The following linked research indicates how important the blocking of the venting of CO₂ from the Southern Ocean by expanded sea ice extent was in contributing to the development of the Last Glacial Maximum, LGM. By extension this research supports the concept that if the Southern Ocean vents more CO₂ into the atmosphere (due to increase wind velocity and storminess), this will contribute to global warming:
Raffaele Ferrari, Malte F. Jansen, Jess F. Adkins, Andrea Burke, Andrew L. Stewart, and Andrew F. Thompson, (2014), "Antarctic sea ice control on ocean circulation in present and glacial climates", PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1323922111 http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/05/29/1323922111.abstract?sid=5d468d52-8f00-4d85-93a7-1505a6e5070dhttp://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/2014/05/30/1323922111.DCSupplemental/pnas.201323922SI.pdf
Significance: "The ocean’s role in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide on glacial–interglacial timescales remains an unresolved issue in paleoclimatology. Many apparently independent changes in ocean physics, chemistry, and biology need to be invoked to explain the full signal. Recent understanding of the deep ocean circulation and stratification is used to demonstrate that the major changes invoked in ocean physics are dynamically linked. In particular, the expansion of permanent sea ice in the Southern Hemisphere results in a volume increase of Antarctic-origin abyssal waters and a reduction in mixing between abyssal waters of Arctic and Antarctic origin."
Abstract: "In the modern climate, the ocean below 2 km is mainly filled by waters sinking into the abyss around Antarctica and in the North Atlantic. Paleoproxies indicate that waters of North Atlantic origin were instead absent below 2 km at the Last Glacial Maximum, resulting in an expansion of the volume occupied by Antarctic origin waters. In this study we show that this rearrangement of deep water masses is dynamically linked to the expansion of summer sea ice around Antarctica. A simple theory further suggests that these deep waters only came to the surface under sea ice, which insulated them from atmospheric forcing, and were weakly mixed with overlying waters, thus being able to store carbon for long times. This unappreciated link between the expansion of sea ice and the appearance of a voluminous and insulated water mass may help quantify the ocean’s role in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide on glacial–interglacial timescales. Previous studies pointed to many independent changes in ocean physics to account for the observed swings in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Here it is shown that many of these changes are dynamically linked and therefore must co-occur."
Also see the extracts from the following link:http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1113160793/ice-age-science-last-glacial-maximum-060314/
Extracts: "They discovered that the massive amount of ice covered the only region where the deep ocean was able to breathe, preventing the Southern Ocean’s CO2 from being exhaled into the atmosphere. Furthermore, the study authors found a link between sea ice change and a large-scale ocean water rearrangement contained in the LGM’s paleoclimate record.
“Under the expanded sea ice, a greater amount of upwelled deep water sank back downward. Southern Ocean abyssal water eventually filled a greater volume of the entire midlevel and lower ocean – lifting the interface between upper and lower waters to a shallower depth, such that the deep, carbon-rich waters lost contact with the upper ocean,” the Institute said. “Breathing less, the ocean could store a lot more carbon.”
The fact that the Southern Ocean was covered with ice, unable to release its carbon dioxide, helps explain the sizable drop in atmospheric CO2 during the LGM, they noted. The National Science Foundation-funded study also demonstrates a possible dynamic link between sea-ice expansion and the increase in ocean water insulated from the atmosphere – two events that scientists had long viewed as separate and distinct phenomena.
“This insight takes on extra relevance in light of the fact that paleoclimatologists need to explain not just the very low levels of atmospheric CO2 during the last ice age, but also the fact that this happened during each of the last four glacial periods, as the paleoclimate record reveals,” the Institute explained.
In contrast to the previous belief that independent changes caused CO2 levels to be reduced by the same amount in every ice age, Ferrari explained that the new study indicates “that all the events that co-occurred must be incredibly tightly linked, without much freedom to drift beyond a narrow margin. If there is a causality effect among the events at the start of an ice age, then they could happen in the same ratio.”"