, it is only since about 1990 that the warming has penetrated to depths below about 700 meters.

magnamentis

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #928 on: March 10, 2017, 09:48:13 PM »
Bill McKibben:  Ocean temperatures off the charts--note especially the Gulf of Mexico, setting new records for this time of year
https://twitter.com/billmckibben/status/835905956382978049


Crossposting from the Consequences thread, as it neatly ties in with your post:

Improved estimates of ocean heat content from 1960 to 2015

http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/3/e1601545.full

Abstract:
We found that changes in OHC are relatively small before about 1980; since then, OHC has increased fairly steadily and, since 1990, has increasingly involved deeper layers of the ocean. In addition, OHC changes in six major oceans are reliable on decadal time scales. All ocean basins examined have experienced significant warming since 1998, with the greatest warming in the southern oceans, the tropical/subtropical Pacific Ocean, and the tropical/subtropical Atlantic Ocean. This new look at OHC and EEI changes over time provides greater confidence than previously possible, and the data sets produced are a valuable resource for further study.


One of the co-authors of the study also wrote a piece for the Guardian:

Earth's oceans are warming 13% faster than thought, and accelerating

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2017/mar/10/earths-oceans-are-warming-13-faster-than-thought-and-accelerating

Abstract:
First, we corrected past data for known biases in measurements. Second, we related the temperature measurements to results calculated from advanced climate computer models. Third, we applied temperature knowledge to larger areas so that a single measurement was representative of a large space around the measurement site. Finally, we used their knowledge of recent and well-observed temperatures to show that the method produced excellent results.

We were able to extend our techniques back to the late1950s and show that the rate of global warming has changed significantly in the past 60 years. One main outcome of the study is that it shows we are warming about 13% faster than we previously thought. Not only that but the warming has accelerated. The warming rate from 1992 is almost twice as great as the warming rate from 1960. Moreover, it is only since about 1990 that the warming has penetrated to depths below about 700 meters.


always good to see this mentioned, thanks. the fact that most of the surplus heat is and will be stored in the oceans up to a certain extent, will be one key factor that will cause an abrupt climate change at one point and this includes a relatively abrupt sea-level-rise. since nobody knows that tipping point we should keep all our sensors wide open and be prepared.
http://magnamentis.com
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Chuck Yokota

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #929 on: March 11, 2017, 02:49:07 PM »
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-39238808

UN: World facing greatest humanitarian crisis since 1945


The world is facing its largest humanitarian crisis since 1945, the United Nations says, issuing a plea for help to avoid "a catastrophe".

UN humanitarian chief Stephen O'Brien said that more than 20 million people faced the threat of starvation and famine in Yemen, Somalia, South Sudan and Nigeria.

Unicef has already warned 1.4m children could starve to death this year.

Mr O'Brien said $4.4bn (£3.6bn) was needed by July to avert disaster.

"We stand at a critical point in history," Mr O'Brien told the Security Council on Friday. "Already at the beginning of the year we are facing the largest humanitarian crisis since the creation of the United Nations."

"Now, more than 20 million people across four countries face starvation and famine. Without collective and coordinated global efforts, people will simply starve to death. Many more will suffer and die from disease.

"Children stunted and out of school. Livelihoods, futures and hope will be lost. Communities' resilience rapidly wilting away. Development gains reversed. Many will be displaced and will continue to move in search for survival, creating ever more instability across entire regions."

Mr O'Brien's comments follow on from a similar appeal made by UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres last month.

At that time, he revealed the UN had only received $90m (£74m) so far in 2017, despite generous pledges.


Despite the dire situation, this humanitarian crisis is receiving almost no attention from the media. Do we truly live in a post-compassion world?

DrTskoul

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #930 on: March 12, 2017, 09:12:42 PM »
"Many shades of gray—The context-dependent performance of organic agriculture,"

https://m.phys.org/news/2017-03-ingredient-recipe-sustainable-food-future.html


Take two factors that are top of mind for many consumers: synthetic pesticide use and nutritional benefits of organic. Seufert and Ramankutty argue that in countries like Canada where pesticide regulations are stringent and diets are rich in micronutrients, the health benefits of choosing organic may be marginal.

"But in a developing country where pesticide use is not carefully regulated and people are micronutrient deficient, we think that the benefits for consumer and farm worker health may be much higher," said Ramankutty, professor at IRES and the Liu Institute for Global Issues at UBC.

Another important measure of the sustainability of farming systems is the yield of a crop. To date, most studies have compared the costs and benefits of organic and conventional farms of the same size, which does not account for differences in yield.

Previous research has shown that on average, the yield of an organic crop is 19 to 25 per cent lower than under conventional management, and Seufert and Ramankutty find that many of the environmental benefits of organic agriculture diminish once lower yields are accounted for.


"While an organic farm may be better for things like biodiversity, farmers will need more land to grow the same amount of food," said Seufert. "And land conversion for agriculture is the leading contributor to habitat loss and climate change."

While their findings suggest that organic alone cannot create a sustainable food future, they conclude that it still has an important role to play. Organic is one way that consumers have control over and knowledge of how their food is produced since it is the only farming system regulated in law.

"We need to stop thinking of organic and conventional agriculture as two ends of the spectrum. Instead, consumers should demand better practices for both so that we can achieve the world's food needs in a sustainable way," said Seufert.

“You can know the name of a bird in all the languages of the world, but when you're finished, you'll know absolutely nothing whatever about the bird... So let's look at the bird and see what it's doing -- that's what counts.”
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #931 on: March 15, 2017, 09:24:12 PM »
Humpback whales are organizing in huge numbers, and no one knows why
It flies in the face of typical humpback behavior.
http://www.popsci.com/humpback-whales-are-organizing
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DrTskoul

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #932 on: March 15, 2017, 10:02:08 PM »
Good bye, good luck and thanks for the fish....
“You can know the name of a bird in all the languages of the world, but when you're finished, you'll know absolutely nothing whatever about the bird... So let's look at the bird and see what it's doing -- that's what counts.”
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #933 on: March 16, 2017, 06:25:47 PM »
“There’s something inherently different about the oceans now — and in this case about the tropical Pacific Ocean — than there was three years ago.”

Climate Change Has ‘Permanently’ Changed the Great Barrier Reef
Scientists speculate that the era of never-ending global coral bleaching may have already arrived, decades early.
...“The first widespread record of an El Niño causing coral bleaching was in 1982–83,” Hughes said. “An even bigger event, far bigger, occurred in 1998. That was the first time that the Great Barrier Reef bleached. So we went from a pre-bleaching period where El Niños were harmless, and because of the rising baseline temperature, they’ve become the triggers of bleaching events.” That rising baseline temperature is directly related to climate change.
...
That’s mostly because steadily warming oceans have shortened the recovery time between bleaching events. Quick-growing corals in the Great Barrier Reef require 10 to 15 years to fully recover from a mass-bleaching event, and long-lived species may require many decades. That kind of breathing room is “no longer realistic,” according to Hughes and his colleagues, as long as global temperatures keep rising. As a result, “the assemblage structure of corals is now likely to be permanently shifted at severely bleached locations in the northern Great Barrier Reef.” ...
https://psmag.com/climate-change-has-permanently-changed-the-great-barrier-reef-64227c9d4eec
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gerontocrat

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #934 on: March 16, 2017, 06:52:22 PM »
Good bye, good luck and thanks for the fish....

With acknowledgements to Douglas Adams. The answer is 42,  but the question was wrong.

DrTskoul

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #935 on: March 16, 2017, 11:32:07 PM »
More hardship ahead...

Climate change to worsen drought, diminish corn yields in Africa

MIT scientists have found that climate change will likely worsen drought conditions in parts of Africa, dramatically reshaping the production of maize throughout sub-Saharan Africa as global temperatures rise over the next century. Credit: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Nearly 25 percent of the world's malnourished population lives in sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 300 million people depend on corn, or maize, as their main food source. Maize is the most widely harvested agricultural product in Africa and is grown by small farmers who rely heavily on rainwater rather than irrigation. The crop is therefore extremely sensitive to drought, and since 2015 its production has fallen dramatically as a result of record-setting drought conditions across southern and eastern Africa.

Now MIT scientists have found that climate change will likely further worsen drought conditions in parts of the continent, dramatically reshaping the production of maize throughout sub-Saharan Africa as global temperatures rise over the next century.

web.mit.edu/newsoffice/

I might get some flack but I think that genetic modification or advanced hybridization might be the only avenue for maintaining crop yields and avoid widespread famine...

“You can know the name of a bird in all the languages of the world, but when you're finished, you'll know absolutely nothing whatever about the bird... So let's look at the bird and see what it's doing -- that's what counts.”
― Richard P. Feynman

oren

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #936 on: March 17, 2017, 01:23:40 PM »
I might get some flack but I think that genetic modification or advanced hybridization might be the only avenue for maintaining crop yields and avoid widespread famine...
The best avenue to avoid widespread famine is to have fewer babies.
(Not disputing your comment though)

Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #937 on: March 18, 2017, 05:58:36 PM »
I might get some flack but I think that genetic modification or advanced hybridization might be the only avenue for maintaining crop yields and avoid widespread famine...
The best avenue to avoid widespread famine is to have fewer babies.
(Not disputing your comment though)

The viscious cycle is that women need more children to work the fields to grow enough food to survive.  An affordable, regular supply of food and water would lessen the need for more children.
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #938 on: March 18, 2017, 07:31:11 PM »
Professor Terry Hughes:  Two-thirds of the corals on red reefs died between March and October. They won't recover in your lifetime.

2016 bleaching on #GreatBarrierReef published this week in Nature. Red; 60-100% of colonies bleached, Orange; 30-60%
https://twitter.com/profterryhughes/status/842902468316938240

The Great Barrier Reef has already been badly damaged by global warming during three extreme heatwaves, in 1998, 2002 and 2016. A new bleaching event is under way now.
https://theconversation.com/year-on-year-bleaching-threatens-great-barrier-reefs-world-heritage-status-74606
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MrVisible

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #939 on: March 18, 2017, 11:29:43 PM »
When the sea ice melts, juvenile polar cod may go hungry

Polar cod fulfil a key role in the Arctic food web, as they are a major source of food for seals, whales and seabirds alike. But the polar cod themselves might soon be the hungry ones. Under the ice of the central Arctic, the juvenile fish are indirectly but heavily dependent on ice algae. As a result, retreating sea ice could have far-reaching impacts on the food web.

Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #940 on: March 21, 2017, 03:28:31 PM »
The record warmth this winter, then a sudden hard freeze last week, has caused crop losses aporoaching a billion dollars in South Carolina and Georgia alone.  Severe weather is forecast for later this week.

Widespread damage from Southeast freeze
At least 90 percent of the peach crop in South Carolina (the nation’s top peach producer behind California, with a typical crop value of $90 million) was wiped out by freezing temperatures late last week, according to the state’s agriculture commissioner. The state’s wheat and corn fields also suffered heavy damage, reported WISTV. A less severe freeze in Georgia may have ruined anywhere from 25 to 75 percent of that state’s peach crop. Blueberries across the Southeast also experienced major damage, as summarized by Louisville, KY, broadcast meteorologist John Belski. It dropped to 25°F in Gainesville, FL, on Thursday morning, the coldest reading for so late in the year in more than a century of Gainesville records. Jacksonville’s 28°F was also a record for so late in the year. Update: Total crop losses in South Carolina and Georgia could approach $1 billion, according to an AP report filed Monday afternoon.
https://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/tornado-risk-amping-up-this-week-and-beyond
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gerontocrat

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #941 on: March 21, 2017, 04:31:09 PM »
In 1979-80 Malawi suffered a false early rains followed by a drought and then very poor rains. This was my introduction to rural development in Africa. The subsistence farmers (= nearly all farmers) had to plant a second time. It is the African equivalent of the false spring that has hit so much of eastern USA this year (and in 2012?). With a disastrous maize crop it meant by 1980-81 we had food riots until the next season's maize crop was distributed.

This happens from time to time. Farmers accept that there are good years and bad years but two or three bad years in a row can wipe them out. With a greatly increased population, especially through urbanisation, often significant soil erosion, and over-use of scarce water resources there is far less spare capacity in the food system in vulnerable parts of the world.

The question is whether unpredictability in the weather systems will continue to increase, thus threatening
food production in especially marginal parts of the world. You can see where I am going with this. It is hard not to believe that climate change will continue to significantly impact food production reliability in the world, with increased risk of societal collapse.
 
The world is becoming increasingly reliant for basic foodstuffs on the North American grain crops and rice production in countries like Thailand who currently can produce large surpluses. The recent disasters for soft fruit farmers in the USA and the problems for California agriculture during the recent drought would, you have thought, concentrated minds in Washington and led to increased budgets for agricultural extension staff and programmes.

It seems the opposite is happening. The world needs USA agriculture. It may have to look elsewhere.
But as Marie Antoinette did NOT say "Let them eat cake". (poor harvests and the indifference of the aristocracy to famine were a major contribution to the French Revolution).

And as Forrest Gump said "and that's all I'm going to say about that".