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vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #150 on: October 17, 2019, 08:41:46 PM »
Underwater Volcano Creates Bubbles More Than a Quarter-Mile Across
https://www.livescience.com/amp/giant-bubbles-underwater-volcano.html

In the early 20th century, sailors near Alaska reported seeing black bubbles seeming to boil out from the sea, each one the size of the dome of the capitol building in Washington, D.C. They weren't the only sailors who reported the bizarre phenomenon, and they weren't mistaken, except for one thing … the bubbles were much larger.

When the mostly underwater Bogoslof volcano in the Aleutian Islands erupts, it produces giant bubbles that can reach up to 1,444 feet (440 meters) across, according to a new study. These bubbles are filled with volcanic gas, so when they burst they create volcanic clouds tens of thousands of feet in the sky, said lead author John Lyons, a research geophysicist at the Alaska Volcano Observatory of the U.S. Geological Survey.

... "These shallow explosive submarine eruptions are so rare," Lyons said. "There's a lot of undersea volcanism, but the majority of it happens under lots and lots of water very deep and all that extra pressure tends to suppress how explosive eruptions are."

Lyons, et.al Infrasound from giant bubbles during explosive submarine eruptions, Nature Geoscience 2019
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #151 on: December 09, 2019, 06:22:13 PM »
Five Dead, Many Missing and ‘No Signs of Life’ After Volcanic Eruption on New Zealand Island
https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2019/12/08/white-island-whakaari-eruption-new-zealand-jacinda-ardern/

At least five people are dead with many others reported missing — and authorities fearing the worst — after a volcano erupted Monday at a popular tourist site in New Zealand.

Several dozen visitors, including some from a Royal Caribbean cruise ship, were on or near White Island when it erupted at 2:11 p.m. local time, releasing thick clouds of ash about 12,000 feet into the air. Some 18 people suffered serious burn injuries and were rescued.

Police do not believe there are any survivors among the missing, following what scientists called a “throat-clearing kind of eruption.”

“No signs of life have been seen at any point,” New Zealand Police said in a statement. “Police believe that anyone who could have been taken from the island alive was rescued at the time of the evacuation. Based on the information we have, we do not believe there are any survivors on the island.”

Deputy Commissioner John Tims said at a news conference that he didn’t know how many are still unaccounted for, estimating that figure to be in the “double digits.”



---------------------------------------

Volcano F is Origin of 'Floating Stones'
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-volcano-stones.html


Stones do not float in water—this is a truism. But there is hardly a rule without exception. In fact, some volcanic eruptions produce a very porous type of rock with a density so low that it does float: Pumice. An unusually large amount of it is currently drifting in the Southwest Pacific towards Australia. When it was first sighted in the waters around the island state of Tonga at the beginning of August, it almost formed a coherent layer on the ocean's surface. The "pumice raft" made it into headlines all over the world.

Various underwater volcanoes were discussed at that time as the potential source. But direct proof for the exact origin of the pumice was missing so far. Researchers at the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (Germany), together with colleagues from Canada and Australia, are now publishing evidence in the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research that clearly identifies the culprit. It is a so far nameless underwater volcano just 50 kilometres northwest of the Tongan island of Vava'u. "In the international scientific literature, it appears so far only under the number 243091 or as Volcano F," says Dr. Philipp Brandl of GEOMAR, first author of the study.

... The team found what they were looking for on of freely accessible satellite images. On an image of the ESA satellite Copernicus Sentinel-2 taken on 6 August 2019, clear traces of an active underwater eruption can be seen on the water surface. Since the images are exactly georeferenced, they could be compared with corresponding bathymetric maps of the seafloor. "The eruption traces fit exactly to Volcano F," says Dr. Brandl.

“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

Rodius

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #152 on: December 10, 2019, 02:03:58 AM »
White Island, the very active volcano that became more active and killed some people this week, is always dangerous to visit.
I have watched it explode a few times and it is called White Island because it is almost always active.

I am surprised that people are allowed to visit it as often as they do.

Anyway, this event was never an "if" event.... it is a "when" event. Tourists are warned about the dangers and decide to go anyway (because bad things only happen to other people).

While it is sad that people have died, and maybe I am a cold-hearted person, but I don't feel sorry for the situation given they visit with eyes wide open.

There is plenty of geological activity 100km +/- inland in Rotorua that is actually much, much safer.

Edit: I forgot to mention that there is now a reasonable chance of an earthquake there now.
« Last Edit: December 10, 2019, 02:22:05 AM by Rodius »

KiwiGriff

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #153 on: December 10, 2019, 03:37:51 AM »
I would not say any of our active volcanoes are  ever 100% safe.
Any  of them could have an eruption at any time . Even our biggest city is built on a massive volcanic field that has historically had an eruption every 500 years. last eruption in Auckland,  rangitoto, was 600 years ago .
The warning level on White island was at three but there is plenty of occasions when the volcanoes are at elevated risk and nothing happens. It is dangerous to walk around on an active volcano that is part of the attraction. Shite happens I am sorry that some died but ffs don't make it impossible to experience earths wonders because the natural world also comes complete with some risk.

I have a pet rock that jumped onto my boat 500 Nautical miles out in the pacific  :D
Seeing a raft of pumice that goes on for days is an awesome sight
I sailed though the one from the Home Reef eruption  in 2006.

Edit alert level was at two.
« Last Edit: December 10, 2019, 11:34:21 AM by KiwiGriff »
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Rodius

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #154 on: December 10, 2019, 08:26:55 AM »
I would not say any of our active volcanoes are  ever 100% safe.
Any  of them could have an eruption at any time . Even our biggest city is built on a massive volcanic field that has historically had an eruption every 500 years. last eruption in Auckland,  rangitoto, was 600 years ago .
The warning level on White island was at three but there is plenty of occasions when the volcanoes are at elevated risk and nothing happens. It is dangerous to walk around on an active volcano that is part of the attraction. Shite happens I am sorry that some died but ffs don't make it impossible to experience earths wonders because the natural world also comes complete with some risk.

I have a pet rock that jumped onto my boat 500 Nautical miles out in the pacific  :D
Seeing a raft of pumice that goes on for days is an awesome sight
I sailed though the one from the Home Reef eruption  in 2006.

I personally wouldnt go on White Island.... but I agree, some things are worth the risk and each evaluates their own levels. I mean, for me, I have climbed Tongariro twice and that blows up sometimes. It actually did it once 2 weeks after I climbed it lol.
The Southern Alps were my hiking paradise for a decade, I even got horribly lost there once because I underestimated the risk.
I have sat beside wild lions with nothing but fresh air between us.

Hmmmm, maybe I should visit White Island one day. But if it blows up, I wouldnt go around saying " I cant believe it blew up"


Tor Bejnar

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #155 on: December 10, 2019, 03:46:20 PM »
VOLCANO NEWS (http://www.sveurop.org/gb/news/news.htm) carries brief reports from many volcanoes around the world.  Some are updated more frequently than others.

Quote
NEW ZEALAND - White island volcano

December 10th, 2019

GEONET reported that since December 10th in the morning, seismic activity has remained low, but periodic jets of steam are still continuing and gas from the active ventilation zone. The volcanic alert level remains at level 3. The aviation color code remains orange. Over the next 24 hours, scientists will still estimating an equal probability of no eruption or a smaller / similar size eruption that would impact the floor of the main crater, based on our observations and measurements. GEONET reported that a phreatic eruption occurred on December 9 around 14:11 local time on White Island in northern New Zealand. This short-lived impulsive event affected the bottom of the crater. Activity seems to have decreased since the eruption. Monitoring data shows that there was a short-lived eruption that generated an ash plume at about 3,600 meters above the vent. Ashes covered the floor of the main crater, where there were about fifty people. ...
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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #156 on: December 10, 2019, 05:21:59 PM »
Lightning strikes  change the time to the 8th and apply, suggests when not to visit.

KiwiGriff

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #157 on: December 10, 2019, 07:00:42 PM »
Quote
Whakaari/White Island has been at a level two alert level 10 times since 2012, but yesterday was the first time it went from level two to an eruption.

While tour operators felt this level was within operating guidelines, some experts say the eruption wasn't wholly unexpected and even a "disaster waiting to happen".

Data gained from GeoNet website bulletins shows the alert level has reached two twice this year. It also reached the level in 2016, 2013 and 2012.

The bulletins show that yesterday's eruption was the first time an alert level of two led to an eruption. Eruptions in 2016 occurred when the alert level was at one.
https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/118101001/whakaari--white-island-a-level-two-sense-of-security

Web site for NZ geological hazards monitoring .
https://www.geonet.org.nz/
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vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #158 on: December 18, 2019, 06:50:07 PM »
Undersea Volcanism May Explain Medieval Year of Darkness
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-undersea-volcanism-medieval-year-darkness.html
https://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2019/12/17/undersea-volcanism-medieval-darkness/

Starting in 536 A.D., the sky went dark for more than a year. In some parts of Europe and Asia, the sun only shone for about four hours a day, and "accounts say the sun gave no more light than the moon," says Dallas Abbott, who studies paleoclimate and extraterrestrial impacts at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. The mysterious dimming of the sun brought on global cooling, famines, and civil upheavals; the Chinese reported eclipses that still can't be explained today. Trees struggled to grow from 536 to 555 A.D., suggesting that the solar dimming was extensive, and scholars don't know exactly why.

Last week, in a poster at the meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Abbott and her colleague John Barron from the U.S. Geological Survey presented a new interpretation of the event.

Volcanic eruptions have been known spew sulfur and other particles into the atmosphere that can block out sunlight. But geological records only indicate big eruptions in 536 and 541, which aren't enough to explain the nine-year downward spike in tree growth. In addition, it would require a lot of sulfur and ash to darken the sky so much, and some of that material should be visible in rock layers and ice cores. However, says Abbott, "the amount of sulfate that was deposited wasn't as much as in other eruptions where they experience a similar amount of dimming."

That led her and Barron to suspect that perhaps impacts from space rocks could have thrown up enough dust to cause the dimming. But now, after analyzing a Greenland ice core, they have another theory.

Surprisingly, the layers of the ice core contained 91 fossils of microscopic species that would have lived in warm, tropical waters. "We found by far the most low-latitude microfossils that anybody's ever found in an ice core," says Abbott. By comparison, they were only able to identify one high-latitude species in the mix.

How did all those warmth-loving tropical and subtropical species get all the way up onto the Greenland ice sheet?

The team suspects they were blown into the atmosphere by underwater volcanic eruptions near the equator. Rather than emitting lots of sulfur, these submarine eruptions (in approximately 536 and 538 A.D.) would have vaporized seawater, the rising steam carrying calcium-laden sediments and microscopic sea creatures into the atmosphere. After floating around the atmosphere for a while, some of these particles would have eventually settled in the Arctic.

Equatorial volcanic eruptions in particular can affect the entire globe and, once in the atmosphere, the white sediments and microorganisms would have been very good at reflecting sunlight back into space. They're also difficult to detect in sediment records, which explains why they hadn't been noticed before.



Researchers discovered a high number of fossils from tropical areas (blue line) deposited in the Greenland ice during the 6th century. This indicates that underwater eruptions near the equator may have contributed to epic sky-dimming during 536-537 A.D. (The black line shows sulfate levels in the ice core, an indicator of another type of volcanic eruption.)

Background:

https://www.nature.com/news/2008/080311/full/news.2008.665.html

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10584-016-1648-7


Surface temperature anomalies simulated by the MPI-ESM in response to the reconstructed volcanic forcing for the 536 and 540 eruptions. (a) Timeseries of simulated Northern Hemisphere mean monthly mean surface temperature anomalies: individual ensemble members shown in light blue, ensemble mean in thick blue. Gray shading shows the ±2σ variability of the control run, dashed grey lines show the ±4σ and ±8σ variability levels. Global maps of the simulated 536–545 CE decadal mean boreal (b) summer and (c) winter mean temperature anomalies
« Last Edit: December 18, 2019, 07:23:52 PM by vox_mundi »
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vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #159 on: December 29, 2019, 08:32:37 PM »
Forces from Earth's Spin May Spark Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-earth-earthquakes-volcanic-eruptions-mount.html



New research suggests forces pulling on Earth's surface as the planet spins may trigger earthquakes and eruptions at volcanoes

Seismic activity and bursts of magma near Italy's Mount Etna increased when Earth's rotational axis was furthest from its geographic axis, according to a new study comparing changes in Earth's rotation to activity at the well-known Italian volcano.

Earth's spin doesn't always line up perfectly with its north and south poles. Instead, the geographic poles often twirl like a top around Earth's rotational axis when viewed from space. Every 6.4 years, the axes line up and the wobble fades for a short time—until the geographic poles move away from the spin axis and begin to spiral once again.

This phenomenon, called polar motion, is driven by changes in climate due to things like changing seasons, melting ice sheets or movement from tectonic plates. As polar motion fluctuates, forces pulling the planet away from the sun tug at Earth's crust, much like tides due to the gravitational pull from the sun and moon. The tide from polar motion causes the crust to deform over the span of seasons or years. This distortion is strongest at 45 degrees latitude, where the crust moves by about 1 centimeter (0.4 inches) per year.

Now, a new study published in AGU's journal Geophysical Research Letters suggests that polar motion and subsequent shifts in Earth's crust may increase volcanic activity.

... Lambert and Sottili discovered there were more earthquakes when Earth's rotational pole was furthest from the geographic axis—at the point in Earth's top-like spin when it looks like it is about to fall over. Between 1999 and 2019, those peaks were in 2002 and 2009. An expected peak in 2015 never materialized because one of the oscillations contributing to polar motion has been slowing down.



S. Lambert et al. Is there an influence of the pole tide on volcanism? Insights from Mount Etna recent activity, Geophysical Research Letters (2019)
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #160 on: January 06, 2020, 05:43:57 PM »
Formation of a Huge Underwater Volcano Offshore the Comoros
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-formation-huge-underwater-volcano-offshore.html

A new submarine volcano was formed off the island of Mayotte in the Indian Ocean in 2018. This was shown by an oceanographic campaign in May 2019. Now, an international team led by the scientist Simone Cesca from the German GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ is illuminating the processes deep inside the Earth before and during the formation of the new volcano. It is akin to detecting a new type of signal from the Earth's interior that indicates a dramatic movement of molten rocks before the eruption. With their specially developed seismological methods, the researchers are reconstructing the partial emptying of one of the deepest and largest active magma reservoirs ever discovered in the upper mantle. The study is published in the journal Nature Geoscience.

... "It is the deepest (~30 km) and largest magma reservoir in the upper mantle (more than 3.4 cubic kilometers) to date, which is beginning to empty abruptly.

"Since the seabed lies 3 kilometers below the water surface, almost nobody noticed the enormous eruption. However, there are still possible hazards for the island of Mayotte today, as the Earth's crust above the deep reservoir could continue to collapse, triggering stronger earthquakes," says Torsten Dahm, head of the section Physics of Earthquakes and Volcanoes at the GFZ.



Drainage of a deep magma reservoir near Mayotte inferred from seismicity and deformation, Nature Geoscience (2020)
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vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #161 on: February 18, 2020, 10:38:23 PM »
South American Volcano Showing Early Warning Signs of 'Potential Collapse,'
https://m.phys.org/news/2020-02-south-american-volcano-early-potential.html

Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador—known locally as "The Black Giant"—is displaying the hallmarks of flank instability, which could result in a colossal landslide.

... Dr. Hickey, who is based at the University of Exeter's Penryn Campus, Cornwall, said: "Using satellite data we have observed very rapid deformation of Tungurahua's west flank, which our research suggests is caused by imbalances between magma being supplied and magma being erupted".

Tungurahua volcano has a long history of flank collapse, and has also been frequently active since 1999. The activity in 1999 led to the evacuation of 25,000 people from nearby communities.

A previous eruption of Tungurahua, around 3,000 years ago, caused a prior, partial collapse of the west flank of the volcanic cone.

This collapse led to a wide-spread debris avalanche of moving rock, soil, snow and water that covered 80 square kilometres—the equivalent of more than 11,000 football fields.

Since then, the volcano has steadily been rebuilt over time, peaking with a steep-sided cone more than 5000 m in height.



Rapid localized flank inflation and implications for potential slope instability at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X20300479
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vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #162 on: September 29, 2020, 08:04:30 PM »
New Data On a Volcanic Eruption that Scattered Ash Across Maya Lands
https://arstechnica.com/science/2020/09/new-data-on-a-volcanic-eruption-that-scattered-ash-across-mayan-lands/

In a recent study, Oxford University archaeologist Victoria Smith and her colleagues used tree rings from a stump caught in a pyroclastic flow, along with data from polar ice cores obtained more than 7,000km (4,300 miles) away. These dated the eruption to 431 CE, the early part of the Maya Classic Period. The date may help future archaeologists and climate researchers better understand the impacts of the eruption on Central America and the rest of the world.

... The Tierra Blanca Joven eruption blasted a plume of ash and dust 45km (28 miles) into the sky. Winds spread the ash over a broad swath of Central America and out over the Pacific Ocean. A dusting of ash even fell across the Maya lowlands, hundreds of kilometers to the north. Some of that ash, along with aerosolized particles of sulfur and other chemicals, made it into the upper layers of Earth’s atmosphere, where currents carried them nearly 7,800km to the ice caps of Greenland and Antarctica.

Closer to the volcano, the towering plume collapsed under its own weight, sending swift, deadly currents of hot gas, ash, and pumice—pyroclastic flows—racing across the ground for 50km or more. A layer of ash and pumice up to 70m (230 feet) deep choked some of the valleys nearest the volcano, and a layer 2m (6 feet) deep blanketed hundreds of square kilometers of Maya farmland.

With no written accounts and only limited archaeological evidence, we don’t know how many people died, how many homes were leveled, or how much warning people had.

But there’s no question that the eruption was devastating. At around the same time as the Tierra Blanca Joven eruption, ceramics made in El Salvador stop showing up in the archaeological record at Maya sites. “We think the lack of ceramic production in the general area is because people were not there,” Smith told Ars, “as much of it was uninhabitable for many years, and it would have taken decades for the landscape to recover.”



The magnitude and impact of the 431 CE Tierra Blanca Joven eruption of Ilopango, El Salvador, PNAS (2020)
https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/09/22/2003008117
« Last Edit: September 29, 2020, 08:11:01 PM by vox_mundi »
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vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #163 on: December 31, 2020, 02:01:02 AM »
Caribbean Volcanoes Rumble to Life as Scientists Study Activity Not Seen In Years
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/dec/30/eastern-caribbean-volcanoes-la-soufriere

Volcanoes that have been quiet for decades are rumbling to life in the eastern Caribbean, prompting officials to issue alerts in Martinique and St Vincent and the Grenadines as scientists rush in to study activity they say has not been observed in years.

The most recent warning was issued late on Tuesday for La Soufriere volcano in St Vincent and the Grenadines, a chain of islands home to more than 100,000 people. Officials reported tremors, strong gas emissions, formation of a new volcanic dome and changes to its crater lake.

The government warned those living near the volcano to prepare to evacuate if needed, declaring an orange alert that means eruptions could occur with less than 24 hours’ notice.

La Soufriere, located near the northern tip of the main island of St Vincent, last erupted in 1979, and a previous eruption in 1902 killed some 1,600 people. That occurred shortly before Martinique’s Mt Pelee erupted and destroyed the town of Saint-Pierre, killing more than 30,000 people.

Mt Pelee too is now active once again. In early December, officials in the French Caribbean territory issued a yellow alert due to seismic activity under the mountain. It was the first alert of its kind issued since the volcano last erupted in 1932, said Fabrice Fontaine, with Martinique’s Volcanological and Seismological Observatory, to the Associated Press.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/apr/28/physicalsciences.highereducation
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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morganism

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #164 on: January 03, 2021, 08:05:30 PM »
maybe in downtown Tel Aviv ?

https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-mysterious-trapped-energy-shut-down-an-entire-tel-aviv-neighborhood-1.9418628

"About two weeks ago, a resident contacted Modi Feldberg, the head of the apartment owners’ committee in one of the buildings, to report that a concrete surface outside their building was heating up. “I took off my sandal and stepped on the concrete. I almost got burned,” Feldberg recounted. He said he looked around and noticed steam coming out of the adjacent buildings.

“I was afraid there was a power line in the area, and I asked a laborer to dig into the ground with a shovel. All of a sudden, steam came out. I imagined that it was probably a geyser. It appeared to me to be a geological incident – also because there haven’t been any problems with the electricity in the building.”

vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #165 on: March 03, 2021, 03:33:43 PM »


Mount Sinabung: Time-lapse shows Indonesia volcano's 5km-high ash cloud
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #166 on: March 04, 2021, 01:24:17 AM »
Scientists In Iceland: ‘Strong Signs’ Volcanic Eruption Imminent
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/03/scientists-in-iceland-say-strong-signs-volcanic-eruption-is-imminent

Several days of tremors near Mount Keilir indicate it is ‘more likely than not’ an eruption is about to begin



Most of the recent earthquakes have been centered around the area between Fagradalsfjall and Keilir mountains, and that, too, is where scientists believe lava is likely to flow, should an eruption take place.

Scientists in Iceland have said there are now “strong signs” that a volcanic eruption may be under way following several days of near-constant seismic activity near Mount Keilir about 20 miles south of the capital, Reykjavik.

“We are not saying we have signs an eruption has begun,” Kristín Jónsdóttir of the Icelandic meteorological office told local media on Wednesday. “But this looks like the type of activity we expect in the run-up to an eruption.”

Thousands of tremors measuring up to 5 on the Richter scale have been recorded on the peninsula during the past week. Freysteinn Sigmundsson, a geophysicist, said that if it came, the eruption could also be delayed by several days.

If magma reaches the surface, Freysteinn said, it is unlikely to be in the form of an explosion of lava and ash shooting into the sky, but rather what is known as a fissure eruption, in which lava emerges more slowly from a crack in the earth’s surface.

“This event is completely different to Eyjafjallajökull,” Freysteinn said. “It is very unlikely that it will disrupt air transport,” he said. “This will probably be a lava eruption with little explosive activity.”

Livestream in Case of Eruption
https://icelandmonitor.mbl.is/news/news/2021/03/02/livestream_in_case_of_eruption/
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #167 on: March 04, 2021, 10:45:48 PM »
and at the antipode of Iceland ...

'Do Not Stay At Home': Tsunami Warning for Parts of New Zealand After 8.1-Magnitude Earthquake
https://amp.cnn.com/cnn/2021/03/04/world/new-zealand-quake-tsunami-warning-intl/index.html

New Zealand's emergency agency has told residents in some areas to head for higher ground after an 8.1-magnitude earthquake struck the nearby Kermadec Islands region early Friday, sparking fears of a tsunami.

The powerful quake was the third to strike the area on Friday morning, according to the New Zealand National Emergency Management Agency.

People near the coast must "move immediately to the nearest high ground, out of all tsunami evacuation zones, or as far inland as possible. Do not stay at home," the agency states on its website.

The East Coast of the North Island from the Bay of Islands to Whangarei, from Matata to Tolaga Bay including Whakatane and Opotiki and Great Barrier Island are all included in the tsunami warning.

"The earthquake may not have been felt in some of these areas, but evacuation should be immediate as a damaging tsunami is possible," the agency statement reads.

"People in all other areas who felt a long or strong earthquake that makes it hard to stand up, or lasted longer than a minute, should move immediately to the nearest high ground, out of all tsunami evacuation zones, or as far inland as possible."

https://www.civildefence.govt.nz/

“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #168 on: March 06, 2021, 12:30:57 AM »
https://mobile.twitter.com/Vedurstofan



Magma rising!

Today 3 earthquakes of M4.1, M3.7 and M3.6 where detected at 11:50am, 11:54am and 11:59am. At 1-3km SW of Fagradalsfjall, the earthquakes were felt in settled ares in the SW of Iceland.

Since then two earthquakes over M5.0 detected. Occurred on Feb. 27th and March 1st. Over 20000 earthquakes have been detected in the area since activity started. At 19:14 an M4.2 earthquake was detected 2 km N of Grindavík. It was felt in the Grindavík and in the capital area

Yesterday around 3000 earthquakes were detected and from midnigh around 800 been detected. Most activity after midnight has been near Fagradalsfjall, has moved a bit NE, compared to yesterday. No tremor been measured during the night, but earthquake activity is still active
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #169 on: March 16, 2021, 07:00:39 AM »
Satellites Detect Volcanoes Heating Up Before They Blow
https://arstechnica.com/science/2021/03/satellites-detect-volcanoes-heating-up-before-they-blow/

A new study from a Jet Propulsion Laboratory group led by Társilo Girona highlights the possibility that presently available satellite data could provide an entirely new way to warn of eruptions.

Heat is obviously a relevant parameter for volcanic activity, but it can be quite variable at the individual spots where you might set up a thermometer. If we could instead measure all the heat coming out of a volcano, it would be quite meaningful, since the majority of volcanic energy gets released as heat.

To attempt this, the team turned to thermal radiation data from NASA’s Terra and Aqua satellites. Combined, these two provide twice-daily passes with global coverage, and each measurement is integrated over a 1 kilometer by 1 kilometer pixel. There are five volcanoes that have both had significant eruptions since 2002 (when these satellites came online) and aren’t located on islands that are too small to span enough pixels for a good signal. These include Ontake in Japan, Ruapehu in New Zealand, Calbuco in Chile, Redoubt in Alaska, and Pico do Fogo in Cape Verde.

Increasing temperature trends were seen over the two- to four-year periods preceding each eruption—including Ontake’s surprise 2014 eruption. Temperatures only increased by 1°C or less in the lead-up to each event, but these were statistically significant trends and not just noise. The peak temperatures in each record were associated with an eruption.



The researchers say this might represent a combination of two processes. First, magma progressing closer to the surface—and releasing gases—could stimulate hydrothermal circulation, carrying heat to warm the surface from below. Second, if this pushes more moisture into the soil layer, the ground could emit thermal radiation more efficiently and so appear “brighter” to the satellites. Either way, these subtle changes seem easily detectable in the satellite data.

Combined with other monitoring tools, the satellite data could easily be used to increase the confidence of alert levels, placing short-lived events in a longer-term context. And the more symptoms we watch for, the less likely we are to miss important warning signs.

Large-scale thermal unrest of volcanoes for years prior to eruption, Nature Geoscience, (2021)
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41561-021-00705-4
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

Shared Humanity

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #170 on: March 16, 2021, 01:17:43 PM »
If this proves effective, they should use it to monitor super volcano sites like Yellowstone.

vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #171 on: March 20, 2021, 02:22:28 AM »
Iceland Volcano: Eruption Under Way In Fagradalsfjall Near Reykjavik
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/mar/19/iceland-volcano-eruption-under-way-in-fagradalsfjall-near-reykjavik



A volcano has erupted in Iceland near the capital Reykjavik after thousands of small earthquakes in the area in recent weeks, the Icelandic meteorological office has said.

A red cloud lit up the night sky after the eruption began in Fagradalsfjall on Friday about 40km (25 miles) from the capital Reykjavik. A no-fly zone has been established in the area.

Video: https://mobile.twitter.com/Vedurstofan/status/1373058512553656321

Streams of red lava could be seen flowing out of a fissure in the ground in video footage filmed by a coast guard helicopter and posted by the IMO on Twitter. “The fissure is estimated to be about 200 metres (219 yards) long,” the IMO said.

... The Krysuvik volcanic system has been inactive for the past 900 years, according to the meteorological office, while the last eruption on the Reykjanes peninsula dates back almost 800 years to 1240.
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

Freegrass

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #172 on: March 20, 2021, 04:49:20 AM »
There's a longer video on this website, and it's so incredibly beautiful. Looks a little like a dragon's head.

https://icelandmonitor.mbl.is/news/news/2021/03/19/eruption_has_started_in_fagradalsfjall/

This eruption reminds me of 1973 eruption. That was also a crack that spewed lava for a very long time. Let's hope this eruption doesn't cause similar problems.

Here's another video.

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J Cartmill

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #173 on: March 21, 2021, 10:48:50 AM »
Here is a live feed from from Fagradalsfjall


https://www.ruv.is/frett/2021/03/20/live-feed-from-iceland-volcano

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #174 on: March 21, 2021, 12:40:35 PM »
Awesome view from this live feed, including scores of "tourists" venturing at more or less safe distances from the eruption. The access to the area is supposed to be forbidden.  :D

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #175 on: March 21, 2021, 03:41:35 PM »
Awesome view from this live feed, including scores of "tourists" venturing at more or less safe distances from the eruption. The access to the area is supposed to be forbidden.  :D

Those very close to the lava are scientists and government officials.

Bernard

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #176 on: March 21, 2021, 07:53:00 PM »
Those very close to the lava are scientists and government officials.

Hum. That makes a lot of people  :D

Freegrass

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #177 on: March 21, 2021, 08:06:33 PM »
I heard them calling these tourist eruptions on the news. Iceland is gonna make a lot of money on this eruption, and I would love to go see it as well if I had the money...
And so we pray...

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Bernard

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #178 on: March 21, 2021, 09:34:22 PM »
https://twitter.com/AdrienFour/status/1373733017844387843

I wonder if the dogs are govt officials or scientists. ;D

gerontocrat

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #179 on: March 21, 2021, 11:20:46 PM »
I heard them calling these tourist eruptions on the news. Iceland is gonna make a lot of money on this eruption, and I would love to go see it as well if I had the money...
Wait a few years and Katla might blow - well overdue.

or maybe Grímsvötn
https://icelandmonitor.mbl.is/news/news/2020/10/02/chance_of_eruption_appears_to_be_increasing/

They are both under glaciers. The Katla caldera is a glacier.
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Freegrass

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #180 on: March 21, 2021, 11:55:38 PM »
I heard them calling these tourist eruptions on the news. Iceland is gonna make a lot of money on this eruption, and I would love to go see it as well if I had the money...
Wait a few years and Katla might blow - well overdue.

or maybe Grímsvötn
https://icelandmonitor.mbl.is/news/news/2020/10/02/chance_of_eruption_appears_to_be_increasing/

They are both under glaciers. The Katla caldera is a glacier.
I've been Googling Katla Volcano for 8 years now after they said it usually blows it's top off 2 year after Eyjafjallajökull does, but it still hasn't happened yet...  :-\

If it does blow, it could be a huge VEI-6 eruption, which would be comparable to Krakatoa's 1883, and Mount Pinatubo's 1991 eruptions...

Quote
Katla is a large volcano in southern Iceland. It is very active; twenty eruptions have been documented between 930 and 1918, at intervals of 20–90 years. It has not erupted violently for 103 years, although there may have been small eruptions that did not break the ice cover, including ones in 1955, 1999, and 2011.

Prior eruptions have had a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of between 4 and 6 on a scale of 0 to 8. In comparison, the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption had a VEI of 4. Bigger VEI-5 eruptions are comparable to Mount St. Helens 1980 eruption, while significantly rarer VEI-6 eruptions would be comparable to Krakatoa's 1883 eruption and Mount Pinatubo's 1991 eruption.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katla_(volcano)
« Last Edit: March 22, 2021, 12:04:12 AM by Freegrass »
And so we pray...

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J Cartmill

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #181 on: March 22, 2021, 09:46:17 PM »
Short, but very cool drone footage.


Freegrass

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #182 on: March 22, 2021, 10:09:17 PM »
Short, but very cool drone footage.
Very cool (hot probably) indeed. It went right through the lava at the end..

And then this video came up. This is also pretty cool. Water in a lava lake doesn't cool down the lava it seems...  ???

And so we pray...

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Freegrass

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #183 on: March 22, 2021, 10:16:43 PM »
More beautiful drone footage. Looks like this eruption could become the most filmed eruption ever with people being able to come so close to it...

And so we pray...

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vox_mundi

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Re: Volcanoes
« Reply #184 on: April 09, 2021, 06:39:47 PM »
Thousands Flee as Volcano Erupts On Caribbean Island of St Vincent
https://phys.org/news/2021-04-thousands-volcano-erupts-caribbean-island.html



The blast from La Soufriere, the highest peak in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, sent plumes of hot ash and smoke 20,000 feet (6,000 meters) into the air, the local emergency management agency said.

Video posted on the website news784.com showed a tower of ash being belched out and expanding roughly into a ball shape as it rose upwards. No deaths or injuries have been reported.

“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late