The following linked reference is a compilation on multiple articles related to the Southern Ocean, carbon, and climate (change), including several that I have previously cited (in other posts in the "Southern Ocean CO2 Ventilation" thread in the "Science" folder and elsewhere in the "Antarctic" folder) and two of which are cited after the link:
Andrew J. Watson, Michael P. Meredith, and John Marshall, (2014), "Introduction: The Southern Ocean, carbon and climate", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A., 372 2019 20130057; doi:10.1098/rsta.2013.0057 http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/372/2019.toc
Steven M. A. C. van Heuven, Mario Hoppema, Elizabeth M. Jones and Hein J. W. de Baar, (2014), "Rapid invasion of anthropogenic CO2 into the deep circulation of the Weddell Gyre", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A., 372 20130056; doi:10.1098/rsta.2013.0056
Abstract: "Data are presented for total carbon dioxide (TCO2), oxygen and nutrients from 14 cruises covering two repeat sections across the Weddell Gyre, from 1973 to 2010. Assessments of the rate of increase in anthropogenic CO2 (Cant
) are made at three locations. Along the Prime Meridian, TCO2 is observed to steadily increase in the bottom water. Accompanying changes in silicate, nitrate and oxygen confirm the non-steady state of the Weddell circulation. The rate of increase in TCO2 of +0.12±0.05 μmol kg−1 yr−1 therefore poses an upper limit to the rate of increase in Cant
. By contrast, the bottom water located in the central Weddell Sea exhibits no significant increase in TCO2, suggesting that this water is less well ventilated at the southern margins of the Weddell Sea. At the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula (i.e. the formation region of the bottom water found at the Prime Meridian), the high rate of increase in TCO2 over time observed at the lowest temperatures suggests that nearly full equilibration occurs with the anthropogenic CO2 of the atmosphere. This observation constitutes rare evidence for the possibility that ice cover is not a major impediment for uptake of Cant
in this prominent deep water formation region."
Joseph D. Majkut, Brendan R. Carter, Thomas L. Frölicher, Carolina O. Dufour, Keith B. Rodgers and Jorge L. Sarmiento, (2014), "An observing system simulation for Southern Ocean carbon dioxide uptake", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A., 372 20130046; doi:10.1098/rsta.2013.0046
Abstract: "The Southern Ocean is critically important to the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Up to half of the excess CO2 currently in the ocean entered through the Southern Ocean. That uptake helps to maintain the global carbon balance and buffers transient climate change from fossil fuel emissions. However, the future evolution of the uptake is uncertain, because our understanding of the dynamics that govern the Southern Ocean CO2 uptake is incomplete. Sparse observations and incomplete model formulations limit our ability to constrain the monthly and annual uptake, interannual variability and long-term trends. Float-based sampling of ocean biogeochemistry provides an opportunity for transforming our understanding of the Southern Ocean CO2 flux. In this work, we review current estimates of the CO2 uptake in the Southern Ocean and projections of its response to climate change. We then show, via an observational system simulation experiment, that float-based sampling provides a significant opportunity for measuring the mean fluxes and monitoring the mean uptake over decadal scales."