Support the Arctic Sea Ice Forum and Blog

Author Topic: Forests: An Endangered Resource  (Read 44781 times)

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #200 on: May 29, 2020, 06:45:17 PM »
Earth’s forests are getting shorter and younger as the climate shifts

A new study has determined that Earth’s forests are transforming in response to a combination of human actions and natural processes such as wildfires, causing them to lose their oldest trees and grow shorter. Sadly, this trend is likely to continue as the climate grows ever hotter thanks to human-led climate change.

...

Increasingly, human-induced climate change, wood harvesting, and a range of naturally occurring processes are placing forests around the world under stress. A new global study has used satellite observations and examined over 160 published papers in order to assess the impact that these disruptive influences are having on global forest dynamics.

Upon completing their review, the researchers discovered that Earth’s forests are dramatically shorter and younger on average than they were a century ago, and that we are at least partially to blame for this potentially damaging change.

...

For example, rising temperatures are making it much harder for trees and plants to photosynthesize. This is damaging to a forest on many levels, as not only does it kill trees, but it also makes it more difficult for them to regenerate and grow. It is also a major reason as to why the forests we see today are not as tall as they once were.

Prolonged high temperatures also give rise to droughts, which place trees under enormous stress and either kills them off directly or leaves them more susceptible to attack from insects or disease.

The high amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which has increased significantly since the onset of the industrial revolution, could actually help some trees ability to grow and propagate, but according to the new study there are limitations. The benefits of this carbon dioxide fertilization are apparently only observed in relatively young forests, where there is an abundance of nutrients and moisture.

https://newatlas.com/environment/earth-forests-shorter-younger-climate/

pw:
Pervasive shifts in forest dynamics in a changing world
https://science.sciencemag.org/content/368/6494/eaaz9463
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #201 on: June 02, 2020, 03:18:17 PM »
Climate change: older trees loss continue around the world

Older, carbon-rich tropical forests continue to be lost at a frightening rate, according to satellite data.

In 2019, an area of primary forest the size of a football pitch was lost every six seconds, the University of Maryland study of trees more than 5 metres says.

Brazil accounted for a third of it, its worst loss in 13 years apart from huge spikes in 2016 and 2017 from fires.

However, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo both managed to reduce tree loss.

Meanwhile, Australia saw a sixfold rise in total tree loss, following dramatic wildfires late in 2019, .

...

The tropics lost 11.9 million hectares (46,000 square miles) of tree cover, the study found, 3.8 million in older, primary forest areas - the third highest loss of primary trees since 2000 and a slight increase on 2018.

"The level of forest loss that we saw in 2019 is unacceptable," Frances Seymour, from the World Resources Institute, said.

"And one of the reasons that it's unacceptable is that we actually already know how to turn it around.

"If governments put into place good policies and enforce the law, forest loss goes down.

"But if governments relax restrictions on burning, or [are] signalling that they intend to open up indigenous territories for commercial exploration, forest loss goes up."

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-52881721
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

gerontocrat

  • First-year ice
  • Posts: 9669
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 3814
  • Likes Given: 30
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #202 on: June 04, 2020, 01:31:13 PM »
It's BAU for the UK banks & financial institutions as they fund companies at the front line of deforestation while at the same time talking loads of greenwashing blah blah.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jun/04/revealed-uk-banks-and-investors-2bn-backing-of-meat-firms-linked-to-amazon-deforestation

Revealed: UK banks and investors' $2bn backing of meat firms linked to Amazon deforestation
Investigation uncovers ties between financial institutions and three Brazilian firms connected to environmental destruction

Quote
British-based banks and finance houses have provided more than $2bn (£1.5bn) in financial backing in recent years to Brazilian beef companies which have been linked to Amazon deforestation, according to new research.

 Thousands of hectares of Amazon are being felled every year to graze cattle and provide meat for world markets.

As well as providing financial backing for Minerva, Brazil’s second largest beef exporter, and Marfrig, its second largest meat processing company, UK-based financial institutions held tens of millions of dollars worth of shares in JBS, the world’s largest meat company.

All three meat companies have been linked to deforestation in their supply chains, though they say they are working to monitor their suppliers and mitigate risks.

Marfrig, a Brazilian meat company that has supplied fast-food chains around the world, was found to have bought cattle from a farm that had been using deforested land last year.

JBS remains unable to monitor a significant proportion of its suppliers despite operating deep in the Amazon, while last year Marfrig admitted that more than half of the cattle it slaughtered originated from indirect suppliers that it could not monitor.

According to a joint investigation by the Guardian, Unearthed and the Bureau of Investigative Journalism, financial data between January 2013 and May 2019 shows that HSBC underwrote $1.1bn of bonds for Marfrig and $917m for Minerva. They also held nearly $3m in JBS shares.

Schroders held $14m in Marfrig bonds and $12m in Minerva bonds, while Standard Life Aberdeen held $10m in Marfrig bonds and $3m in JBS shares. Prudential UK had $23m in JBS shares and $5m in Minerva bonds.
"Para a Causa do Povo a Luta Continua!"
"And that's all I'm going to say about that". Forrest Gump
"Damn, I wanted to see what happened next" (Epitaph)

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #203 on: June 11, 2020, 02:10:30 PM »
Brazil revises deforestation data: Amazon rainforest loss topped 10,000 sq km in 2019

Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon surpassed 10,000 square kilometers in 2019, the first time forest clearing in Earth’s largest rainforest has topped that mark since 2008, according to revised data from Brazil’s national space research institute INPE.

INPE says that 10,129 square kilometers of forest were cleared across the “Legal Amazon” between August 1, 2018 and July 31, 2019. That’s 3.8% higher than the preliminary estimate the government provided in November.

Forest loss in 2020 is pacing well ahead of last year’s rate according to INPE’s short-term deforestation alert system.

...

Forest loss in 2020 is pacing well ahead of last year’s rate according to INPE’s short-term deforestation alert system called DETER. Through mid-May 2020 over 6,000 sq km of forest had been cleared since August 1, 85% more than the same time last year and the fastest rate of loss since at least 2007.

...

Deforestation in 2019 increased most rapidly in the northern state of Roraima, which is experiencing a mining boom. Most deforestation however occurred in Pará, Mato Grosso, Amazonas and Rondônia.

Brazil is about to enter into the dry season, which is typically when the bulk of deforestation and fire occurs in the Amazon. Last year fires in the Amazon made global headlines when the resulting smoke blackened the skies above São Paulo, one of the world’s most populous cities.

Scientists fear that continued deforestation, combined with the effects of climate change, could trigger the Amazon rainforest to “tip” toward a drier, savanna-like ecosystem. Such a shift would have profound implications for the region’s biodiversity, rainfall patterns, and forest-dependent peoples.

https://news.mongabay.com/2020/06/brazil-revises-deforestation-data-amazon-rainforest-loss-topped-10000-sq-km-in-2019/
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

wdmn

  • Grease ice
  • Posts: 550
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 228
  • Likes Given: 166
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #204 on: June 14, 2020, 05:11:15 AM »
Brazilian Amazon deforestation hits new record in May

https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/world/brazilian-amazon-deforestation-hits-new-record-in-may-12831346

"Deforestation continued to surge in the Brazilian Amazon last month, according to official figures released on Friday (Jun 12), showing it was the worst May and worst first five months of the year on record.

Environmentalists warn 2020 is on track to be the most destructive year ever for the world's biggest rainforest, with even more losses than in devastating fires that triggered global outcry last year.

"We are facing a scenario of total catastrophe for the Amazon," Mariana Napolitano, scientific director at the World Wildlife Fund's Brazil office, said in a statement.

A total of 829 square kilometres (320 square miles) in the Brazilian Amazon, 14 times the area of Manhattan, was lost to deforestation in May, according to satellite data from Brazil's National Space Research Institute (INPE).

That was a 12-per cent increase from last year, and the worst May since record keeping began in August 2015.

Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon is now at more than 2,000 square kilometres so far this year, up 34 per cent from the same period last year.

That is all the more worrying given that the most destructive months are still ahead - the dry season, from around June to October, when forest fires accelerate the deforestation caused by illegal loggers, miners and farmers."

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #205 on: June 20, 2020, 06:09:11 AM »
Bangladesh Coal Plants Threaten World’s Largest Mangrove Forest

...

But the Bangladesh government threatens to destroy these life-saving forests by building coal-fired power plants that could subject them, and the nearly 2.5 million people who depend on them for their livelihoods, to harmful pollution. And while the mangroves slow climate change by soaking up carbon, coal-fired plants contribute greenhouse gas emissions that fuel global warming.

Of particular concern is the proposed Rampal Thermal Power Plant, just north of the Sundarbans. Scientists and activists have repeatedly voiced concerns that the plant could spell disaster for the world’s largest mangrove forest. But the government has fought calls to cancel or relocate the project, using tear gas and rubber bullets against protestors and insisting, contrary to scientific evidence, that the plant will do no harm.

Meanwhile, international efforts to protect the Sundarbans have been stymied. A recommendation by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to add the Sundarbans to the list of World Heritage Sites in Danger was rejected by UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee, which is chaired by China. The Chinese, Bosnian, and Cuban delegations even passed an amendment erasing mention of the Rampal power plant and two joint Bangladesh-China coal-fired power plants from the decision.

...

https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/06/18/bangladesh-coal-plants-threaten-worlds-largest-mangrove-forest

Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #206 on: June 26, 2020, 02:41:17 PM »
Climate extremes will cause forest changes

Until now, 2003 was considered as the driest and hottest year since the beginning of instrumental climate recording. This record can now be considered obsolete: "The past five years were among the warmest in Central Europe since record, and 2018 was the most extreme one," says Professor Bernhard Schuldt from Julius-Maximilians-Universität (JMU) Würzburg in Bavaria, Germany.

The average temperature from April to October 2018 was on average 3.3 degrees Celsius above the long-term average and 1.2 degrees higher than in 2003, Schuldt and a research team report in the journal Basic and Applied Ecology. This had dramatic consequences for the forests in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

Water transport through the wood collapses

"At such temperatures, our Central European vegetation reaches its limits," says the JMU professor. Together with other researchers from Germany and Switzerland, the plant ecologist was able to confirm with physiological measurements: When it is too hot, the tree simply loses too much water via its surface. As a result, the negative tension in the wood's conducting tissue becomes too steep, which ultimately leads to hydraulic failure interrupting the water transport.

Already during the course of the summer, severe drought-related stress symptoms were observed in most ecologically and economically important tree species, including widespread leaf discoloration and premature lead shedding.

Spruce and beech trees most affected

Moreover, unexpectedly strong drought-legacy effects were detected in 2019: many broad-leaved trees did not unfold their leaves -- they had died. Others that survived the 2018 event where not able to withstand the following drought in 2019, or became increasingly susceptible to infestation with bark beetles or fungi.

"Spruce was most severely affected, mainly because this mountainous species has been planted outside its natural habitat in Central Europe," explains Schuldt. "Unexpected was, however, the extent to which beech trees were affected. Here in Northern Bavaria, I have seen several stands with complete dieback, especially on sites with shallow soil." Until this event, beech has been considered as "future tree species," even though its drought tolerance has been controversially discussed since the hot drought in 2003.

This year's climatic condition in spring again started too warm and too dry. "Now in June 2020 we have fortunately received high amounts of rainfall," the Würzburg professor is pleased to report. This has mitigated the situation, but the water deficit in the deeper soil layers has certainly not been recharged. Therefore, he assumes that affected trees will continue to die-off in the coming years due to legacy effects.

Mixed forests with drought-stress resistant tree species are needed

...

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/06/200625115913.htm
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #207 on: June 27, 2020, 07:43:16 PM »
The linked article advises that immediate steps need to be taken to prevent tropical forests from crossing a temperature tipping point:

Title: "Temperature Tipping Point for Tropical Forests Identified – Scientists Recommend Immediate Steps"

https://scitechdaily.com/temperature-tipping-point-for-tropical-forests-identified-scientists-recommend-immediate-steps/

Extract: "All living things have tipping points: points of no return, beyond which they cannot thrive. A new report in Science shows that maximum daily temperatures above 32.2 degrees Celsius (about 90 degrees Fahrenheit) cause tropical forests to lose stored carbon more quickly. To prevent this escape of carbon into the atmosphere, the authors, including three scientists affiliated with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama, recommend immediate steps to conserve tropical forests and stabilize the climate."

Thermal sensitivity of tropical trees

A key uncertainty in climate change models is the thermal sensitivity of tropical forests and how this value might influence carbon fluxes. Sullivan et al. measured carbon stocks and fluxes in permanent forest plots distributed globally. This synthesis of plot networks across climatic and biogeographic gradients shows that forest thermal sensitivity is dominated by high daytime temperatures. This extreme condition depresses growth rates and shortens the time that carbon resides in the ecosystem by killing trees under hot, dry conditions. The effect of temperature is worse above 32°C, and a greater magnitude of climate change thus risks greater loss of tropical forest carbon stocks. Nevertheless, forest carbon stocks are likely to remain higher under moderate climate change if they are protected from direct impacts such as clearance, logging, or fires.

PW:
https://science.sciencemag.org/content/368/6493/869
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

be cause

  • Nilas ice
  • Posts: 1426
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 621
  • Likes Given: 480
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #208 on: June 28, 2020, 12:02:21 PM »
here Channel 4 reported on IKEA's devastation of Ukraine's ancient beech forests , illegally harvested but every tree has it's FSC stamp . Corruption at every level .. b.c.

https://www.channel4.com/news/from-chainsaw-to-chair-ikeas-illegally-sourced-furniture
2007 + 5 = 2012 + 4 = 2016 + 3 = 2019 + 2 = 2021 + 1 =  ' if only we could have seen it coming ' ...

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #209 on: June 29, 2020, 09:38:07 AM »
How one teaspoon of Amazon soil teems with fungal life

...

A teaspoon of soil from the Amazon contains as many as 1,800 microscopic life forms, of which 400 are fungi.

Largely invisible and hidden underground, the "dark matter" of life on Earth has "amazing properties", which we're just starting to explore, say scientists.

The vast majority of the estimated 3.8 million fungi in the world have yet to be formally classified.

Yet, fungi are surprisingly abundant in soil from Brazil's Amazon rainforest.

...

Fungi are usually neglected in inventories of biodiversity, being inconspicuous and largely hidden underground.

Fewer than 100 types of fungi have been evaluated for the IUCN Red List, compared with more than 25,000 plants and 68,000 animals.

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-53197650
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #210 on: July 01, 2020, 09:16:33 PM »
EU must not sacrifice the Amazon rainforest on the altar of trade with Brazil

...

This month European investors managing trillions of dollars of assets wrote an open letter warning that they could withdraw their investments in Brazil because increasing deforestation and the “dismantling” of policies to protect the environment and Indigenous Peoples are “creating widespread uncertainty”.

...

From August 2018 to July 2019, over 10,000 square kilometres of the Amazon rainforest was cut down, a rise of 34 per cent. This represents the worst year on year increase for a quarter of a century. Accompanying this is increasing incursions into Indigenous lands, along with violence against Indigenous Peoples.

...

For the European Union, Brazil’s second largest trading partner, and a huge importer of the soy and beef that drive deforestation, social conflict and land grabs in Mato Grosso and elsewhere in Brazil, all this poses serious questions about its commitment to protecting human rights and the environment.

Last June, after 20 years of negotiations, the EU finalised a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the Mercosur bloc of nations, of which Brazil is the largest member. If unopposed, this deal will allow the import of 99,000 tonnes of beef tariff-free – sacrificing forests and rights on the altar of trade.

This week Germany takes over the rotating EU Council Presidency, and one of its priorities is getting the Mercosur deal signed by the Council of the EU. Now, therefore is the time for those calling for the EU to discard the agreement to raise their voices.

...

https://www.climatechangenews.com/2020/07/01/eu-must-not-sacrifice-amazon-rainforest-altar-trade-brazil/

Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #211 on: July 02, 2020, 03:41:51 PM »
Gold Mining Is Hurting the Amazon's Ability to Store Carbon

Gold mining is becoming an increasingly dangerous threat to the Amazon. A new study has found that barely any trees or plants grow where mines once sat. This is bad news for the wildlife that depends on vegetation for habitat. Without trees or vegetation, though, the Amazon also can’t store as much carbon to prevent further global warming.

The study, published Sunday in the Journal of Applied Ecology, found that abandoned mining pits and tailing ponds in Guyana saw nearly no recovery of vegetation three to four years after mining ended. The recovery rates are among the lowest ever recorded for tropical forests. This lack of regrowth has reduced the forest’s carbon sequestration by about 21,000 tons of carbon a year, the study found. While previous research has used satellite imagery to measure the impact of gold mining on the environment, this study involves on-the-ground investigation with thorough measurements. It’s the first study to offer a full picture of what gold mining may be doing to the Amazon.

and more on:
https://earther.gizmodo.com/gold-mining-is-hurting-the-amazons-ability-to-store-car-1844232362

Limited biomass recovery from gold mining in Amazonian forests
https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1365-2664.13669

Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

blumenkraft

  • Guest
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #212 on: July 10, 2020, 04:37:01 PM »
Most trees alive today won’t be able to survive in the climate expected in 40 years

Link >> http://www.rapidshift.net/most-trees-alive-today-wont-be-able-to-survive-in-the-climate-expected-in-40-years/

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #213 on: July 13, 2020, 04:27:13 PM »
The Wood Pellet Business is Booming. Scientists Say That’s Not Good for the Climate.

Trump’s EPA is expected to propose a new rule declaring burning biomass to be carbon neutral, as industry looks to expand its domestic markets.


In rural Southern towns from Virginia to Texas, mill workers are churning out wood pellets from nearby forests as fast as European power plants, thousands of miles away, can burn them.

On this side of the Atlantic, new pellet plants are being proposed in South Carolina, Arkansas and other southern states. And Southern coastal shipping ports are expanding along with the pellet industry, vying to increase deliveries to Asia.

While the United States has fallen into a coronavirus-induced recession that dealt a blow to oil, gas, and petrochemical companies, for biomass production across the South, it's still boom time.

The industry has exploded, driven largely by European climate policies and subsidies that reward burning wood, even as an increasing number of scientists call out what they see as a dangerous carbon accounting loophole that threatens the 2050 goals of the Paris climate agreement.

This month, the Environmental Protection Agency, acting at the direction of the U.S. Congress, is expected to propose securing that loophole with a new rule that details how burning biomass from forests can be considered carbon neutral, at least in the United States.

and more details on;
https://insideclimatenews.org/news/10072020/wood-pellet-business-booming-scientists-say-%E2%80%99s-not-good-climate

The EU law needs to be changed quickly.

The forests we need are long term. Capturing carbon for centuries. Old strong trees provide so much shading so whatever is relatively old should be protected. Of course much small uninteresting life dies with the felled trees too.

It´s going to be hard enough as it is (see post above) so we just can´t treat forests as oil that grows on the ground.
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #214 on: July 18, 2020, 11:13:53 PM »
Amazon soya and beef exports 'linked to deforestation'

Up to one-fifth of Brazil's soya exports to the European Union may be "contaminated" by illegal deforestation, a study has found.

Researchers used freely available maps and data to identify the specific farms and ranches clearing forests to produce soya and beef destined for Europe.

They found 2% of properties were responsible for 62% of illegal deforestation.

These "bad apples" have global environmental consequences, they said.

Prof Raoni Rajão, of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais in Brazil, said it was up to the country's political and economic leaders to root out "the bad apples in the soy and beef sectors".

"Brazil has the information it needs to take swift and decisive action against these rule-breakers to ensure that its exports are deforestation-free," he said.

...

The research, published in the journal Science, found that 2% of properties in the Amazon rainforest and the Cerrado grasslands are responsible for 62% of all potentially illegal deforestation.

Roughly 20% of soya exports and at least 17% of beef exports to the EU may be "contaminated with illegal deforestation", the researchers said.

According to their analysis, two million tons of soya grown on properties with illegal deforestation may have reached EU markets annually during the period of analysis, 500,000 of which came from the Amazon.

...

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-53438680

and

Brazil's Bolsonaro under pressure to protect Amazon

Faced with investors demanding "results" in the fight against Amazon deforestation, Brazil's government seems to be performing something of an about-face, although it will have to work to convince skeptics.

The simple fact that Vice President Hamilton Mourao committed on Wednesday to cutting deforestation and forest fires "to an acceptable minimum" was a mini-revolution in the administration of far right President Jair Bolsonaro.

Less than a year ago the international community watched in horror as the number of forest fires in the Amazon soared to their highest levels since 2013.

Ireland and France threatened to scupper a trade deal between the European Union and Mercosur—of which Brazil is a member—unless Bolsonaro acted to protect what French President Emmanuel Macron described as a "common interest."

Macron called the fires an "international crisis" and Bolsonaro fired back at his counterpart's "colonialist mentality."

...

But at the end of June, investment funds from Europe, Asia and South America that collectively administer close to $4 trillion in assets cranked up the pressure in an open letter to Bolsonaro, urging the end of projects that threaten to accelerate destruction of the world's largest rainforest.

That seems to have hit home.

"The fact that the pressure comes from investors and not from heads of state, that gives it a different tone," Andre Perfeito, an economist at Necton consultants, told AFP.

details on:
https://phys.org/news/2020-07-brazil-bolsonaro-pressure-amazon.html

Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #215 on: July 21, 2020, 04:17:10 PM »
Pine Trees Have An Ecological Memory

Climate change is leading to drier conditions in Valais. For around two decades now, many Scots pines in the canton have been dying, in some cases over large areas. The Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL) is conducting an irrigation experiment to investigate the growth of Scots pines in the Pfyn Forest. Since 2003, it has been irrigating a number of plots within the forest to illustrate the dependency of pine growth on an adequate water supply.

The trees, which were first drought-stressed and then irrigated, grew very well for over a decade, developing thicker crowns and stems than their non-irrigated neighbours. At the end of 2013, the water supply was turned off in some parts of the site.

The question was whether the trees could benefit from the ‘years of plenty’ or whether the long period of irrigation had made them less well adapted to the new drier conditions. The answer is multifaceted, as different tree organs responded in different ways. It is clear, however, that pine growth is influenced by past conditions, as the results published by a WSL-led international research group in the journal New Phytologist now illustrate.

Needles respond quickly, annual shoots slowly

One of the expected responses to discontinued irrigation was that newly formed needles grew to a shorter length than in the years when irrigation took place. Surprisingly, however, the length of new shoots did not decrease in the first year, but only in the second year without irrigation.

This is the first indication of a legacy effect, the term used to describe delayed growth responses that can only be explained by past, rather than current, conditions. In other words, some responses do not occur in the next growing season, but only in the season after that, or later still. Trees, it would seem, have some sort of ecological memory.

Stems continue to grow well
However, the most remarkable finding was the development of radial stem growth. The mean wood and bark increments of the trees that had stopped being irrigated did not decrease immediately, as expected, but remained significantly wider than prior to irrigation for the next four years.

...

This research shows that the intensity of tree growth seen in damper conditions can impact positively on several subsequent dry years. However, the reverse conclusion also applies, namely that an extremely dry year has a negative impact on several subsequent years.

Growth, and many other physiological processes, therefore not only depend on the current weather conditions but are also influenced by the physiological processes of the preceding years. Consequently, the extremely dry conditions experienced during the record-breaking summer of 2018 are likely to make themselves felt for several years to come.

https://www.eurasiareview.com/15072020-pine-trees-have-an-ecological-memory/
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

Tom_Mazanec

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 3959
  • Earth will survive AGW...but will Homo sapiens?
    • View Profile
    • Planet Mazanec
  • Liked: 643
  • Likes Given: 391
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #216 on: August 04, 2020, 03:04:22 AM »
Humanity likely faces rapid ‘catastrophic collapse,’ study warns
https://nypost.com/2020/07/29/humanity-likely-faces-rapid-catastrophic-collapse-study-warns/
Quote
By comparing the rate of deforestation against humanity’s rate of consumption, study authors Mauro Bologna and Gerardo Aquino have determined there’s a 90% chance our species will collapse within decades — calling this estimate an “optimistic” measure.
SHARKS (CROSSED OUT) MONGEESE (SIC) WITH FRICKIN LASER BEAMS ATTACHED TO THEIR HEADS

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #217 on: August 14, 2020, 07:02:43 PM »
The linked reference, and associated article, indicate that tropical forests are likely to transitions from carbon sinks to carbon sources much sooner than previously assumed by consensus climate science; which implies that ECS by 2100 may be greater than previously assumed:

Nottingham, A.T., Meir, P., Velasquez, E. et al. Soil carbon loss by experimental warming in a tropical forest. Nature 584, 234–237 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2566-4

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2566-4

Abstract: "Tropical soils contain one-third of the carbon stored in soils globally, so destabilization of soil organic matter caused by the warming predicted for tropical regions this century could accelerate climate change by releasing additional carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Theory predicts that warming should cause only modest carbon loss from tropical soils relative to those at higher latitudes, but there have been no warming experiments in tropical forests to test this. Here we show that in situ experimental warming of a lowland tropical forest soil on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, caused an unexpectedly large increase in soil CO2 emissions. Two years of warming of the whole soil profile by four degrees Celsius increased CO2 emissions by 55 per cent compared to soils at ambient temperature. The additional CO2 originated from heterotrophic rather than autotrophic sources, and equated to a loss of 8.2 ± 4.2 (one standard error) tonnes of carbon per hectare per year from the breakdown of soil organic matter. During this time, we detected no acclimation of respiration rates, no thermal compensation or change in the temperature sensitivity of enzyme activities, and no change in microbial carbon-use efficiency. These results demonstrate that soil carbon in tropical forests is highly sensitive to warming, creating a potentially substantial positive feedback to climate change."

See also:

Title: "Carbon dioxide loss from tropical soils increases on warming" by Eric Davidson

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02266-9

Extract: "Besides the clear take-home message that the responses of soil respiration processes under climate change should not be represented in Earth-system models only by simple Q10 or Arrhenius functions, Nottingham and co-workers’ study adds to recently accumulating evidence that tropical forests are unlikely to continue indefinitely to be carbon sinks as the world warms. Tropical soil carbon does not receive as much attention as do the large and vulnerable soil-carbon stocks at high latitudes, which pose major concerns as a potential source of positive feedback to climate change. But tropical-forest soils also contain substantial carbon stores that might be more vulnerable to loss in a warming world than was previously recognized."
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #218 on: August 29, 2020, 10:48:13 AM »
Yeah lets check...  :(

Quote
Let’s Check in on the Amazon, and Damn, That’s Not Good

Major fires in the Brazilian Amazon are being set at an unprecedented rate. Between May 28 and Aug. 25, 2020, more than 500 major forest fires blazed across roughly 912,000 acres, new satellite data from the Monitoring of the Andean Amazon Project (MAAP) shows. That’s on par with the inferno that’s consumed California this month.

MAAP defines fires’ severity based on their aerosol index, a measure of the presence of levels of particles of smoke and ash in the air. Shockingly, nearly half of these forest fires took place in just the past two weeks. The largest of the documented blazes was one in Northern Brazil on August 17. That single fire alone burned nearly 25,605 acres of land.

Unlike the ones currently scorching California, these forest fires weren’t lit by lightning. Instead, they were set by people, mostly people looking to clear land for mining, cattle ranching, and soybean farming industries. And most of this clearing is conducted illegally, by actors with ties to a years-old criminal network in the country.

and much more on:
https://earther.gizmodo.com/let-s-check-in-on-the-amazon-and-damn-that-s-not-good-1844882608

And then this nugget:

Quote
Despite expanding fires, Brazil suspends operations to combat Amazon deforestation

Brazil’s Ministry of the Environment announced it will suspend all operations to combat illegal deforestation and fire in the Amazon and Pantanal on Monday, August 31, 2020.

In a statement published on its official web site, the ministry said it would demobilize staff and resources across two agencies: the environmental protection agency IBAMA and the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. The suspension affects 1,805 firefighters, 401 inspectors, six helicopters, 144 vehicles, and ten aircraft.

The ministry said the decision is the result of a federal budget cut of 60.6 million Brazilian real.
The cut comes as fires are currently burning widely across the Amazon.

Update: shortly after this post was published, the Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA) – Brazil’s Ministry of Environment – announced it had reached a deal to secure funding to maintain operations.
https://news.mongabay.com/2020/08/despite-expanding-fires-brazil-suspends-operations-to-combat-amazon-deforestation/

So they seemingly cancelled this but it shows their intentions.

Also see link for cumulative deforestation graph.
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

oren

  • First-year ice
  • Posts: 6445
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 2393
  • Likes Given: 2051
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #219 on: August 30, 2020, 08:05:27 AM »
Quote
So they seemingly cancelled this but it shows their intentions.
Politics is a weird field. Most probably they realized what would raise the biggest cry and chose to cut that item, knowing the response would bring back the budget.
In any case all this posturing doesn't matter, what matters is the actual reality, in which the Amazon gets more and more deforested. Humanity performing a slow-motion suicide.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #220 on: September 12, 2020, 09:29:04 AM »
From the Amazon to the Congo Basin to Indonesia, people are destroying precious rainforest and other ecosystems, mostly for agricultural expansion. Indigenous people are pushed off their lands, and even murdered when they resist. This destruction happens far away from Europe, but that doesn’t mean that Europe’s hands are clean. The EU imports a huge 36% of all the ‘embedded deforestation’ linked to products traded globally – beef, palm oil and soy for animal feed, but also coffee, cacao, paper and others. This means that the EU is responsible for over 10% of all the forest destruction worldwide. European supermarkets are filled with products linked to forest and ecosystem destruction.

In 2010, at the Consumer Goods Forum, over 400 of the biggest companies – owning many household brands – promised to cut deforestation out of their supply chains by 2020. Well, 2020 is here, and not one of them followed through on that promise.

The only way to stop European consumption leading to forest destruction is an EU law that keeps deforestation products off the European market. If a corporation wants to sell its products in Europe, they should have to show they have no deforestation, ecosystem destruction, or human rights abuses in their supply chain.

https://www.greenpeace.org/international/story/45002/europe-meat-deforestation-save-amazon/
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #221 on: September 12, 2020, 09:35:40 AM »
In the Amazon, forest degradation is outpacing full deforestation

Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has increased abruptly in the past two years, after having been on a downward trajectory for more than a decade. With the country’s president Jair Bolsonaro notoriously enthusiastic about expanding into the rainforest, new deforestation data regularly makes global headlines.

But what fewer people realise is that even forests that have not been cleared, or fully “deforested”, are rarely untouched. Indeed, just 20% of the world’s tropical forests are classified as intact. The rest have been impacted by logging, mining, fires, or by the expansion of roads or other human activities. And all this can happen undetected by the satellites that monitor deforestation.

These forests are known as “degraded”, and they make up an increasingly large fraction of the world’s remaining forest landscapes. Degradation is a major environmental and societal challenge. Disturbances associated with logging, fire and habitat fragmentation are a significant source of CO₂ emissions and can flip forests from carbon sinks to sources, where the carbon emitted when trees burn or decompose outweighs the carbon taken from the atmosphere as they grow.

...

Degradation detectives
New research published in the journal Science by a team of Brazilian and US researchers led by Eraldo Matricardi has taken an important step towards tackling this challenge. By combining more than 20 years of satellite data with extensive field observations, they trained a computer algorithm to map changes in forest degradation through time across the entire Brazilian Amazon. Their work reveals that 337,427 km² of forest were degraded across the Brazilian Amazon between 1992 and 2014, an area larger than neighbouring Ecuador. During this same period, degradation actually outpaced deforestation, which contributed to a loss of a further 308,311 km² of forest.

The researchers went a step further and used the data to tease apart the relative contribution of different drivers of forest degradation, including logging, fire and forest fragmentation. What these maps reveal is that while overall rates of degradation across the Brazilian Amazon have declined since the 1990s – in line with decreases in deforestation and associated habitat fragmentation – rates of selective logging and forest fires have almost doubled. In particular, in the past 15 years logging has expanded west into a new frontier that up until recently was considered too remote to be at risk.

for details and maps see:
https://theconversation.com/in-the-amazon-forest-degradation-is-outpacing-full-deforestation-145901
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #222 on: September 12, 2020, 09:38:22 AM »
More than 90% of the world's protected areas are disconnected

According to a new study, more than 90% of Earth's protected areas are disconnected -- surrounded by human pressures -- according to a study published Friday in the journal Nature Communications.

"Connected landscapes ensure species can move through a landscape," lead study author Michelle Ward told UPI in an email.

"Species travel for many reasons including seasonal migrations, finding a mate, moving away from close relatives to ensure genetic diversity, escaping natural disasters such as fires, or tracking their preferred climates," said Ward, an environmental scientist and doctoral candidate at the University of Queensland in Australia.

...

According to the Human Footprint, 40% of Earth's land remains intact, while the remaining 60 percent is relatively degraded.

When researchers looked at the distribution of intact land, they found it rarely forms a bridge between protected areas.

"If two protected areas have 'intact' land in between them, we define those two protected areas as connected," Ward said. "While this kind of structural connectivity alone does not guarantee connectivity for all species, high levels of landscape connectedness is seen as critical for species in regards to migration, escaping natural disasters, and adaptation under human-induced climate change."

...

To protect Earth's biodiversity and important ecological processes, authors of the latest study argue more must be done to connect the planet's protected areas. That means safeguarding still-intact landscapes and restoring landscapes that can connect isolated pockets of wild habitat.

https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2020/09/11/More-than-90-of-the-worlds-protected-areas-are-disconnected/7461599824845/?ur3=1
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #223 on: September 20, 2020, 11:05:45 AM »
Europe's old-growth forests at risk

A new study presents the first comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of primary forests in Europe -- and shows that many of them are not protected and at risk of being destroyed. The researchers conclude that formal conservation of these forests should be a top priority for countries to meet their climate change and biodiversity goals.

...

Gathering data and mapping for five years, the team's research makes clear that Europe's ancient forests are in a perilous state -- and that many of them continue to be logged. The researchers conclude that formal conservation of these forests should be a top priority for countries to meet their climate change and biodiversity goals.

"While many primary forests are in fact well protected, we also found many regions where they are not -- particularly where primary forests are still common," says Francesco Sabatini, the study's lead author from the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research and Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg. "And where they are protected, in some cases, the level of protection is inadequate to ensure these forests will be protected in the long-term."

The study also highlights that remaining primary forests are very unevenly distributed across Europe. "Some regions, particularly in Scandinavia and Finland as well as Eastern Europe, still have many primary forests. But often those countries do not realize how unique their forests are at the European scale and how important it is to protect them," says senior author Tobias Kuemmerle from Humboldt University in Berlin. "At the same time, we were shocked to see that there are many natural forests types in Europe without any primary forest remaining at all, particularly in Western Europe."

...

The new study found a "substantial bias," the scientists write, in how these remaining primary forests are distributed across forest types. Of the 54 forest types they assessed, they found that six had no remaining old-growth stands at all. And in two-thirds of the forest types, they found that less than one percent was old growth. And only ten forest types had more than half of their old growth strictly protected.

In other words, even if scarce and irreplaceable, many of these primary forests are not legally protected and continue to be logged in Europe. However, with swift action, strict conservation protections on those that remain can be put in place, the team says -- plus: old-growth forests, and their many values, can be restored.

...

"Now is the time to be ambitious. There is a lot of momentum for forest conservation and restoration in Europe at the moment," says Francesco Sabatini, in part because of the European Union's Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 that explicitly recognizes the irreplaceable value of primary forests. "Our study provides a foundation for putting this strategy into practice," he says.

"Our work shows that all the remaining primary forests in Europe could be protected with a modest expansion of protected areas," says UVM's Bill Keeton, "and I think this study will change the whole dialogue around old forest restoration in Europe, highlighting where that would be most valuable."

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200917122842.htm
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

vox_mundi

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 4414
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 2482
  • Likes Given: 338
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #224 on: September 23, 2020, 11:45:03 PM »
Amazonia Racing Toward Tipping Point, Fueled by Unregulated Fires
https://phys.org/news/2020-09-amazonia-fueled-unregulated.html

In a new paper published today in the Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Florida Tech biology professor Mark Bush describes how the vast Amazonian rainforest could be replaced by savanna, which is a grassland with few trees, within our lifetime.

One of the key points of the paper, "New and repeating tipping points: the interplay of fire, climate change and deforestation in Neotropical ecosystems," is that while no individual government can control climate change, fire can be regulated through policy. Almost all fires in Amazonia are set deliberately by people and have become much more frequent in the last two years, because of altered policy, than over the previous decade.

Bush's data show that the tipping point is likely to be reached if temperatures rise by another 2 to 3 degrees Fahrenheit (1-1.5°C). Anthropogenic warming would bring those temperatures by the end of this century, but increased burning creates hotter, drier, less shaded landscapes that could hasten that transition.

"Warming alone could induce the tipping point by mid-century, but if the present policies that turn a blind eye to forest destruction aren't stopped, we could reach the tipping point much sooner," Bush said.

He added, "Beyond the loss of wildlife, the cascading effects of losing Amazonian rainforest would alter rainfall across the hemisphere. This is not a remote problem, but one of global importance and critical significance to food security that should concern us all."

Mark B. Bush, New and Repeating Tipping Points: The Interplay of Fire, Climate Change, and Deforestation in Neotropical Ecosystems, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
https://annals.mobot.org/index.php/annals/article/view/565
https://annals.mobot.org/index.php/annals/article/view/565/537

... Past tipping points are identified to have occurred within ca. 1°C–1.5°C of modern conditions. The recent climatic instability in both Amazonia and the Andes is viewed in the context of ecological flickering, while the drought-induced and fire-induced tree mortality are aspects of critical slowing down; both possibly portending an imminent tipping point.
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #225 on: October 03, 2020, 10:51:39 AM »
Someday, even wet forests could burn due to climate change

The study, published today in Nature Geoscience, provides geochemical evidence showing that forest fires expanded dramatically, potentially burning up to 30 or 40 percent of global forests during a 100,000 year interval more than 90 million years ago. While today's fires are exacerbated by dry conditions, they found that forest fires during this period increased even in wet regions due to changes in global climate.

...

Large amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere -- much like what Earth is projected to experience by 2100 -- kick-started this cycle.

For 50,000 years before the OAE2 began, algae and land plants drew down this carbon into the oceans through photosynthesis, causing microbial respiration to increase, which led parts of the oceans to become low in or even devoid of oxygen, known as anoxia. This same process exists today in waters where too many nutrients end up in one place, like the mouth of the Mississippi River, where excess fertilizer runoff accumulates and feeds algae -- which are then eaten up by microbes that consume oxygen, creating a dead zone. In these kinds of anoxic waters, the organic carbon that is stored from the atmosphere is buried in sediments, while the oxygen that was part of the carbon dioxide (CO2) is released to the atmosphere.

After 100,000 years of this ocean anoxia event -- which was intensified by warming temperatures -- oceans sediments around the globe had stored enough organic carbon that the atmosphere became rich in oxygen, so much so that it might have facilitated the burning of up to 40 percent of forests across the planet, even in wet and humid regions.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200930094745.htm

The proces is interesting. Of course around 2100 we only have about 100 years or less of carbon burial so the oxygen levels will not be going up by then but at some much later date the oxygen will go up.
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

vox_mundi

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 4414
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 2482
  • Likes Given: 338
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #226 on: October 05, 2020, 02:59:47 PM »
40% of Amazon Could Now Exist As Either Rainforest or Savanna-Like Ecosystems
https://phys.org/news/2020-10-amazon-rainforest-savanna-like-ecosystems.html

A larger part of the Amazon rainforest than previously believed is at risk of crossing a tipping point at which it would become a savanna-type ecosystem, according to new research. The study, based on computer models and data analysis, is published in the journal Nature Communications.

"In around 40 percent of the Amazon, the rainfall is now at a level where the forest could exist in either state—rainforest or savanna, according to our findings," says lead author Arie Staal, formerly a postdoctoral researcher at the Stockholm Resilience Center and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University.

"By using the latest available atmospheric data and teleconnection models, we were able to simulate the downwind effects of the disappearance of forests for all tropical forests. By integrating these analyses over the entire tropics, the picture of the systematic stability of tropical forests emerged."

The conclusions are concerning because parts of the Amazon region are currently receiving less rain than they were previously, and this trend is expected to worsen as the region warms due to rising greenhouse gas emissions.

... The researchers explored what happens if emissions keep rising this century along a very high-emissions scenario used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Overall, the researchers found that as emissions grow, more parts of the Amazon lose their natural resilience, become unstable and more likely to dry out and switch to a savanna-type ecosystem. They note that even the most resilient part of the rainforest shrinks in area. In other words, more of the rainforest is prone to crossing a tipping point as emissions of greenhouse gasses reach very high levels.

The researchers conclude that the smallest area that can sustain a rainforest in the Amazon contracts a substantial 66% in the high-emissions scenario

In the Congo basin, the team found that the forest remains at risk of changing state everywhere and will not grow back once gone
, but that under a high-emissions scenario, part of the forest becomes less prone to crossing a tipping point.

... "Once gone, their recovery will take many decades to return to their original state. And given that rainforests host the majority of all global species, all this will be forever lost."



Arie Staal et al. Hysteresis of tropical forests in the 21st century, Nature Communications (2020).
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18728-7
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #227 on: October 09, 2020, 11:08:51 AM »
Warmer climates are changing the composition of boreal and temperate forests

...

Scientists have hypothesised that, as global temperatures rise, plant species of both temperate and boreal forests will move northwards to escape warmer conditions. To test this hypothesis, researchers with the B4WARMED study have been artificially heating 18 small forest plots in the transition zone of Northern Minnesota ever since 2012. Using covers and heaters, the team increased air and soil temperatures by 1.9C and 3.5C respectively, and excluded 42–45 per cent of mean average rainfall. The long-term experiment is now yielding valuable insights into how our changing climate will affect the structure and ecosystems of boreal and temperate forests.

First, the team demonstrated that boreal species, such as balsam fir and white spruce, are less able to emerge and survive under warmer conditions. Overall, the seedling species richness in the temperate–boreal forest transition was reduced by warming. The researchers suggest that, unless the temperate species can compensate for the loss of the boreal species, the overall biodiversity of these forests is likely to decline.

Second, to explain why boreal forest species struggle under warmer conditions, the team measured the amount of photosynthesis taking place. Their results show that, as soils dry up in warmer conditions, boreal species reduce their photosynthetic rate, reducing the amount of organic matter available for growth.

This research is important because temperate and boreal forests contain 46 per cent of all trees on earth. Of the global carbon stock stored by forests, boreals contain 32 per cent, temperates 14 per cent. In the coming years, boreals will experience extreme increases in air and soil temperatures. An increase of 1.5°C has already been measured, with a rise of between 4°C and 6°C projected in the next century.

To dig even deeper into the results, the team then looked below the trees. ....

Under the warmer conditions of the study, the diversity of the mycorrhizal fungi associated with boreal forest species fell. Worryingly, the types of fungi shifted from those that build extensive underground networks, to ‘weedier’ varieties that cause the network’s connectivity to break down. The researchers hypothesise that, due to the restricted ability of boreal forests to produce carbon through photosynthesis under warmer conditions, the fungi associating with the roots shift to species that demand less carbon. The warming, drier climate could therefore disrupt the vital networks of fungi underground, further depriving boreal trees of nutrients. ‘Mycorrhizal networks are so important for plant nutrition. We think that this will ultimately affect seedling recruitment in boreal forests, which depend on the nutrient flow from established mycorrhizal networks,’ says Fernandez.

http://geographical.co.uk/places/forests/item/3851-warmer-climates-are-changing-the-composition-of-boreal-and-temperate-forests
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

wili

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 3263
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 588
  • Likes Given: 391
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #228 on: October 12, 2020, 02:21:29 PM »

This is my message to the western world – your civilisation is killing life on Earth

Nemonte Nenquimo

We Indigenous people are fighting to save the Amazon, but the whole planet is in trouble because you do not respect it


https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/oct/12/western-worldyour-civilisation-killing-life-on-earth-indigenous-amazon-planet

I might point out that even characterizing forests as 'resources' as the title of this thread does, is part of the Western mind set that reduces the natural world to stuff to use up and exploit
"A force de chercher de bonnes raisons, on en trouve; on les dit; et après on y tient, non pas tant parce qu'elles sont bonnes que pour ne pas se démentir." Choderlos de Laclos "You struggle to come up with some valid reasons, then cling to them, not because they're good, but just to not back down."

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #229 on: October 12, 2020, 02:33:31 PM »
Interesting point. Never thought of it like that.

Then again you can also think of forests as other resources: carbon capture, resources for species diversity etc. This thread was mainly named for the first one going by the graphic in post #1.

 
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

El Cid

  • Nilas ice
  • Posts: 1338
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 572
  • Likes Given: 105
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #230 on: October 12, 2020, 03:27:00 PM »
Warmer climates are changing the composition of boreal and temperate forests

...
Using covers and heaters, the team increased air and soil temperatures by 1.9C and 3.5C respectively, and excluded 42–45 per cent of mean average rainfall.

This must be one of the worst studies ever. They claim to study a warming environment and then exclude half of the rain. And then talk about how a warmer environment will change forests when they actually studied a drier environment.

 Seriously, this is terrible science. What makes it even worse is that we know that AGW will increase precipitation.

SimonF92

  • Frazil ice
  • Posts: 327
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 140
  • Likes Given: 68
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #231 on: October 12, 2020, 04:14:10 PM »
Warmer climates are changing the composition of boreal and temperate forests

...
Using covers and heaters, the team increased air and soil temperatures by 1.9C and 3.5C respectively, and excluded 42–45 per cent of mean average rainfall.

This must be one of the worst studies ever. They claim to study a warming environment and then exclude half of the rain. And then talk about how a warmer environment will change forests when they actually studied a drier environment.

 Seriously, this is terrible science. What makes it even worse is that we know that AGW will increase precipitation.

Agreed, they really should have got some help writing the paper, there are vast swathes of relevant information and data missing. I may be wrong, but I suspect they anticipate reduced rainfall in their target geographical region, as this was in the references section:

"
Martins, C. S., Nazaries, L., Delgado‐Baquerizo, M., Macdonald, C. A., Anderson, I. C., Hobbie, S. E., ... & Singh, B. K. (2017). Identifying environmental drivers of greenhouse gas emissions under warming and reduced rainfall in boreal–temperate forests. Functional ecology, 31(12), 2356-2368.
"
Bunch of small python Arctic Apps:
https://github.com/SimonF92/Arctic

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #232 on: October 12, 2020, 10:11:57 PM »
Well yes, unless you have the funding and enough lands to monitor plots for every condition you have to go by the sort of conditions you expect.

What makes it even worse is that we know that AGW will increase precipitation.

That is a simplification.

A warmer atmosphere holds more water which does not translate to more precipitation everywhere because the whole circulation changes due to northern ice/snow loss etc.
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

nanning

  • Nilas ice
  • Posts: 2401
  • 0Kg CO₂, 37 KWh/wk,125L H₂O/wk, No offspring
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 304
  • Likes Given: 20397
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #233 on: October 13, 2020, 07:51:28 AM »
Thank you wili, that's one great and important article by a brilliant mind.

This a beautiful and very informative text, please read.


Here further excerpts:

In each of our many hundreds of different languages across the Amazon, we have a word for you – the outsider, the stranger. In my language, WaoTededo, that word is “cowori”. And it doesn’t need to be a bad word. But you have made it so. For us, the word has come to mean (and in a terrible way, your society has come to represent): the white man that knows too little for the power that he wields, and the damage that he causes.

You are probably not used to an Indigenous woman calling you ignorant and, less so, on a platform such as this. But for Indigenous peoples it is clear: the less you know about something, the less value it has to you, and the easier it is to destroy. And by easy, I mean: guiltlessly, remorselessly, foolishly, even righteously. And this is exactly what you are doing to us as Indigenous peoples, to our rainforest territories, and ultimately to our planet’s climate.

It took us thousands of years to get to know the Amazon rainforest. To understand her ways, her secrets, to learn how to survive and thrive with her. And for my people, the Waorani, we have only known you for 70 years (we were “contacted” in the 1950s by American evangelical missionaries), but we are fast learners, and you are not as complex as the rainforest.

...
I never had the chance to go to university, and become a doctor, or a lawyer, a politician, or a scientist. My elders are my teachers. The forest is my teacher. And I have learned enough (and I speak shoulder to shoulder with my Indigenous brothers and sisters across the world) to know that you have lost your way, and that you are in trouble (though you don’t fully understand it yet) and that your trouble is a threat to every form of life on Earth.

You forced your civilisation upon us and now look where we are: global pandemic, climate crisis, species extinction and, driving it all, widespread spiritual poverty. In all these years of taking, taking, taking from our lands, you have not had the courage, or the curiosity, or the respect to get to know us. To understand how we see, and think, and feel, and what we know about life on this Earth.

 won’t be able to teach you in this letter, either. But what I can say is that it has to do with thousands and thousands of years of love for this forest, for this place. Love in the deepest sense, as reverence. This forest has taught us how to walk lightly, and because we have listened, learned and defended her, she has given us everything: water, clean air, nourishment, shelter, medicines, happiness, meaning. And you are taking all this away, not just from us, but from everyone on the planet, and from future generations.

It is the early morning in the Amazon, just before first light: a time that is meant for us to share our dreams, our most potent thoughts. And so I say to all of you: the Earth does not expect you to save her, she expects you to respect her. And we, as Indigenous peoples, expect the same.

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/oct/12/western-worldyour-civilisation-killing-life-on-earth-indigenous-amazon-planet

[the writer] Nemonte Nenquimo is cofounder of the Indigenous-led nonprofit organisation Ceibo Alliance, the first female president of the Waorani organisation of Pastaza province and one of Time’s 100 most influential people in the world
"It is preoccupation with possessions, more than anything else, that prevents us from living freely and nobly" - Bertrand Russell
"It is preoccupation with what other people from your groups think of you, that prevents you from living freely and nobly" - Nanning
Why do you keep accumulating stuff?

El Cid

  • Nilas ice
  • Posts: 1338
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 572
  • Likes Given: 105
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #234 on: October 13, 2020, 09:34:53 AM »

A warmer atmosphere holds more water which does not translate to more precipitation everywhere because the whole circulation changes due to northern ice/snow loss etc.

That is true and I did not state that there will be more rain everywhere.
BUT the point is: most places will see more rain than before not less. Obviously there will be drier areas but most will be moister than before. If the Eemian is any guide then a very large part of the NH, and most places that are currently deserts will be greener.

 

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #235 on: October 25, 2020, 07:51:08 PM »
But will the Eemian be a good approximation? It was still an interglacial while we are going extraglacial or from icehouse earth to a warmer earth which might mean totally different large scale climate patterns evolve.

Anyway forests and soil fungi (or another example of why clear cutting is bad) :

New research is first to show that growth rate of adult trees is linked to fungal networks colonizing their roots.

The study, published in the Journal of Ecology, is the first to show that the growth of adult trees is linked to their participation in fungal networks living in the forest soil.

Though past research has focused on seedlings, these findings give new insight into the value of fungal networks to older trees -- which are more environmentally beneficial for functions like capturing carbon and stabilizing soil erosion.

"Large trees make up the bulk of the forest, so they drive what the forest is doing," said researcher Joseph Birch, who led the study for his PhD thesis in the Faculty of Agricultural, Life & Environmental Sciences.

When they colonize the roots of a tree, fungal networks act as a sort of highway, allowing water, nutrients and even the compounds that send defence signals against insect attacks to flow back and forth among the trees.

The network also helps nutrients flow to resource-limited trees "like family units that support one another in times of stress," Birch noted.

Cores taken from 350 Douglas firs in British Columbia showed that annual tree ring growth was related to the extent of fungal connections a tree had with other trees. "They had much higher growth than trees that had only a few connections."

The research also showed that trees with more connections to many unique fungi had much greater growth than those with only one or two connections.

"We found that the more connected an adult tree is, the more it has significant growth advantages, which means the network could really influence large-scale important interactions in the forest, like carbon storage. If you have this network that is helping trees grow faster, that helps sequester more carbon year after year."

...

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201022123118.htm
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

vox_mundi

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 4414
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 2482
  • Likes Given: 338
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #236 on: October 27, 2020, 09:20:31 PM »
US Firms Fund Deforestation, Abuses In Amazon: Report
https://amazonwatch.org/news/2020/1027-complicity-in-destruction-iii
https://phys.org/news/2020-10-firms-fund-deforestation-abuses-amazon.html

Major US financial firms are helping fund environmental destruction and indigenous rights abuses in the Amazon with billions of dollars in investments in questionable companies, according to a report published Tuesday.

Six top firms—BlackRock, Citigroup, JPMorgan Chase, Vanguard, Bank of America and Dimensional Fund Advisors—have invested more than $18 billion over the past three years in mining, agribusiness and energy companies involved in a "series of abuses" in the world's biggest rainforest, found the report by the environmental group Amazon Watch and the Association of Brazil's Indigenous Peoples (APIB).

"Major financiers... are using their clients' money to enable the wanton behavior of companies linked to indigenous rights violations and the devastation of the Amazon rainforest," said Amazon Watch program director Christian Poirier.

"This financial complicity in destruction contradicts the climate and human rights pledges touted by some of these firms, exposes their investors to significant risk and contributes dramatically to the world's growing biodiversity and climate crises," he said in a statement.

The report investigates the firms' investments in nine Brazilian and multi-national companies accused of abuses in the Amazon, including mining companies Vale and Anglo American, agribusiness companies Cargill and JBS, and energy company Eletronorte.

It accuses those companies of harmful practices including land seizures, violence against indigenous groups, illegal deforestation and the use of harmful pesticides.



-----------------------------------------------

Hidden Losses Deep In the Amazon Rainforest
https://phys.org/news/2020-10-hidden-losses-deep-amazon-rainforest.html

... "Our nostalgia was correct—certain birds are much less common than they used to be," Stouffer said. "If animal patterns are changing in the absence of landscape change, it signals a sobering warning that simply preserving forests will not maintain rainforest biodiversity."

In general, the birds that have experienced the most dramatic declines live on or near the forest floor where they forage on arthropods, mostly insects.

... The Musician Wren is an iconic voice in the Amazon rainforest, but new research shows that it is declining even in the untouched parts of the world's largest rainforest. Listen ...

Philip C Stouffer et al. Long‐term change in the avifauna of undisturbed Amazonian rainforest: ground‐foraging birds disappear and the baseline shifts, Ecology Letters (2020)
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ele.13628
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #237 on: October 27, 2020, 09:32:34 PM »
So there must be some arthropods problem as well...
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

vox_mundi

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 4414
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 2482
  • Likes Given: 338
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #238 on: October 27, 2020, 10:15:47 PM »
It would seem ...   :-\

For an example of, why a missing arthropod in the jungle, could be important, you might enjoy the movie 'Medicine Man' ...
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicine_Man_(film)#Plot
« Last Edit: October 27, 2020, 10:27:35 PM by vox_mundi »
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #239 on: November 02, 2020, 01:33:09 PM »
Campaigners' anger after huge surge in rainforest blazes

....

More than 17,000 fires are burning in the Amazon's rainforest, shocking new data shows.

October saw a huge surge in the number of hotspots in the forest - with more than double the amount detected in the same month last year.

And the number of fires so far this year remains at a decade high. In only the first 10 months, 2020 has already
surpassed the total number of fires for the full year in 2019, when the destruction spurred international criticism that Brazil was not doing enough to protect its forest.

...

https://news.sky.com/story/campaigners-anger-after-huge-surge-in-rainforest-blazes-12121596
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #240 on: November 05, 2020, 04:43:59 PM »
Decadeslong effort revives ancient oak woodland

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- Vestal Grove in the Somme Prairie Grove forest preserve in Cook County, Illinois, looks nothing like the scrubby, buckthorn-choked tangle that confronted restoration ecologists 37 years ago. Thanks to the efforts of a dedicated team that focused on rooting up invasive plants and periodically burning, seeding native plants and culling deer, the forest again resembles its ancient self, researchers report in the journal PLOS ONE.

...

The level of success achieved in this 7-acre woodland is rare in restoration ecology, the scientists say. Most such efforts are hamstrung by limited financial resources, expertise, personnel and time. Many plant restoration interventions focus on only one technique - such as brush removal or burning to kill invasive plants - and fail to address the other factors that can undermine their efforts.

"Even very expensive vegetation restoration projects fail to meet their conservation goals more often than not," the researchers write. "In addition, long-term studies of management impacts are rare."

"We feel like we don't have a minute to spare from our stewardship, so it's hard to take time to collect data," said study co-author Karen Glennemeier, an ecologist with Habitat Research LLC. "But monitoring the ecosystem is essential for understanding the impacts of our management."

"Once we destroy a natural area, it has proved disturbingly difficult and expensive to bring it back," said study co-author Greg Spyreas, a research scientist at the Illinois Natural History Survey who focuses on plant ecology and botany. "This study shows you how to do it."

"Collaboration was key to this success," said study co-author Stephen Packard, a restoration ecologist and land steward of Somme Prairie Grove. "The Cook County Forest Preserve District, which owns the land, assembled a team of staff, contractors, volunteers and a variety of research and conservation organizations."

This team slashed and burned a dense thicket of buckthorn trees, thinned native tree density to give the oaks a chance to reproduce, harvested seed from native plants and scattered that seed in autumn for many years. Dozens of "citizen-science" volunteers led the most detailed work while hundreds of recreational conservationists joined the effort each year.

"Staff, contractors and volunteers all helped burn the woods, on average, once every two years," Packard said. The volunteers hand-weeded invasive garlic mustard, but didn't bother with most other weeds. The thinning of trees and ground vegetation allowed more sunlight to penetrate to the forest floor and promoted the restoration of natural woodland grasses and wildflowers.

"We initially feared that alien species might be impossible to control over large areas," Packard said. "Instead, with regular controlled burns and reseeding of diverse species, most of the nonnative species dropped out by themselves. They couldn't compete against the natural richness that we had thought of as so fragile."

The researchers used several measures of ecosystem health to assess the quality of the restoration. Most reflected positive changes over time. One of the metrics, known as the cover-weighted Floristic Quality Index, was very responsive to changes in ecological health.

The restoration work began in 1983 but was halted from September 1996 to July 2003 as a result of political wrangling over management of the property. The FQI showed steady improvement in the health and biodiversity of the woods until the hiatus, when the property began to revert to its degraded state.

"The effects were immediate," Packard said. "Years of work on the site could be seen slipping back into nonnative species dominance, and diversity and native plant community health crashed rapidly."


When the restoration work resumed in 2003, the recovery began again. Biodiversity and the conservation quality of the surviving flora increased, surpassing previous levels.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-10/uoia-der102920.php

Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #241 on: November 07, 2020, 11:05:58 AM »
Study Finds that the Largest Trees Capture Much More Carbon and Dominate Forest Carbon Storage

A new study found that the forest's largest trees capture much more carbon and dominate its carbon storage.

Massive capacity to store carbon

The older trees in the forest, those with the larger diameters, have been found to disproportionally store larger quantities of carbon compared to the smaller trees.

The conduct of the study
The research team determined the carbon-storing capacity of trees aboveground. They looked at trees with diameters that are greater than 21 inches or 53.3 centimeters.

The study was conducted on lands declared as National Forest in the states of Washington and Oregon.

The researchers determined the capacity of trees to store aboveground carbon and associated them with their diameter by using species-specific equations, which relate to the height and diameter of trees with the aboveground biomass found in their branches and stems. They assumed that half of that tree biomass comprises carbon.

The study also looked into the proportion of the entire forest land taken up by large trees and calculated their total carbon storage capacity aboveground. They determined the potential effects that taking away these large trees may have on the forest.

Study findings
The researchers discovered that even if they only comprised three percent of all trees, the large trees stored almost half of all the aboveground carbon in the forest. To be exact, they kept 42 percent of all this carbon.

This study is pioneering because it was the first to show how wrong policies can negatively affect carbon storage in these ecosystems and possibly release a massive amount of carbon into our atmosphere because of inadequate information.

The researchers also found that over 30 inches (or over 76.2 centimeters) in diameter had only 0.6 percent of all the stems in the forest; however, they nevertheless held more than 16 percent of all the aboveground carbon.

Once the trees attain a specific size, every new incremental increase in their diameter causes a significant additional increase in their overall carbon storage capacity.

Dr. Mildreler says that an additional annual ring in a large tree store much more carbon than another yearly ring in a small tree.

He says that this is why allowing specifically large trees to grow even larger is essential in the fight against climate change because their carbon-storing capacity is disproportionally larger, all while being inexpensive and cost-effective.

Application

In the US' Northwest Pacific region, this 21-inch rule was implemented in the year 1994 to try to save the older, larger trees in these areas' national forests. Unfortunately, proposed amendments effectively abolished this limit, allowing large trees reaching 30 inches to be harvested.
...

https://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/44679/20201105/study-finds-largest-trees-capture-much-more-carbon-dominate-forest.htm

Large Trees Dominate Carbon Storage in Forests East of the Cascade Crest in the United States Pacific Northwest

Large-diameter trees store disproportionally massive amounts of carbon and are a major driver of carbon cycle dynamics in forests worldwide. In the temperate forests of the western United States, proposed changes to Forest Plans would significantly weaken protections for a large portion of trees greater than 53 cm (21 inches) in diameter (herein referred to as “large-diameter trees”) across 11.5 million acres (∼4.7 million ha) of National Forest lands. This study is among the first to report how carbon storage in large trees and forest ecosystems would be affected by a proposed policy.

...

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/ffgc.2020.594274/full
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

Tom_Mazanec

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 3959
  • Earth will survive AGW...but will Homo sapiens?
    • View Profile
    • Planet Mazanec
  • Liked: 643
  • Likes Given: 391
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #242 on: November 07, 2020, 01:16:30 PM »
Interesting, kassy.
I would have expected smaller trees to store most of the carbon, both because there are a lot more of them and because I would think they would grow faster.
Another example of how, in science, what seems obvious ain't necessarily so.
SHARKS (CROSSED OUT) MONGEESE (SIC) WITH FRICKIN LASER BEAMS ATTACHED TO THEIR HEADS

dnem

  • Grease ice
  • Posts: 599
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 270
  • Likes Given: 189
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #243 on: November 07, 2020, 01:40:02 PM »
This is a weird study that appears to make trivial "stock vs flow" errors. Obviously big trees STORE more carbon than smaller ones, as storage is probably a cubic function of diameter. But cutting down a tree does not mean that the stored carbon becomes atmospheric carbon. If it's burned it does; if it becomes lumber it probably gets stored for a longer period than if it were allowed to sinesce on site.

The study does say this "Once the trees attain a specific size, every new incremental increase in their diameter causes a significant additional increase in their overall carbon storage capacity."  Again, this is trivial, but the real question is how much new carbon a big tree actually sequesters every year versus smaller trees.

Not arguing for cutting down big trees, but this study isn't saying much.

Sebastian Jones

  • Frazil ice
  • Posts: 426
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 107
  • Likes Given: 98
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #244 on: November 08, 2020, 06:39:23 AM »
{SNIP}
The study does say this "Once the trees attain a specific size, every new incremental increase in their diameter causes a significant additional increase in their overall carbon storage capacity."  Again, this is trivial, but the real question is how much new carbon a big tree actually sequesters every year versus smaller trees.

Not arguing for cutting down big trees, but this study isn't saying much.

Big trees sequester significantly more carbon than small trees.
There have been plenty of studies demonstrating this somewhat counterintuitive fact.
There is a Nature per from 2014, but I cannot find it just now, but at least one of these articles refers to it.
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/05/tall-and-old-or-dense-and-young-which-kind-of-forest-is-better-for-the-climate/
https://theconversation.com/big-old-trees-grow-faster-making-them-vital-carbon-absorbers-22104
https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/how-old-trees-help-climate-1.4252888
https://science.time.com/2014/01/15/study-shows-older-trees-absorb-more-carbon/

Of course as trees senesce their ability to uptake carbon falls and in stands full of old and dying large trees, carbon sequestration is slower than a newer stand.
https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/pnw_gtr931/pnw_gtr931_050.pdf

sidd

  • First-year ice
  • Posts: 5726
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 796
  • Likes Given: 0
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #245 on: November 08, 2020, 08:20:57 AM »
Re: a Nature per from 2014

doi:10.1038/nature12914

sidd

Iain

  • Frazil ice
  • Posts: 202
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 58
  • Likes Given: 29
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #246 on: November 08, 2020, 11:39:13 AM »
"While young forests tend to absorb more carbon overall because trees can be crowded together when they’re small, a tree’s carbon absorption rate accelerates as it ages. "

The larger tree growing at 1% per year will sequester more, but during the growing stage, the sequestration will be limited by canopy, so 1 big is broadly the same as several small, with surface area the limiting factor.

"But when forests are logged, their immense stores of carbon are quickly released. "

As above, not if used in construction. However straight, close planted knot free plantation lumber trees will be used in construction, older branchier trees less likely to be.

Then there is biomass with CCS, a commercial route to net decrease in CO2.

Having said that, the older forest will win on biodiversity hands down over a monoculture plantation.
"If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants." Isaac Newton

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #247 on: November 08, 2020, 05:08:35 PM »
The fact that bigger trees hold more carbon is totally obvious.

Remeber the context to this research:
In the US' Northwest Pacific region, this 21-inch rule was implemented in the year 1994 to try to save the older, larger trees in these areas' national forests. Unfortunately, proposed amendments effectively abolished this limit, allowing large trees reaching 30 inches to be harvested.

So they were already saving the bigger trees.

It would be interesting to see if the paper tells us how long the extra 9 inches take.

Some further points:
There are different forests and we will need both types.
1) Forests for production of wood

2) Big natural forests.
These need to be protected from anything resembling clear cutting. Big old trees are much more resilient which will be needed with the global temperature changes to come. What we think of as old today is about 30 to 50 years...so longer then ´the production cycle´ but many trees can become much older so let those stand. Since trees don´t grow that fast it makes even more sense to go for the 21 inch measure.

Also the carbon saved in the paper is only the mass in the trees.

There is additional carbon sequestering in mosses and animals and in roots below the ground.

Animal life needs all kinds of trees including ´dead standing wood´ and some lying around.

Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #248 on: November 12, 2020, 10:38:33 AM »
New research identifies 'triple trouble' for mangrove coasts

Some of the world's most valuable ecosystems are facing a "triple threat" to their long-term durability and survival, new research shows.

The study found that mangrove forests, their large biodiversity and the coastal protection they provide are under pressure from three distinct threats -- sea-level rise, lack of mud and squeezed habitats.

...

It shows the negative effects of river dams that decrease the supply of mud that could otherwise raise mangrove soils, while buildings and seawalls largely occupy the space that mangroves require for survival.

The study is published in Environmental Research Letters.

...

Mangroves withstand flooding by tides and capture mud to raise their soils. But as the mangrove trees cannot survive if they are under water for too long, the combination of sea-level rise and decreasing mud supply from rivers poses a serious threat.

New computer simulations show how coastal forests retreat landward under sea-level rise, especially in coastal areas where mud in the water is declining. The simulations include interactions among tides, mud transport and, for the first time, multiple mangrove species.

Dr van Maanen, senior lecturer at the University of Exeter and supervisor of the project, said: "Both mangrove coverage loss and diversity loss go hand in hand when that landward retreat is limited by expanding cities, agriculture or flood protection works."

The model also shows that mangrove trees with dense roots trap mud more effectively and can stop it from reaching forest areas further inland.

Danghan Xie, PhD researcher at Utrecht University and lead author of the study said: "This makes the more landward-located trees flood for longer periods of time, an effect that is intensified by sea-level rise.

"Increasing landward flooding then seriously reduces biodiversity.

"Human land use prevents the mangroves 'escaping' flooding by migrating inland, narrowing the mangrove zone and further endangering biodiversity."

A narrow mangrove zone is much less effective in protecting the coast against storms, or in the worst case loses its protective properties altogether.

...

"For coasts where mud supply remains limited, removal of barriers that obstruct inland migration is of utmost importance to avoid loss of mangrove forests and biodiversity."

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/11/201110081553.htm

Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2611
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1207
  • Likes Given: 1071
Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #249 on: November 13, 2020, 03:46:06 PM »
The burning scar: Inside the destruction of Asia’s last rainforests

A Korean palm oil giant has been buying up swathes of Asia's largest remaining rainforests. A visual investigation published today suggests fires have been deliberately set on the land.

Petrus Kinggo walks through the thick lowland rainforest in the Boven Digoel Regency.

"This is our mini market," he says, smiling. "But unlike in the city, here food and medicine are free."

Mr Kinggo is an elder in the Mandobo tribe. His ancestors have lived off these forests in Papua, Indonesia for centuries. Along with fishing and hunting, the sago starch extracted from palms growing wild here provided the community with their staple food. Their home is among the most biodiverse places on earth, and the rainforest is sacred and essential to the indigenous tribes.

Six years ago, Mr Kinggo was approached by South Korean palm oil giant Korindo, which asked him to help persuade his tribe and 10 other clans to accept just 100,000 rupiah ($8; £6) per hectare in compensation for their land. The company arrived with permits from the government and wanted a "quick transaction" with indigenous landholders, according to Mr Kinggo. And the promise of development was coupled with subtle intimidation, he said.

"The military and police came to my house, saying I had to meet with the company. They said they didn't know what would happen to me if I didn't."

...

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-54798452
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.