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Author Topic: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”  (Read 44055 times)

Sigmetnow

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #200 on: September 23, 2018, 09:45:02 PM »
“This seems to do everything the other smart thermostats like "Nest" do plus a whole lot more.”

Smart air vents!  That makes a lot of sense.  Room-level temperature control, without wiring up additional thermostats.  I bet this or something like it will soon be industry standard.
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jacksmith4tx

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #201 on: September 23, 2018, 10:20:23 PM »
Amazing number of sensors in this system. We should stuff one into a cube-sat!
<Insert joke here> ;D

Let's not overlook this is <almost> the ultimate surveillance device too. Thermal/audio/air quality/humidity/air pressure/?? If the right kind of thermal sensors are used then it can 'see' in IR so it's even a camera too.
I might want to wait till you can be sure your data is protected and can't be shared.
Science is a thought process, technology will change reality.

TerryM

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #202 on: September 23, 2018, 10:36:25 PM »
“This seems to do everything the other smart thermostats like "Nest" do plus a whole lot more.”

Smart air vents!  That makes a lot of sense.  Room-level temperature control, without wiring up additional thermostats.  I bet this or something like it will soon be industry standard.


Remember that the return air side of the system is as important as the vents controlling where the conditioned air goes. What goes out, must be returned.
Installations are designed to balance the air flow between the outflowing ducts and the return grill/duct. If the air flow is restricted in either direction freeze ups in the summer and excessive energy use during winter will occur.


Unless the ducting is far larger than optimum, restricting the ducting/vents without modifying the return air system will not improve efficiency, and will put additional strain on the system, particularly during the cooling season.


Please get advice from a trusted HVAC contractor before doing any DIY modifications, especially if warantees are involved.
Terry

Sigmetnow

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #203 on: September 24, 2018, 02:05:07 PM »
“This seems to do everything the other smart thermostats like "Nest" do plus a whole lot more.”

Smart air vents!  That makes a lot of sense.  Room-level temperature control, without wiring up additional thermostats.  I bet this or something like it will soon be industry standard.


Remember that the return air side of the system is as important as the vents controlling where the conditioned air goes. What goes out, must be returned.
Installations are designed to balance the air flow between the outflowing ducts and the return grill/duct. If the air flow is restricted in either direction freeze ups in the summer and excessive energy use during winter will occur.


Unless the ducting is far larger than optimum, restricting the ducting/vents without modifying the return air system will not improve efficiency, and will put additional strain on the system, particularly during the cooling season.


Please get advice from a trusted HVAC contractor before doing any DIY modifications, especially if warantees are involved.
Terry

Good points.  Although given the $100+ cost, it’s not likely you’ll be slapping them into every vent in every room any time soon. ;)


Quote
Let's not overlook this is <almost> the ultimate surveillance device too.
The location service in a cell phone or tablet is already accurate enough to use to determine when someone moves to a different part of their house, so we gave up that kind of privacy a long time ago.  But yes, improving the security of the Internet of Things is long overdue.
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SteveMDFP

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #204 on: September 28, 2018, 05:57:10 PM »
This item is effectively a potential form of energy efficiency, by keeping buildings cooler in warm weather with zero energy cost:

Cool polymer paint saves on air conditioning
https://physicsworld.com/a/cool-polymer-paint-saves-on-air-conditioning/

"Air conditioning accounts for 10% of global energy consumption. Now researchers at Columbia University and Argonne National Laboratory in the US have produced a polymer “paint” capable of cooling surfaces to around 6 °C below ambient temperatures without using any energy at all. Used in combination with conventional air conditioning, it could allow significant reductions in the time these units are switched on, as well as providing some cooling relief in areas where air conditioning is not so widely available."
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

In usage, it's a simple transparent polymer paint, with nanoparticles of ordinary water.  After application, the water slowly evaporates, creating microscopic air voids.  By "tuning" the air voids, the dried paint becomes reflective of visible light and near-infrared, while being a black body for longer-wave heat radiation.

They say that adding some pigments has minimal effect on performance.  One could paint southern-facing walls and roofs, keeping the building significantly cooler.

If cheap enough, I could envision painting roads and sidewalks, to reduce urban heat island effects.

etienne

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #205 on: September 28, 2018, 06:20:16 PM »
This cooling paint is interesting, but what about the winter ? This is always the problem in many areas. I have on my windows a filter to keep infrared radiation inside, in offices, it is used to keep the infrared outside. All these systems without energy are difficult to manage.

sidd

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Sigmetnow

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #207 on: December 11, 2018, 06:10:11 PM »
From the grid’s point of view, choosing to NOT use energy from the grid at a particular point in time... is the same as feeding energy into the grid and simultaneously consuming it.

How the Humble Home Water Heater Could Play a Big Role in Energy Storage
Quote
One concept that often trips people up when thinking about using water heaters as batteries is that water heaters are not, in fact, batteries. An electric vehicle has a battery, so it’s easy to see how an EV could be used to take, and give back, energy to the grid. Scale that up to millions of vehicles, and now you have a very large battery to charge up, or discharge, at opportune times.

But how does this work with a humble appliance, like a water heater? Moreover, in the PGE-BPA study, the majority of the 600 test events consisted of a signal sent to customer water heaters to simply not start heating. “Don’t heat now!”—says the signal (by the way, we’’ll heat you up a bit later). To most, this may sound minor. After all, the water heater is not, in fact, putting energy back into the grid. But, it might as well be.

“You see, this has the exact same effect as an actual battery,” Eustis said. “I mean, what do you do with a battery? You choose when you put energy in, and you choose when you take it out. So simply choosing not to use as much energy is equivalent to taking energy out of a battery. The heater goes cold. Later, when we have that cold water at hand, we can choose to put excess energy back in from the grid, from solar for instance, to heat it up. From the viewpoint of the grid, it’s identical to a battery.” In other words, a fleet of water heaters can be used as a virtual battery. ...
https://www.routefifty.com/smart-cities/2018/12/water-heaters-power-grid-storage/153391/
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etienne

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #208 on: December 12, 2018, 09:18:44 PM »
From the grid’s point of view, choosing to NOT use energy from the grid at a particular point in time... is the same as feeding energy into the grid and simultaneously consuming it.

How the Humble Home Water Heater Could Play a Big Role in Energy Storage
Quote
One concept that often trips people up when thinking about using water heaters as batteries is that water heaters are not, in fact, batteries. An electric vehicle has a battery, so it’s easy to see how an EV could be used to take, and give back, energy to the grid. Scale that up to millions of vehicles, and now you have a very large battery to charge up, or discharge, at opportune times.

But how does this work with a humble appliance, like a water heater? Moreover, in the PGE-BPA study, the majority of the 600 test events consisted of a signal sent to customer water heaters to simply not start heating. “Don’t heat now!”—says the signal (by the way, we’’ll heat you up a bit later). To most, this may sound minor. After all, the water heater is not, in fact, putting energy back into the grid. But, it might as well be.

“You see, this has the exact same effect as an actual battery,” Eustis said. “I mean, what do you do with a battery? You choose when you put energy in, and you choose when you take it out. So simply choosing not to use as much energy is equivalent to taking energy out of a battery. The heater goes cold. Later, when we have that cold water at hand, we can choose to put excess energy back in from the grid, from solar for instance, to heat it up. From the viewpoint of the grid, it’s identical to a battery.” In other words, a fleet of water heaters can be used as a virtual battery. ...
https://www.routefifty.com/smart-cities/2018/12/water-heaters-power-grid-storage/153391/
Ok if you use it that way. But you should not overheat the water heater because insulation has been calculated for a specific temperature, and when you are above that temperature, losses get too high.

Sigmetnow

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #209 on: December 18, 2018, 06:05:30 PM »
The European Union has a target of making all new buildings zero-energy by 2020, but in Norway, carbon neutrality isn’t enough.  A consortium in Oslo made up of architects, engineers, environmentalists, and designers is creating energy-positive buildings in a country with some of the coldest and darkest winters on Earth. “If you can make it in Norway, you can make it anywhere.”

Norway Is Fighting Climate Change With Architecture
Quote
In 2019, the collective’s biggest project to date will be opened to the public: Powerhouse Brattørkaia, in the central Norwegian city of Trondheim.

Brattørkaia is an eight-story office building that will produce 485,000 kWh annually. For reference, the average Norwegian home uses about 20,000 kWh of power a year. (In the U.S., the yearly household average is 10,399 kWh). Brattørkaia will, in effect, become a mini-power plant that can supply electricity to Norway’s publicly owned grid.

Its surplus energy will also compensate for the power used to produce its building materials. That, says Snøhetta architect Jette Hopp, is unique; prevailing definitions for energy-positive buildings don’t include materials’ embodied energy.

Hopp says accounting for that energy makes for a more complex development process. Recycled materials are favored above all. New materials are diligently traced. The design process is front-loaded with engineering expertise. Alliance members work together to make sure every design choice has a dual purpose. “Nothing is by coincidence,” says Hopp.

“We try to give things multiple functions, and that directly leads to less embodied energy since we don’t have to double or triple up systems. That’s in the smart thinking—but you need to have the knowledge of all the different layers of infrastructure works in order to find synergies.”  ...
https://www.citylab.com/environment/2018/12/norway-energy-positive-building-powerhouse-snohetta/577918/
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vox_mundi

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #210 on: December 19, 2018, 08:47:28 PM »
One of those unanticipated consequences of energy efficiency ...

Missouri Woman's Tiny House Reported Stolen, Then Found Days Later 30 Miles Away
https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/missouri-woman-s-tiny-house-was-reported-stolen-then-found-n949866


https://twitter.com/SheriffMarshak/status/1075420947677671424

... maybe could use some PV panels on the roof.

-----------------------------

Driving to the South Pole in a Solar Powered Electric Vehicle Made of 3D Printed Garbage
https://www.wired.com/story/3d-printed-solar-powered-snow-rover/

Quote
... The electric vehicle is powered by 10 solar panels, which eke out enough energy to propel it forward at up to 5 mph. The plan is for the Ter Veldes to take turns driving their plastic contraption 24 hours a day, sleeping in shifts. With no heating elements inside the rover—all the solar energy goes to forward locomotion—temperatures may plummet well below zero. That’s part of the experience. “There is joy in the discomfort,” Edwin says. If all goes well, the plastic pirates will complete their journey in early January.
Quote
Update: Solar Voyager forced to abandon mission ... despite it being Antarctica’s summer, unexpected heavy snow has meant progress has been slow, and now the team have had to turn around.
https://www.bbc.com/news/video_and_audio/headlines/46614102/weather-stops-plastic-waste-car-reaching-south-pole



Solar Voyager forced to abandon mission? - That wouldn't cut it on Mars ...


The Martian - 2015
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #211 on: December 29, 2018, 07:48:56 PM »
Quote
it took 1000s of years to get the amount of work to create light down to trivial amounts so everyone could use it

it took just 10 years to fuck it up and need a few megawatts of servers to turn one bulb on from the couch
https://twitter.com/internetofshit/status/1078428201104408576
Comments at the link: ::)
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vox_mundi

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #212 on: April 12, 2019, 06:37:48 PM »
Lot of 'wasted' energy in that picture ...

U.S. Energy Use Rises to Highest Level Ever
https://www.llnl.gov/news/us-energy-use-rises-highest-level-ever



Americans used more energy in 2018 than in any other year, according to the most recent energy flow charts released by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Overall total energy consumption rose to 101.2 quadrillion BTU (or "quads"). The prior record, set in 2007, was 101.0 quads. Energy use went up by 3.6 percent from 2017, which also is the largest annual increase since 2010.

The largest increases in energy supply came from natural gas, wind and solar energy. In 2018, wind use was up 0.18 quads (7.6 percent) and solar was up 0.18 quads (22 percent). Over the last decade (between 2008 and 2018), total renewable energy production has doubled, including a five-fold increase in wind power and a 48-fold increase in solar. Wind and solar combined now produce more electricity than hydroelectric power, which dominated renewable energy for decades.
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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Ken Feldman

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #213 on: April 16, 2019, 10:00:36 PM »
A new process has been devised that may help improve industrial energy efficiency:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/04/190409153626.htm

Quote
The biggest source of global energy consumption is the industrial manufacturing of products such as plastics, iron, and steel. Not only does manufacturing these materials require huge amounts of energy, but many of the reactions also directly emit carbon dioxide as a byproduct.

In an effort to help reduce this energy use and the related emissions, MIT chemical engineers have devised an alternative approach to synthesizing epoxides, a type of chemical that is used to manufacture diverse products, including plastics, pharmaceuticals, and textiles. Their new approach, which uses electricity to run the reaction, can be done at room temperature and atmospheric pressure while eliminating carbon dioxide as a byproduct.

Ken Feldman

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #214 on: April 18, 2019, 07:21:40 PM »
Technological improvements in heat pumps have made them an affordable option for heating and cooling buildings, even in colder environments.  If renewable energy is used to power them, they're carbon free.

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/heat-pumps-gain-traction-as-renewable-energy-grows/

Quote
A cluster of new studies from states, electric utilities and environmental groups suggest that as more electricity from solar and wind power is introduced on the nation’s electric grids, a wider use of electric heat pumps will help the United States reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to near zero by 2050.

The latest study, by a California research firm for three of the state’s major utilities, describes heat pumps for home heating and cooling as “the low hanging fruit when it comes to saving customers money and reducing greenhouse gas emissions."

It asserts that in California, where renewable power provides almost 50% of the state’s electricity, regulations and incentives for the “beneficial electrification” of new and existing homes using heat pumps could be the cheapest and fastest way to reach its climate goals.

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #215 on: April 19, 2019, 04:40:52 AM »
Lot of 'wasted' energy in that picture ...

U.S. Energy Use Rises to Highest Level Ever
https://www.llnl.gov/news/us-energy-use-rises-highest-level-ever



Americans used more energy in 2018 than in any other year, according to the most recent energy flow charts released by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Overall total energy consumption rose to 101.2 quadrillion BTU (or "quads"). The prior record, set in 2007, was 101.0 quads. Energy use went up by 3.6 percent from 2017, which also is the largest annual increase since 2010.

The largest increases in energy supply came from natural gas, wind and solar energy. In 2018, wind use was up 0.18 quads (7.6 percent) and solar was up 0.18 quads (22 percent). Over the last decade (between 2008 and 2018), total renewable energy production has doubled, including a five-fold increase in wind power and a 48-fold increase in solar. Wind and solar combined now produce more electricity than hydroelectric power, which dominated renewable energy for decades.

Quote
All energy use results in some losses, shown on the charts as rejected energy. This energy most often takes the form of waste heat, such as the warm exhaust from automobiles and furnaces. The efficiency of the nation’s cars, lightbulbs and factories determines how much waste heat is produced and how much fuel and electricity can be put to productive use.
emphasis added

https://www.llnl.gov/news/us-energy-use-rises-highest-level-ever
Not all the news is bad.

From 2000 to 2018 the US population increased 16.3% from 282.16 to 328.03 million.
https://www.multpl.com/united-states-population/table/by-year
During the same period energy use increased 2.5% from 98.78 to 101.27 quadrillion BTUs.
https://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/browser/index.php?tbl=T01.01#/?f=A&start=1949&end=2018&charted=4-6-7-14
While per person energy use in the US is too high it is going in the right direction from 350.1 to 308.7 million BTUs per person an 11.8% decline.

sidd

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #216 on: April 19, 2019, 05:13:00 AM »
More precisely, _all_ the energy used ends up as heat. The "waste heat" in that figure is the energy that is initially wasted at point of use. The rest does useful work on the way to becoming heat.

sidd

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #217 on: April 19, 2019, 09:20:13 AM »
I don't think I explained myself very well.  :-[ True energy becomes heat in the end but i was trying to say that most of the "rejected" energy is created by the inefficient process of converting that heat into useful energy. Converting heat into useful work, other than heat of course, wastes a lot of energy. I once read the theoretical maximum efficiency of a car is about 30%, I don't remember exactly. That efficiency is based on energy of the bonds broken in combustion minus bonds created higher efficiencies are based on some subset of that. Since a large fraction of the energy rejected is theoretically highly improbable for use I was trying to point this out. The most efficient fossil fuel plant, a co-generation natural gas plant, is around 70%, most co-generation plants are older and don't have quite that efficiency, with a theoretical maximum around 75%, again I don't have a handy source. A new car ice vehicle  is around 20% efficient. So practically speaking its efficiency can only get to a bit less than 30%. So when we see that "rejected" energy from electrical production is roughly two thirds. Approximately one third is practically not recoverable. IMO it is important to understand this sort of thing when looking at those numbers and that is what I was trying to say. Still not sure I got it right.

sidd

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #218 on: April 19, 2019, 09:42:12 AM »
old rule of thumb for smallish engines: 1/3 up the stack, 1/3 out the radiator, 1/3 at the axle

if you can recover the exhaust or radiator heat for process or secondstage, it's a win win. But its hard to get above 2/3 on the efficiency of secondstage, process heat is a good last stage, since you can recover 100%. So better have a use for all that rejected heat. I been putting it in thermal storage, 2000  gallon and up water and oil tanks.

But it's hard to do that with mobile engines like tractors or cars.

sidd

Sigmetnow

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #219 on: April 19, 2019, 05:06:28 PM »
NYC To Force Buildings To Cut Emissions In Own 'Green New Deal'
Quote
NEW YORK — Owners of New York City skyscrapers will have three decades to sharply cut back the amount of climate change-fueling chemicals they spew into the air under a bill lawmakers passed Thursday.

The city's largest buildings — such as the Empire State Building — will have to meet strict benchmarks with the goal of eventually reducing their emissions 80 percent by 2050 under the City Council-backed measure. The worst offenders will have to start cutting emissions by 2024, and all those that fail to meet the goals would face fines.

The bill — which Mayor Bill de Blasio has said he would sign — is one of five pieces of legislation in the Council's Climate Mobilization Act, which Speaker Corey Johnson called the city's version of "Green New Deal," a proposal to shift the nation to renewable energy sources.

"Who knows what we'll prevent — the storms that we'll prevent, the climate change we'll prevent, the flooding we'll prevent, the environmental justice that we'll achieve — by doing this now," Johnson, a Democrat, said Thursday.

The emissions bill aims to shrink the carbon footprint of the massive buildings that produce a disproportionate share of the city's greenhouse gases, said Councilman Costa Constantinides (D-Queens), the bill's lead sponsor. Just 50,000 of the city's 1 million buildings are responsible for 30 percent of the emissions here, he said.
...
The measure would also establish a new Office of Building Energy and Emissions Performance within the Department of Buildings to help implement the targets.

It's likely to be an expensive undertaking for property owners — the necessary upgrades would cost more than $4 billion, though owners would get that money back because they would have smaller expenses, The New York Times reported.

Another bill passed Thursday would set up a program to help more building owners make such alterations. The so-called Property Assessed Clean Energy program would allow efficiency and renewable-energy projects to get financing with a small down payment or none at all, the Council says. ...
https://patch.com/new-york/new-york-city/nyc-force-buildings-cut-emissions-own-green-new-deal
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #220 on: April 22, 2019, 04:09:17 PM »
Insulation.  And solar.  And the little things....

This homeowner avoided 'energy-guzzlers' for more efficient options
Quote
For example, one family had an older desktop computer that they kept in sleep mode. With the help of the Sense technology, they came to realize that their dogs would vibrate the mouse and wake the computer up when they ran through the house. By switching the computer from sleep to hibernate mode, they were able to shave $250 off their utility bill for the year.
https://www.cnbc.com/2019/04/22/this-homeowner-avoided-energy-guzzlers-for-more-efficient-options.html
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Archimid

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #221 on: April 24, 2019, 01:17:06 PM »
Tesla just increase the efficiency of the Model S and X mostly by switching the front motor of the car.  Same battery pack. 10% more range. But more efficiency means more than just range. The Model S becomes cheaper to operate. Better yet, in the increasingly smaller cases where the cars get their electricity from emission heavy energy sources, emissions have been further reduced.

Efficiency truly is the first fuel.

https://www.tesla.com/blog/longest-range-electric-vehicle-now-goes-even-farther
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kassy

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #222 on: June 03, 2019, 02:09:52 PM »
New York takes aim at skyscrapers' sky-high energy usage

....

a growing number of newer skyscrapers around the world are designed, from the start, to be energy-efficient—the Shard in London and Shanghai Tower in China are two examples—the costs and effort involved in transforming an older building, built decades before the world became conscious of global warming, can be daunting.

And yet those are precisely the buildings targeted by the Climate Mobilization Act, passed in late April by the City Council of the largest US metropolis as part of its commitment to reduce emissions by 80 percent from now through 2050.

The law requires buildings of more than 25,000 square feet (2,300 square meters) to reduce emissions by 40 percent by 2030 from their 2005 levels. It will affect the approximately 50,000 buildings that emit one-third of the city's greenhouse gases.

for details see:
https://phys.org/news/2019-06-york-aim-skyscrapers-sky-high-energy.html

vox_mundi

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #223 on: June 03, 2019, 06:45:54 PM »
10 Percent Efficiency Boost: Solar cell Defect Mystery Solved After Decades of Global Effort 
https://phys.org/news/2019-06-solar-cell-defect-mystery-decades.html

An international team of researchers have resolved a key fundamental issue of material defect which limits and degrades solar cell efficiency. The problem has been known about and studied for over 40 years, with over 270 research papers attributed to the issue with no solution.

The new research shows the first observation of a previously unknown material defect which limits silicon solar cell efficiency. 


Quote
...  "During the first hours of operation, after installation, a solar panel's efficiency drops from 20 percent to about 18 percent. An absolute drop of 2 percent in efficiency may not seem like a big deal, but when you consider that these solar panels are now responsible for delivering a large and exponentially growing fraction of the world's total energy needs, it's a significant loss of electricity generating capacity."

The energy cost of this shortfall across the world's installed solar capacity measures in the 10's of gigawatts, this is equivalent to more energy than is produced by the UK's combined total of 15 nuclear power plants. The solar shortfall has to be therefore met by other less sustainable energy sources such as burning fossil fuels.

The multi-disciplinary experimental and theoretical approach employed by the researchers identified the mechanism responsible for Light Induced Degradation (LID). Combining a specialized electrical and optical technique, known as "deep-level transient spectroscopy" (DLTS), the team have uncovered the existence of a material defect which initially lies dormant within the silicon use to manufacture the cells.

The electronic charge within the bulk of the silicon solar cell is transformed under sunlight, part of its energy generating process. The team found that this transformation involves a highly effective "trap" that prevents the flow of photo-generated charge carriers (electrons).

Quote
... "This flow of electrons is what determines the size of the electrical current that a solar cell can deliver to a circuit, anything that impedes it effectively reduces the solar cell efficiency and amount of electrical power that can be generated for a given level of sunlight. We've proved the defect exists, it's now an engineering fix that is needed." 

The researchers in Manchester lead by Prof Matthew Halsall found that their observations were strongly correlated with this charge carrier lifetime, which was reduced significantly after transformation of the defect under illumination. They also noted that the effect was reversible, the lifetime increased again when the material was heated in the dark, a process commonly used to remove the "traps."

Open Access: Michelle Vaqueiro-Contreras et al. Identification of the mechanism responsible for the boron oxygen light induced degradation in silicon photovoltaic cells, Journal of Applied Physics (2019)
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

b_lumenkraft

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #224 on: June 03, 2019, 07:18:17 PM »
Now, this is good news!

Archimid

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #225 on: June 04, 2019, 02:49:24 AM »
 It sounds like a free 2% increase in new installations with the potential to increase old installations by 2%. That is good news indeed.
I am an energy reservoir seemingly intent on lowering entropy for self preservation.

swoozle

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Re: Energy Efficiency: The “First Fuel”
« Reply #226 on: June 04, 2019, 07:06:58 AM »
It sounds like a free 2% increase in new installations with the potential to increase old installations by 2%. That is good news indeed.

If I read that right, (unfortunately) the reversal requires 200C heating.