Cryosphere > Arctic background

Historic Arctic Expeditions

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I will add to this list, compiled from various sources, from time to time.

Historic Arctic Expeditions with links to useful articles.

1364 - Alexander Abakumovich, Governor of Novgorod, crosses Polar Urals and reaches the Gulf of Ob.

1553 - Willoughby Expedition.

1556 - Stephen Burrough is the first European to reach Novaya Zemlya.

1576 - Sir Martin Frobisher (1st Expedition)

1577 - Sir Martin Frobisher (2nd Expedition)

1578 - Sir Martin Frobisher (3rd Expedition)
         -  George Best  made scientific observations during Frobisher expeditions.

1583 - John Davis East Greenland expedition.
1585 - John Davis penetrates Davis Strait to 67oN.
1587 - John Davis 3rd expedition charts Davis Inlet, Labrador.

1594 - William BarentszWilliam Barentsz 1st voyage reaches Novaya ZemlyaNovaya Zemlya
1595 - William Barentsz 2nd voyage
1596 - William Barentsz 3rd voyage, discovers Spitzbergen

1609 - Henry Hudson North East Passage expedition
1610 - Henry Hudson North West Passage expedition

1872 - 1874 - George Nares Challenger expedition
1875 - 1876 - George Nares British Arctic expedition

1879 - George W. Delong USS Jeanette
         - USS Jeanette article

1881 - Adolphus Greely International Polar expedition

1888 - Fridtjof Nansen = Greenland Expedition
         - Nansen, Nobel Prize, book: Furthest North
         - more of Nansen's books, Fram Museum

1890 - John Muir Third Alaska Expedition

1892 - Robert Peary Greenland Expedition

1893 - 1895  - Fridtjof Nansen = Fram Expedition
        -  See also 1888.

1902–1904 - Rasmussen Danish Literary Expedition
                   - Knud Rasmussen and Peter Freuchen founded the original settlement at Thule

1906 - 1918 - Vilhjalmur Stefansson canadian arctic expedition and other expeditions

1924 - 1934 - Isobel Wylie Hutchison travels in Northern countries as botanist and movie maker

1926 - Airship Norge flies over the pole

1928 - Airship Italia crashes on polar ice

1937 - North Pole 1
         - USSR, world's first North Pole ice station.

1940 - Wegener Eismitte station set up on Greenland ice cap.
         -  More info here and here.

1940–1944 - St. Roch North West Passage voyage.
                   - St. Roch 2nd expedition.
                   - Between St. Roch and a cold place
                   - St. Roch model kit

1952 - 1983 - Drift Station Alpha, aka T3 or Fletcher's Island used as a scientific base by U.S. miltary
                    - Documentary footage

1958 - Operation Sunshine U.S.S. Nautilus

Tor Bejnar:
Last year I read Hampton Sides' In the Kingdom of Ice: the grand and terrible polar voyage of the USS Jeannette (2014) - The voyage started in July 1879 and [edit: the expedition] ended in tragedy in October 1881.  [edit: The ship sank long before then.] A few of the crew survived the ordeal.

Tor Bejnar:
Wikipedia has a List of Arctic expeditions that starts with "Inuit, Greek, and Viking voyages in the far north".


--- Quote from: Tor Bejnar on January 20, 2017, 04:32:06 AM ---Last year I read Hampton Sides' In the Kingdom of Ice: the grand and terrible polar voyage of the USS Jeannette (2014) - The voyage started in July 1879 and ended in tragedy in October 1881.  A few of the crew survived the ordeal.

--- End quote ---

You may enjoy this -

My email was 'returned' by mailer and I can't find any alternative contact.

I think I'll compile a list by merging wiki, the one from, my own articles and some old books.

I aim to put links to articles in the list and edit my first post from time to time.

For the record, here's what I posted before editing:

--- Quote ---There is a long list of historic Arctic expeditions posted here:

I've emailed for express permission to copy the list to the ASIF.

The first item is 1576  Sir Martin Frobisher (N. W. Passage Expedition)  The other George Best made some interesting scientific observations both before and during that expedition.

Modify message
--- End quote ---

It is not widely known in the western world that communist Russia had a good number of polar expeditions and from the 1920´s continous operationg research stations on the arctic ice. They were mostly located on so called ice islands, tabular icebergs of 20 to 70 thickness. Most stations were operational for 2 to 3 years and were abandoned when the ice island was exportet out of the arctic. Russia had never less than 2 stations operational in the arctic ice.
Initiator of these stations was the russian meteorologist Ernst Krenkel.
You will not find much information about this. I had the luck to buy a book, a german translation of a russian original with the title "mit dem Mikrophon am Nordpol" where you can read about the complete history of these stations. The program was abandoned as late as in the early 80´s, due to lack of thick multiyear ice to support semipermanent stations.
Really not much to read about him   :-\
If some of you is able to find this book, it is really worth a reading, absolutely with regard to the lack of information in the net.

Due to this continuous research program russia has a vast archive of ice maps. The academy of science in Moskva should be able to provide this to interested people who are capable to read and speak russian. I know they have the maps becaus when i was student in the 80´s i had a conversation with a german geologist who worked at the academy of science in russia and we discussed this issue. He was very generous with information at this time, something i really did not expect as a west germany born.


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