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kassy

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #250 on: December 30, 2019, 03:59:56 PM »
Pre-Inca Canal System Uses Hillsides as Sponges to Store Water

...

A team of hydrologists, engineers, and social scientists is hoping to strengthen the water security of Lima and other Peruvian cities through analysis of a 1,400-year-old nature-based system developed by pre-Inca mountain communities. The technique uses a canal system that diverts water from streams to small ponds or spreads it over rocky hillslopes that act as natural sponges. This slows the flow of water down the mountains, preserving it into the dry season.

The team’s analysis determined that if the system were scaled up to its maximum capacity, it could divert, infiltrate, and recover up to 100 million cubic meters of water and increase the region’s dry-season water volume by up to 33%. Lead author Boris Ochoa-Tocachi of Imperial College London presented the team’s findings at AGU’s Fall Meeting 2019 in San Francisco, Calif.

Quantifying the Benefit of Green Infrastructure
https://eos.org/articles/pre-inca-canal-system-uses-hillsides-as-sponges-to-store-water
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blumenkraft

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #251 on: January 07, 2020, 05:00:11 PM »
Moscow admits it will be severely troubled by climate change, but a reduction of fossil fuels extraction is out of the question

Link >> https://thebarentsobserver.com/en/ecology/2020/01/moscow-admits-it-will-be-severely-punished-climate-change-reduction-fossil-fuels
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kassy

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #252 on: January 09, 2020, 01:17:55 PM »
Evolving landscape added fuel to Gobi Desert's high-speed winds

...

The Hami basin may once have been covered in a fine, light-colored sediment, similar to California's Death Valley. Within the past 3 million years, however, strong winds carried away those fine sediments, leaving behind a sea of gray and black rocks.

Using a weather and forecasting model, Abell and his colleagues studied how this change from light to dark landscape affected wind speeds in the basin. By absorbing more sunlight, the darker stones exposed by wind erosion heated up the air within the depression. The team found that the resulting differences in temperature between the depression and the surrounding mountains increased wind speeds by up to 25 percent. In addition, the amount of time the area experiences high wind speeds increased by 30 to 40 percent.

Thus, by changing how much sunlight the ground absorbs, wind erosion appears to have exacerbated wind speeds in this region. It's the first time this positive feedback loop has been described and quantified, said Abell.

But it's probably not the only example of its kind. The researchers think this interaction may have helped to shape other stony deserts in Australia, Iran, and perhaps even on Mars.

...

Climate models typically do not account for changes in the reflectance of landscapes other than those caused by ice and vegetation. They also tend to assume arid landscapes remain unchanged over time. That could be problematic in some cases, said Abell.

"If you wanted to calculate the wind or atmospheric circulation in this area 100,000 years ago, you would need to consider the change in the surface geology, or else you could be incorrect by 20 or 30 percent," he said.

He added that the newly discovered relationship could also help to accurately model how other landscape changes, such as urbanization and desertification, influence atmospheric patterns by changing the reflectance of the Earth's surface.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200108131731.htm
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kassy

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #253 on: January 12, 2020, 01:55:35 PM »
There's a 'Desert' in The Middle of The Pacific, And We Now Know What Lives There

...

Despite taking up 10 percent of the ocean's surface, the South Pacific Gyre (SPG) – the largest of Earth's five giant ocean-spanning current systems – is generally considered a 'desert' in terms of marine biology.

Nonetheless, stuff does live there, even if organic life in these waters (and the seabed below it) is few and far between, due to a range of factors.

These include distance from land (and the nutrient matter it provides), the way water swirling currents isolate the centre of the gyre from the rest of the ocean, and high UV levels in this part of the ocean.
...
During a six-week expedition aboard the German research vessel FS Sonne from December 2015 to January 2016, a crew led by the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology sailed a 7,000-kilometre (4,350 miles) journey through the SPG from Chile to New Zealand.

En route, they sampled the microbial populations of the remote waters at depths between 20 to 5,000 metres (65 ft to 16,400 ft), using a newly developed analysis system that enabled the researchers to sequence and identify organic samples en route in as little as 35 hours.

"To our surprise, we found about a third less cells in South Pacific surface waters compared to ocean gyres in the Atlantic", said one of the researchers, microbial ecologist Bernhard Fuchs, back in July 2019.

"It was probably the lowest cell numbers ever measured in oceanic surface waters."

Among the microbes the team found, 20 major bacterial clades dominated the lot. These were mostly organisms scientists have encountered in other gyre systems, such as SAR11, SAR116, SAR86, Prochlorococcus, and more.

...

One of the populations identified, called AEGEAN–169, was particularly numerous in the surface waters of the SPG, whereas previous research had only discovered them at 500-metre depths.

"This indicates an interesting potential adaptation to ultraoligotrophic [low in biological productivity] waters and high solar irradiance", said one of the team, microbiologist Greta Reintjes.

"It is definitely something we will investigate further."

https://www.sciencealert.com/there-s-a-desert-in-the-middle-of-the-pacific-and-we-now-know-what-lives-there
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Tor Bejnar

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #254 on: January 15, 2020, 06:49:59 PM »
Cross post:  I thought this might go here...
I don't know if this is the right thread for this web, happy to move it somewhere else.

NASA free software. More than 600 programs for very different subjects. Have a look!

https://software.nasa.gov/
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kassy

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #255 on: January 29, 2020, 05:03:16 PM »
Even low particulate matter pollution is bad for the heart, says study

There is a 1%-4% increased risk of cardiac arrest associated with every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, the fine particulate matter linked to a slew of respiratory diseases and cardiac ailments, according to report in the latest edition of Lancet Planetary Health. The study analysed a quarter of a million patients and was among the largest of its kind. It sought to proffer evidence that even low levels of particulate matter pollution are dangerous.

“Our study supports recent evidence that there is no safe level of air pollution — finding an increased risk of cardiac arrest despite air quality generally meeting the standards,” Professor Kazuaki Negishi, co-author and Professor, University of Sydney School of Medicine, said in a statement.

...

The records analysed were from Jan 1, 2014, to Dec 31, 2015. The scientists chose Japan because it had consistent and detailed measurements of cardiac events as well as pollutant records. A key objective of the study, the authors said, was to investigate a link between cardiac events and exposure to pollution levels that were within, or below, World Health Organisation (WHO) standards.

“More than 90% of (cardiac events) in our study occurred with PM2·5 levels lower than the WHO guideline and Australian standard daily average concentration of 25 μg/m3, while 98.5% of them happened at levels lower than the Japanese or American daily standard level of 35 μg/m3,” the authors note.

https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/even-low-particulate-matter-pollution-is-bad-for-the-heart-says-study/article30678268.ece

or

There is an increased risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest even from short-term exposure to low concentrations of dangerously small particulate matter PM2.5, an international study has found, noting an association with gaseous pollutants such as those from coal burning, wildfires/bushfires and motor vehicles. The authors call for a tightening of standards worldwide; the findings also point to the need to transition to cleaner energy.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200128115421.htm
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kassy

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #256 on: February 03, 2020, 02:07:58 PM »
These corporations are quietly bankrolling Congress' top climate denier

Amazon has donated $8500 in the 2020 cycle to support the reelection of Senator Jim Inhofe (R-OK), the most powerful and outspoken climate denier in Congress. Amazon's most recent donation to Inhofe, $2500, came on December 31, just two months after Bezos' climate announcement.

Google: $10,000 in donations to Inhofe

Microsoft: $2500 in contributions to Inhofe

Dell: $7500 in contributions to Inhofe

General Electric: $15,000 in contributions to Inhofe

https://popular.info/p/these-corporations-are-quietly-bankrolling
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pikaia

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #257 on: February 11, 2020, 11:25:14 AM »
What does a 9 inch ice core sound like when dropped down a 450 foot hole?  :D

https://twitter.com/blueicehiggins/status/1225852974813110277

kassy

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #258 on: February 11, 2020, 01:48:59 PM »
Interesting sound. The Peter Neff reply goes into more detail on the sound.

Long ago when we had ice and i had ice skates i liked listening to the sound of all the people skating by just lying down on the ice and listening. Of course this only sounded like the earlier part since we did not have holes like that. Only shallow ones with ducks.  :)
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blumenkraft

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #259 on: February 11, 2020, 06:55:26 PM »
Beware, this user bites.

kassy

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #260 on: February 17, 2020, 02:08:57 PM »
Intersting article but no obvious thread for it.

Hydropower dams cool rivers in the Mekong River basin, satellites show

Using 30 years of satellite data, researchers discovered that within one year of the opening of a major dam in the Mekong River basin, downstream river temperatures during the dry season dropped by up to 3.6 degrees F (2 degrees C).

...

The researchers used Landsat satellites to track changes in surface water temperature for the Sekong, Sesan and Srepok rivers. The satellites capture the heat, or infrared radiation, from the rivers.

"With these data, we're looking at the temperature emissions from the rivers. It's like night vision: Warmer things give off more emissions, colder things give off less," said lead author Matthew Bonnema, a postdoctoral researcher at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, who completed this research as a UW doctoral student in civil and environmental engineering. "These satellites have been predominantly used over land, not water, because you need to be looking at a big enough area. But there's almost 40 years of Landsat data that works great for large rivers that people are only recently starting to take advantage of."

...

"At the beginning of the wet season, the dams start to have more water than they can store, so they're letting it go in a controlled way," Bonnema said. "As the wet season goes on they're like, 'OK, let's fill up the reservoir' and hold the water. Then when dry season comes, they have this big water supply that they let out over the course of the dry season.

"If you look at the river flows after a dam goes in, you end up with more water in the dry season and less water in the wet season than before. The dry-season water also happens to be colder because it's pulled from deep within the reservoir. That brings the river temperature down closer to what it is in the wet season."

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/02/200214134657.htm
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wdmn

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #261 on: February 17, 2020, 05:43:10 PM »

kassy

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #262 on: February 23, 2020, 10:16:19 AM »
Also see #242 and #244 for related articles

We need to address streaming’s massive carbon footprint

...

According to a new report released by Netflix, the platform’s “global energy consumption increased by 84% in 2019 to a total of 451,000 megawatt hours; enough to power 40,000 average US homes for a year.”

It’s time for society to confront the fact that we’re burning through huge amounts of energy to stream television and movies, game online, hold video conferences, and power voice assistants like Alexa or Siri – and to support the technology infrastructure behind those services.

....

Data centers are the Internet’s back office. They’re the invisible engines that power everything we do online. Eight million of them run full tilt 24/7 to meet our insatiable, global demand. These are massive complexes lined with row after row of servers, and much of the energy these farms use goes toward cooling these processing machines.

To temper all that extra heat, companies build them in colder regions – in countries like Iceland, Ireland, Finland, and Canada. Even so, they use more than 200 terawatt hours a year worldwide, the equivalent of Australia’s annual electricity consumption. For a country like Ireland, that means devoting one-third of all national electricity to data-center operations by 2027.

The developed world’s irreversible and seemingly insatiable streaming appetite means these numbers are still tracking upward. In fact, global data transfer and the infrastructure needed to support it has surpassed the aerospace industry (2.5% of global totals) in terms of carbon emissions (nearly 4% of global totals). Which begs the question: What happens as developing countries begin catching up?

...

According to Cisco, 60% of the world’s population will be online, with video making up more than 80% of all internet traffic, by 2022. A recent study from Electronic Entertainment Design and Research found that the emissions created by gaming in the U.S. is roughly equivalent to introducing five million additional cars on the road. The environmental implications span every type of streaming and online activity – and the impact is immediate.

There are steps individuals can take today to make a difference in the near future as we speed toward 2030, a year singled out by the United Nations as a global deadline for climate action. According to Harvard Law School’s resident energy manager, turning down the screen brightness on devices used for streaming from 100% to 70% can reduce total energy consumption by 20%. Online gamers and people who stream other forms of entertainment from their devices, like the Roku TV or an iPhone, should consider turning off systems completely when not in use. People who plan to rewatch the content they stream should consider downloading or finding other ways to move the content offline during viewing experiences.

...

For instance, YouTube could reduce its annual carbon footprint by the equivalent of about 300,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide if it only sent sound to users who are actively watching programming (versus having a web tab or dormant mobile application open).

https://venturebeat.com/2020/02/22/we-need-to-address-streamings-massive-carbon-footprint/
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TerryM

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #263 on: February 23, 2020, 01:53:06 PM »
Thanks kassey!
I had no idea that the servers were using anywhere near that amount of energy.


Are there any plans to place limits, or is this simply a "feature" of our connected, multinational world.
Terry

oren

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #264 on: February 23, 2020, 03:09:37 PM »
It would seem that this is partially (or wholly?) offset by the saving from reducing trips to the movies, to the mall, just driving around to relieve boredom, and other various forms of "offline" consumption.
But yeah, a sound-only mode for Youtube would be a real saving.

blumenkraft

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #265 on: February 23, 2020, 05:48:57 PM »
Podcasts are a thing!
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kassy

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Re: Article links: drop them here!
« Reply #266 on: February 23, 2020, 11:23:18 PM »
It is all the modern things we take for granted. Similar to people ordering crapand then complaining about delivery vans being in the way in the streets because all the neighbours order crap too.

Do we need it? Could you not just get it locally (if you had say a cafe the local merchant might come in and have a drink the guys from the China webshop not so much).

 
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wdmn

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