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sidd

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #350 on: September 18, 2020, 06:16:14 AM »
Slutsken at cnn: fuel savings from flying in formation

" avian scientists began to understand that birds were increasing aerodynamic efficiencies by flying in close formation, taking advantage of the changed airflow in each bird's wake."

"the Airbus fello'fly flight demonstration project will fly two large commercial aircraft in formation, looking to mimic the energy savings of our feathered friends."

" test flights in 2016 with an Airbus A380 megajet and A350-900 wide-body jetliner"

"Initial flight testing with two A350s began in March 2020. The program will be expanded next year to include the involvement of Frenchbee and SAS airlines, along with air traffic control and air navigation service providers from France, the UK, and Europe"

"  It's really nothing to do with close formationIt's really nothing to do with close formation"

"They will be 1 1/2 to 2 nautical miles away from the leading aircraft, and slightly offset, which means they are on the side of the vortex. It's no longer the vortex, it's the smooth current of rotating air which is next to the vortex, and we use the updraft of this air."

"on long-haul flights, fuel savings of between 5% and 10% may be achieved"

"Once in the upwash, autoflight systems will be required to maintain the correct position"

https://www.cnn.com/travel/article/airbus-formation-flight/index.html

There's a reference to a paper from 2001 about pelicans which is quite nice. doi: 10.1038/35099670

sidd



kassy

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #351 on: September 27, 2020, 11:03:24 AM »
There was a great article on aviation which i forgot to post luckily ASLR posted it on his thread:

The linked reference indicates that the climate forcing from global aviation is higher than previously assumed by consensus climate science:

Lee, D. S. et al. (2020) The contribution of global aviation to anthropogenic climate forcing for 2000 to 2018, Atmospheric Environment, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117834

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231020305689

Abstract
Global aviation operations contribute to anthropogenic climate change via a complex set of processes that lead to a net surface warming. Of importance are aviation emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), water vapor, soot and sulfate aerosols, and increased cloudiness due to contrail formation. Aviation grew strongly over the past decades (1960–2018) in terms of activity, with revenue passenger kilometers increasing from 109 to 8269 billion km yr−1, and in terms of climate change impacts, with CO2 emissions increasing by a factor of 6.8–1034 Tg CO2 yr−1. Over the period 2013–2018, the growth rates in both terms show a marked increase. Here, we present a new comprehensive and quantitative approach for evaluating aviation climate forcing terms. Both radiative forcing (RF) and effective radiative forcing (ERF) terms and their sums are calculated for the years 2000–2018. Contrail cirrus, consisting of linear contrails and the cirrus cloudiness arising from them, yields the largest positive net (warming) ERF term followed by CO2 and NOx emissions. The formation and emission of sulfate aerosol yields a negative (cooling) term. The mean contrail cirrus ERF/RF ratio of 0.42 indicates that contrail cirrus is less effective in surface warming than other terms. For 2018 the net aviation ERF is +100.9 mW (mW) m−2 (5–95% likelihood range of (55, 145)) with major contributions from contrail cirrus (57.4 mW m−2), CO2 (34.3 mW m−2), and NOx (17.5 mW m−2). Non-CO2 terms sum to yield a net positive (warming) ERF that accounts for more than half (66%) of the aviation net ERF in 2018. Using normalization to aviation fuel use, the contribution of global aviation in 2011 was calculated to be 3.5 (4.0, 3.4) % of the net anthropogenic ERF of 2290 (1130, 3330) mW m−2. Uncertainty distributions (5%, 95%) show that non-CO2 forcing terms contribute about 8 times more than CO2 to the uncertainty in the aviation net ERF in 2018. The best estimates of the ERFs from aviation aerosol-cloud interactions for soot and sulfate remain undetermined. CO2-warming-equivalent emissions based on global warming potentials (GWP* method) indicate that aviation emissions are currently warming the climate at approximately three times the rate of that associated with aviation CO2 emissions alone. CO2 and NOx aviation emissions and cloud effects remain a continued focus of anthropogenic climate change research and policy discussions.
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #352 on: October 03, 2020, 03:08:50 PM »
Please take these planes off our hands.

OCTOBER 01, 2020
Boeing courting Delta, others to take 737 MAX 'white tails': sources
Quote
SEATTLE/CHICAGO (Reuters) - Delta Air Lines (DAL.N) is among airlines Boeing Co (BA.N) has approached to buy dozens of 737 MAX jets built for clients that have since scrapped their orders or gone bust, two people familiar with the matter said.

As the 737 MAX edges closer to commercial flight after an 18-month grounding, Boeing is scrambling to find buyers for the so-called “white tails” - jets painted white, awaiting an airline livery, or whose color schemes need to be swapped.

The 737 MAX’s ban following two fatal crashes had already caused some carriers to walk and the number of unsold jets has soared as the COVID-19 pandemic decimated demand for air travel and new aircraft. ...
https://www.reuters.com/article/boeing-737max-delta-idUSKBN26M5JK
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blu_ice

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #353 on: October 05, 2020, 12:15:35 PM »
The last A380 superjumbo has been built.

Quote
Sep 25, 2020,12:36pm EDT
The Last A380 Just Rolled Off Airbus’ Production Line. It May Never Fly A Single Passenger.
Eric Tegler

Aerospace & Defense

The last ever Airbus A380 awaits final assembly after rolling off the Airbus production in Toulouse
 
Airbus completed initial assembly of the last A380, the world’s largest passenger plane, at its production plant in Toulouse, France, on Wednesday. The company has built 242 of the double-decker airliners but the future of the final jet, serial number 272 is uncertain. Will it ever fly passengers?

That’s a question for the airline customer, Airbus says. The last A380 is one of eight that Dubai-based Emirates still has on order. Emirates is the largest operator of A380s with a fleet of 115 in service. Thanks to Covid-19, all but a handful of its current fleet of superjumbos is grounded though the airline did resume A380 service to six destinations - Moscow, Toronto, Cairo, Ghuangzhou, London and Paris - starting in July.

As of August, the number of parked A380s worldwide stood at 204, excluding previously retired jets. There simply isn’t passenger demand for superjumbos or other widebodies though analysts point out that airlines are reluctant to take them off the books now since their retirement would trigger impairment charges.

Since A380s form the backbone of its fleet, that’s a thorny problem for Emirates. However there may be a way to partially get around it. Emirates could cancel its final order for superjumbos.

In May, Bloomberg reported that the Middle East carrier was seeking to cancel five of its last eight A380 deliveries. With the pandemic expected to drag on into 2021 and a full rebound in passenger demand not expected until several years later, Emirates may try to cancel its entire order including the very last A380 built.

I asked Airbus for an interview on the future of superjumbo 272 but the company declined, sending emailed responses instead. The last A380 will stay in Toulouse for production checks, engine installation, systems calibration and a test flight. Next, it will go to Airbus’ Hamburg, Germany facility for cabin installation and full painting in Emirates’ livery. And then?

Emirates said it couldn’t comment on its A380 plans, citing the lack of available spokespeople with the onset of the weekend in Dubai. That leaves 272’s future in question.

Other operators like Air France and Lufthansa have announced the retirement of their A380 fleets, possibly as soon as 2022-23. For carriers like Asiana Airlines, Qatar Airways, Etihad Airways, Malaysia Airlines and Thai International Airways, shrinking or retiring the A380 portions of their fleet looks likely. That leaves only a few including British Airways, Singapore Airlines and Qantas as longer term potential A380 operators.

Even for these airlines, the numbers will have to make sense. Industry analyst Dhierin Bechai points out that the minimum A380 fleet size “for aircraft to benefit from scale advantages and service a route is considered to be six aircraft.”

A380 production began in 2006 after a two-year delay and $25 billion in investment from Airbus. The company anticipated a market for up to 1,200 of its massive airliners capable of carrying up to 853 passengers.

In the years since, Airbus estimates that the global A380 fleet has carried approximately 320 million passengers. But in late 2020 it appears possible that the last superjumbo ever built may never carry even one paying passenger.

*Emirates offered this late-breaking statement regarding the A380:

The Emirates A380 experience remains highly sought after by travelers for its spacious and comfortable cabins. The airline will gradually expand the deployment of this popular aircraft in line with demand and operational approvals.

Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #354 on: October 07, 2020, 07:41:00 PM »
How Safe Is Air Travel In COVID Time? A JAMA Article Says It's Safer Than You Think
https://www.acsh.org/news/2020/10/01/how-safe-air-travel-covid-time-jama-article-says-its-safer-you-think-15064
Quote
An article in the latest edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association reports that when it comes to risk from the coronavirus, air travel is much safer than you might believe. It is safer than shopping in a supermarket, riding on a train, or going to work in an office. Why? It's all about the air quality in the cabin.
SHARKS (CROSSED OUT) MONGEESE (SIC) WITH FRICKIN LASER BEAMS ATTACHED TO THEIR HEADS

Sigmetnow

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #355 on: October 10, 2020, 03:26:43 AM »
7:44 PM · Oct 9, 2020
Flightradar24: "Qantas' ‘Great Southern Land’ scenic ‘flight to nowhere’ has just departed Sydney. It will return in approximately 7 hours.”
https://mobile.twitter.com/flightradar24/status/1314713440523628549
Image below.  Tweet has a link to track the flight.
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #356 on: October 11, 2020, 06:35:45 PM »
The celebrated pilot said that even if the FAA ungrounds the jet next month as expected, additional modifications are needed as soon as possible.
Celebrated pilot Capt. Sully urges further updates to Boeing's 737 MAX
October 10, 2020
Quote
Capt.  Chesley “Sully” Sullenberger  isn’t satisfied that the fixes for Boeing’s 737 MAX proposed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are enough.
In an exclusive interview, the celebrated pilot said that even if the FAA ungrounds the jet next month as expected, additional modifications are needed as soon as possible to improve the plane’s crew alerting system and add a third check on the jet’s angle of attack data.
“I'm not going to say, ‘We're done, good enough, move on,'” said Sullenberger.
“People are going to fly on it and I will probably be one of them,” he added. "The updated MAX will probably be as safe as the (previous model) 737 NG when they are done with it. But it's not as good as it should be."
After  the FAA announced in August the proposed design changes for the MAX’s return to service, there were numerous comments from aviation experts calling for such updates. …
https://www.seattletimes.com/business/boeing-aerospace/celebrated-pilot-sully-urges-further-updates-to-boeings-737-max-and-to-older-737s/
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #357 on: October 28, 2020, 06:05:27 PM »
Southwest announced it will no longer limit capacity on flights starting December 1. The change marks an end to Southwest's pandemic policy and allows it the opportunity to fill planes through the typically busy holiday travel season.

Southwest Airlines says it will sell every seat
Quote
Southwest Airlines is about to sell every seat on board its flights.

The news that the airline will no longer limit the number of seats sold comes on the heels of Southwest announcing a $1.2 billion third quarter loss because of the pandemic. In a Thursday earnings report, Southwest announced it will no longer limit capacity on flights starting December 1. The change marks an end to Southwest's pandemic policy and allows it the opportunity to fill planes through the typically busy holiday travel season.

"This practice of effectively keeping middle seats open bridged us from the early days of the pandemic, when we had little knowledge about the behavior of the virus, to now," Southwest said. "Today, aligned with science-based findings from trusted medical and aviation organizations, we will resume selling all available seats for travel beginning December 1, 2020."

Southwest doesn't have assigned seats so it was limiting capacity on flights to allow passengers to spread out rather than blocking middle seats like many other airlines have done. Southwest said it will notify customers on a flight ahead of time if more than 65% of seats are sold.

The airline said Thursday it believes leaving middle seats empty means the airline will miss out on $20 million in potential revenue in October, and between $40 million and $60 million in November.

That leaves Delta Air Lines as the final remaining big four carrier to limit capacity in aircraft cabins. Delta CEO Ed Bastian said last week on a conference call with analysts that the policy is likely to end early in 2021, depending on consumer confidence in air travel.

"We've got a lot of studies coming out from experts on the safety of air travel," Bastian said regarding the airline's current capacity limits. And sometime in the first half of next year, I have no doubt, we will be [lifting] those caps. But we haven't picked a date yet, and I'd say we will continue to start the new year with the caps in place."

United Airlines and American Airlines have been selling every seat for months. Alaska Airlines announced Thursday it will extend its policy of blocking middle seats until January 6, 2021.

A recently released Defense Department study found that among mask-wearing airplane passengers, the risk of airborne droplet transmission in airplanes is limited due to specialized air flow and filtration systems.
https://www.cnn.com/travel/amp/southwest-airlines-selling-middle-seats/index.html
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NeilT

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #358 on: October 29, 2020, 01:49:21 PM »
There are people who are far less concerned with catching, or spreading, the virus, than they are with their own personal travel needs.

As someone who has driven, alone, around half the width of the US (equivalent), without cruise control, in a 24 hour period, I can sympathise.

My current job has been driven by the pandemic, it is in transport and the project I'm working on is a result of the lack of airline orders due to the pandemic killing airlines.  So, I guess, I see their problems.  I flew one return flight a fortnight up to the end of Feb; I haven't flown since.  Airlines can't withstand this indefinitely and governments are unwilling to support them long term either.

France and Germany pumped upper single digit billions into Air France and Lufthansa to ensure they still have flag carriers when the pandemic is over.  Other governments have not been so forthcoming.

I see this move as a lack of options.  Fly full or die.
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Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #359 on: October 29, 2020, 04:55:54 PM »
Who are science’s frequent flyers? Climate researchers
https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-03000-1
Quote
Survey finds climate scholars take more flights on average per year — but make greater effort to offset their emissions.
SHARKS (CROSSED OUT) MONGEESE (SIC) WITH FRICKIN LASER BEAMS ATTACHED TO THEIR HEADS

Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #360 on: November 02, 2020, 09:22:10 PM »
These Are the Airlines Teetering on the Brink of Covid Ruin
https://ca.finance.yahoo.com/news/airlines-teetering-brink-covid-ruin-210000548.html
Quote
Carriers in jurisdictions where there is scant support from up high are most likely to go bust, according to an analysis by Bloomberg News. Using the Z-score method developed by Edward Altman in the 1960s to predict bankruptcies, Bloomberg sifted through available data on listed commercial airlines to identify the ones most prone to financial strife.

Versus the same analysis done in March, when the virus was just starting to spread beyond China into parts of Asia and Europe, rapidly cutting off international travel, the results show a clear swing to the West. At least four of the 10 airlines named back then have restructured in some fashion, and all but one were in Asia.

The list now is populated more by carriers in Africa and Latin America, where some have already folded or entered administration. Representatives from Medview Airlines Plc, Precision Air Services Ltd., Grupo Aeromexico SAB and Gol Linhas Aereas Inteligentes SA didn’t immediately respond to requests seeking comment.
SHARKS (CROSSED OUT) MONGEESE (SIC) WITH FRICKIN LASER BEAMS ATTACHED TO THEIR HEADS

Sigmetnow

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #361 on: November 10, 2020, 03:38:11 AM »
Eviation Set To Deliver First 9-Passenger Electric Airplane In 2022
November 6th, 2020
Quote
The dream of commercially viable electric airplanes is getting closer all the time. Eviation, a startup based in Israel, says it plans to deliver the first of its bespoke airplanes to Cape Air, a regional carrier serving New England, in 2022. Eviation began building Alice, its first electric airplane, in 2017. …

Business Insider provides a transcript of comments made by co-founder and CEO Omer Bar-Yohay regarding that video and they are very revealing. There is a clear philosophical link between Alice and the Model S, the first electric car from Tesla. Both companies elected not to electrify existing products but rather to start from scratch with a clean sheet design. Bar-Yohay acknowledges that the batteries needed to power Alice present design problems. 30% of the takeoff weight of a typical commercial aircraft is jet fuel. At 8,000 lbs, the weight of Alice’s battery is 60% of the plane’s takeoff weight.

To compensate, the airframe itself is make as light at possible. It is also designed to fly through the air more efficiently than conventional airplanes which typically have a lift to drag ratio of 17:1. For Alice, that rate is 25:1, meaning it’s more aerodynamically efficient and uses less energy getting into the air. ‘The battery is not located in one place. “That battery’s literally all over the place,” ‘Bar-Yohay says. “It’s under the floor, it’s in the wings, in the fuselage in different locations.”

Regional travel is a big part of the airline industry. In 2017, half of the 4 billion air tickets sold were for regional flights, according to Business Insider, yet airlines often use planes that are capable of flying across the Atlantic for those flights. “That’s an insanity because we’re using the wrong tools for the job, Bar-Yohay says. By contrast, Alice is built for regional flights up to 650 miles at a cruising speed of 276 mph. That covers journeys like from San Jose to San Diego or London to Prague. While conventional planes fly faster, electric planes like Alice are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude quieter than commercial jet aircraft and could use shorter runways. Those factors mean they can fly into and out of smaller airports that are closer to travelers’ final destinations.

“I think it’s important that the industry looks at its responsibilities to the planet and makes itself more sustainable in terms of emissions, but it needs to work economically,” Bar-Yohay says. Alice costs about $200 per flight hour to operate. A turboprop with similar performance costs between $1,200 and $2,000 per flight hour, meaning ticket prices for Alice could be substantially less than those for conventional aircraft. Lots of people might be delighted to add an hour or two to their flight if they can fly for half the money. …
https://cleantechnica.com/2020/11/06/eviation-set-to-deliver-first-9-passenger-electric-airplane-in-2022/amp/

—-
Electric Air Taxi Service Set To Launch In California By 2021
April 24th, 2020
Quote
Quantum Air announced plans to launch what it’s calling a world’s first — an air taxi service using a fleet of 26 all-electric flying taxis to shuttle passengers between major points in the greater Los Angeles area. Quantum XYZ is claiming that these air taxi trips will replace hours-long car rides in LA’s notoriously bad traffic with “blissfully short” flights that last just a few minutes. And, maybe best of all, Quantum says its air taxi flights will be surprisingly affordable.

Unlike the drone-like, multi-rotor eVTOL concepts that seem to be coming out of the woodwork some days, Quantum’s air taxi service will utilize conventional, fixed-wing aircraft powered by lightweight, high-torque electric motors from Siemens. …

Bye says the eFlyer2 costs just $23 per hour of flight to operate, compared to $110 per hour for a conventionally-powered Cessna 172. …
https://cleantechnica.com/2020/04/24/electric-air-taxi-service-set-to-launch-in-california-by-2021/
⬇️ Photo below.
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wili

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #362 on: November 17, 2020, 06:02:08 PM »
(mods, please merge if there is a relevant thread for this that I missed)

1% of people cause half of global aviation emissions – study

Exclusive: Researchers say Covid-19 hiatus is moment to tackle elite ‘super emitters’


https://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/nov/17/people-cause-global-aviation-emissions-study-covid-19

We pretty much all bear some responsibility, but that should not keep us from recognizing who the main villains are in this story
"A force de chercher de bonnes raisons, on en trouve; on les dit; et après on y tient, non pas tant parce qu'elles sont bonnes que pour ne pas se démentir." Choderlos de Laclos "You struggle to come up with some valid reasons, then cling to them, not because they're good, but just to not back down."

Bruce Steele

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #363 on: November 18, 2020, 06:55:00 AM »
Not walking the walk !

etienne

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #364 on: November 18, 2020, 07:19:36 AM »
I would even say "Politics". It's a good topic to get angry. Luxembourg has huge traffic and housing issues, once as joke I said that the solution was easy, you just have to increase taxes, but nobody found it funny.

El Cid

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #365 on: November 18, 2020, 07:28:05 AM »
Not until people say "I am responsible for  destroying the planet" instead of blaming it on anyone else, will change happen.

Yes, the rich consume more resources than the poor. However, global aviation is responsible for only 2,5% of CO2 emissions, and even a part of that is freight aviation  (ups and amazon sending all the goodies to you).
So we are talking about at most 1% of total emissions. 10 times as much is emitted by passanger traffic, ie. average Joe driving around instead of biking, walking, whatever.
Aviation by the rich is a red herring. Reduction of superfluous consumption, change of habits by all is needed, besides government regulation aiming to reduce emissions. But look what happened when France wanted to put some 10 cents per liter tax on gasoline: the people revolted. People don't want change. people want to live their cozy lives....

kassy

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #366 on: November 18, 2020, 12:05:03 PM »
Since it is about aviation emissions i have merged this thread into the aviation thread.
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

wili

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #367 on: November 18, 2020, 01:35:16 PM »
That's quite a dodge there, EC!

So if I decide too burn tires in my backyard, and my neighbors complain, I can use your wonderful logic and point out that only a small fraction of urban pollution is from tire burning, while farting is significantly more, and my average joe neighbor farts all the time!

So...'tire burning is a red herring'!!

:) :) :)

(Glad to see that brave people are at the ready to run to the defense of the poor, put upon super-rich people of the world--while also ever ready to dump on the 'average joe'--It really warms the heart to see such intrepid compassion for those least needy among us :) :) :) )
"A force de chercher de bonnes raisons, on en trouve; on les dit; et après on y tient, non pas tant parce qu'elles sont bonnes que pour ne pas se démentir." Choderlos de Laclos "You struggle to come up with some valid reasons, then cling to them, not because they're good, but just to not back down."

oren

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Re: Aviation
« Reply #368 on: November 19, 2020, 04:02:40 AM »
You might be surprised to know that many million-milers are not super-rich, not even rich. Like this stringed-instrument guy I know, he used to be a player in an orchestra but that living is dead, and now he is privately trading violins and such, flying all over the globe to show, to buy and to sell, barely making ends meet in the process. A very weird life and very harmful for the planet, but certainly not rich.
There are also many people who fly for their job in marketing, sales or engineering, making a transatlantic return flight every two or four weeks. Certainly richer than the average human, but most are not considered rich in their own countries, and definitely not super-rich. I am familiar with more than a few of such people. Most if not all hate flying. Again, a ruinous lifestyle but one driven by making a living.
The main issue here is globalization, and the too-cheap cost of flights that does not take into account the environmental cost. If transatlantic or regional flights cost 4 times as much, you would not be seeing many of these flights, as it would not be economical to continue making a living this way. Then only the super-rich would be flying, and the above complaint would be more accurate.
What could actually make a big dent is Covid, that has taught all to do remote meetings and to find them acceptable, in fact much more productive unless an actual non-software product is to be demonstrated or transferred during the meeting.