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kassy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2000 on: March 29, 2020, 01:36:08 PM »
Europe’s lucrative, illegal, trade in sea cucumbers is booming

...

Until 2014, these slimy, slow-moving creatures were only used as fishing bait in southern Spain, but then word spread that their dried body walls were a prized delicacy called bêche-de-mer, and even considered an aphrodisiac, in places like China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Japan.

Some 10,000 tonnes of dried sea cucumber are traded internationally, the equivalent of 200 million live animals, each year – and that doesn't include aquafarming. As the once-ample supply of sea cucumbers starts to dwindle in the Indo-Pacific, fishermen in Spain are racing to pluck the unassuming creatures from the seafloor. Close behind them are a cadre of less nautically-inclined opportunists: drug dealers eager to cash in on the booming trade.

...

The soaring demand among its growing middle class has all but depleted the regional stocks in the last few decades and driven fisheries to the Mediterranean and northeastern Atlantic Ocean where sea cucumber fisheries are generally not regulated. A global analysis by Steven Purcell, an expert on sea cucumbers at Australia’s Southern Cross University, found that 70 per cent of the world’s fisheries were already fully or over-exploited in 2011. The much-favoured Japanese spiky sea cucumber, for example, has been exploited throughout its natural range and is considered endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The species is now being bred and cultivated on a large scale.

...

Sea cucumbers may appear to be simple, inconspicuous creatures but they are the vacuum cleaners of the ocean. They brush their sticky tentacles along the sandy seabed and stuff a mixture of silt, decaying algae and other waste particles into their mouths. Similar to their above-ground counterparts, the earthworms, sea cucumbers perform the thankless task of recycling decomposing matter and bacteria and pooping it out as clean sand.

Because sea cucumbers rely on external fertilisation for reproduction, illegal exploitation can cause local populations to collapse. Males release their sperm into the water and females release their eggs at the same and they need to be close enough to each other for fertilisation to occur. In areas where mature animals have been overfished, the few eggs and sperm find it difficult to reach each other.

The cascading effects on marine ecosystems become apparent within months.

...

Holothuria arguinensis can grow to 40 cm and normally feed among the sand, mud and seagrass meadows of the lagoon. At one of the study sites, González-Wangüemert was shocked to find only two individuals per hectare during the summer of 2018 where she had observed some 200 just six months before. Parts of the shallow lagoon that used to be filled with sea grass are now devoid of plant life: “It’s completely covered in mud. If you touch the bottom with your hands, it’s impossible to see anything,” she says. All that is left is a smell of rotten eggs by hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria in the oxygen-depleted water.

....

Their investigations have also led to the rooftop of a city centre building and, in May 2019, to a Chinese restaurant where 340 kg of dried sea cucumbers and nearly 300 seahorses – a protected animal – were ready to be exported internationally. Sea cucumbers weigh ten times more when they are alive so the rough maths would add up to some 18,000 individuals.

https://www.wired.co.uk/article/sea-cucumbers-spain-trade
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Paddy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2001 on: March 30, 2020, 07:28:29 AM »
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-03-24/countries-are-starting-to-hoard-food-threatening-global-trade

Apparently it's not just individuals, but countries that are stockpiling food.

If this goes on, especially if harvests in western nations are disrupted due to barriers to seasonal migrant workers, the food supply situation could yet get a bit ugly.

kassy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2002 on: March 30, 2020, 12:36:37 PM »
Some minor good news from Pakistan:

Zero-carbon water pumps turn Pakistan's barren mountains green

....

Only two years ago, it would have been practically impossible to grow apples in this part of Pakistan, 2,500 meters (8,200 feet) up in Gilgit-Baltistan region’s Gojal Valley

...

But the installation of a hydraulic ram (hydro-ram) pump has changed that. It harnesses the pressure of fast-flowing water, such as a river, to drive a share of that water uphill without needing any other power source.

Because the pumps work without electricity or fuel, they are cheap to run and produce no climate-heating carbon emissions.

...

Encouraged by the results, the United Nations Development Programme gave WWF-Pakistan additional funding to install 20 more hydro-ram pumps in 12 villages.

...

Each pump is connected to a drip irrigation system that delivers a steady, gentle flow of water to mountain-top crops, using less water than many traditional irrigation methods.

The pumps have helped revive about 60 acres (24 hectares) of previously barren land, benefiting nearly 300 households, Raza said.

Their simple design - consisting mainly of pipes and two valves - means few moving parts to maintain or repair.

Upkeep of the pumps, which cost up to 70,000 Pakistani rupees ($430) to build and install, is easy and affordable for communities, who have welcomed the new systems, Raza added.

...

“Higher rainfall in this mountainous region offers a golden opportunity to grow high-value crops such as cherries and apples that can lead to greater profits,” he said.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-pakistan-water-climate-change/zero-carbon-water-pumps-turn-pakistans-barren-mountains-green-idUSKBN21G0KT
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kassy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2003 on: April 12, 2020, 11:00:26 PM »
This thread is Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD and thus supply chain failures due to Covid do not belong here. Please post them in the global recession recession thread (which might need a new name).

I moved the message below there:

Smithfield shutting U.S. pork plant indefinitely, warns of meat shortages during pandemic
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gerontocrat

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2004 on: April 13, 2020, 06:05:19 PM »
2 of the 4 Horsemen are famine, a black horse; and plague, a pale horse..who needs 4?

It looks like the lingering effect of the unusually high anomaly in the Indian Ocean Dipole continues to encourage high rainfall in East Africa. The result ... a second wave of locusts just as the pandemic  strengthens. It could not happen at a worse time - crops being planted, green shoots appearing very soon - manna for locusts.

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2020/apr/13/second-wave-of-locusts-in-east-africa-said-to-be-20-times-worse
Second wave of locusts in east Africa said to be 20 times worse

UN warns of ‘alarming and unprecedented threat’ to food security and livelihoods in the region

Quote
A second wave of desert locusts is threatening east Africa with estimates that it will be 20 times worse then the plague that descended two months ago.

The locusts present “an extremely alarming and unprecedented threat” to food security and livelihoods, according to the UN. A swarm of just more than a third of a square mile can eat the same amount of food in one day as 35,000 people.

This second invasion from breeding grounds in Somalia includes more young adults which are especially voracious eaters.

In its latest locust watch update, the UN said the situation was “extremely alarming” as an increasing number of new swarms form in north and central Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia.
Uganda reported two swarms arriving last week from neighbouring Kenya, further destabilising food security and the livelihoods of people in the east and north of the country. The insects follow spring rains, seeking emerging crops and other vegetation.

Hellen Adoa, a minister at Uganda’s agriculture department, said: “This is very active, destructive and we are worried it has come at the time of lockdown. We are a bit overwhelmed.

“The moment they arrive in a place the first thing they do is to eat anything green. They have destroyed some fields of crops and vegetation,” she said.

Kenyan officials have said coronavirus crackdowns have slowed efforts to fight the infestation, as crossing borders has become harder and pesticide deliveries are held up. Aerial spraying is the only effective means of controlling locusts but there have been complaints that the pesticides are affecting livestock.

In February, eight east African countries experienced the worst outbreak in 70 years, exacerbated by climate change and war in Yemen. The insects can travel about 90 miles a day and eat their own body weight in crops.

“Heavy rains in late March established favourable breeding conditions for yet another generation of locusts in the Horn of Africa. These will emerge as young swarms in June, just as many farmers start to harvest,” said Antonio Querido of the UN’s food and agriculture agency in Uganda.

“By now, most farmers have planted the first season annual crops. If the locust swarms persist and control operations are not effectively undertaken the food crops will be lost and agriculture-based livelihoods will be impacted upon.

“Immature swarms are the most voracious stage of locust development. They are aggressive feeders and as such can cause a lot of damage to crops and forage.”

Christine Apolot, the chairperson for Uganda’s Kumi district, which was hit by a swarm last week, said people were filled with despair, having already endured flooding and the previous swarm: “This is seriously going to bring food insecurity. It’s the fear we have at hand right now.

“As we were hopeful of to receive some relief food to support the situation on ground, the locust invaded and Covid-19 lockdown is moving towards devastating the economy.

“We expect government, number of partners and World Food Programme to come to our rescue with relief food. Otherwise our people will end with starvation.”

Map from FAO locust watch -http://www.fao.org/ag/locusts/en/info/info/index.html
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bluice

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2005 on: April 13, 2020, 09:26:56 PM »
A rather long Medium article regarding climate related food shortages in the not-so-distant future. Unpredictable and extreme weather events destroy harvests and increase food prices. Nothing new on this forum but as the ongoing pandemic has shown us, a predictable event can have extreme consequences. There is a significant difference though; a vaccine or herd immunity won’t save us from the climate, it will just get worse and worse.


https://medium.com/insurge-intelligence/wests-dust-bowl-future-now-locked-in-as-world-risks-imminent-food-crisis-947f50eca712


kassy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2006 on: April 27, 2020, 10:17:35 PM »
Dramatic decrease in cold-water plankton during industrial era

Summary:
There has been a dramatic decrease in cold-water plankton during the 20th century, in contrast to thousands of years of stability, according to a new study.

There has been a dramatic decrease in cold-water plankton during the 20th century, in contrast to thousands of years of stability, according to a new UCL-led study.

The research, published in Geophysical Research Letters, analysed the fossilised remains of plankton, sampled from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, south of Iceland. The scientists uncovered a striking change in the types of species that inhabit these waters.

Lead author of the study, Dr Peter Spooner (UCL Geography), said: "The Northeast Atlantic is of crucial importance for the global climate system and marine ecosystems. In this study, we provide the first evidence that Northeast Atlantic circulation in the 20th century was unusual compared to the last 10,000 years.

"This change in Northeast Atlantic circulation caused a replacement of cool, subpolar waters with warmer subtropical waters near Iceland, and has impacted the distribution of marine organisms, particularly plankton. The most striking aspect of our work is the exceptional nature of the shift in the 20th century, in contrast to thousands of years of relative stability, with implications for understanding future change."

...

The scientists analysed around 150,000 specimens of planktonic foraminifera, tiny single-celled creatures that float in ocean waters.

They compared how different species of plankton fared over a 10,000 year period, using sediment from the bottom of the ocean to reconstruct how the Northeast Atlantic has changed.

They found that between around 6000 BC and 1750 AD, the region was dominated by Turborotalita quinqueloba, a species of plankton that prefer cooler waters (representing around 40% of all species of floating foraminifera).

However, during the 20th century the relative abundance of the species declined dramatically and was replaced by a transitional (warmer water) type of plankton, such as N. incompta and G. glutinata.

Co-lead author Dr David Thornalley (UCL Geography) said, "We are too used to thinking of the North Atlantic as being dominated by natural cycles that last decades. But this is only because direct observations do not go back far enough. These new records allow us to put our observations into a much longer-term context, and reveal the exceptional nature of what has happened in the 20th century."

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/04/200423130434.htm

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kassy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2007 on: May 10, 2020, 10:27:02 AM »
There's a Surprising Connection Between Dangerous Algal Blooms And The Himalayas


A loss of snow and ice on Earth's highest mountain peaks could be driving dangerous changes in the food chains of distant coastal water, according to new research.

Like a gardener turning over soil, cold winter winds blowing down from the Himalayan mountains are known to fertilise the Arabian sea by chilling the surface and causing the dense waters to sink, only to be replaced with fresh currents rich in nutrients.

Due to climate change, however, winter monsoons are rapidly becoming warmer and moister, leaving marine habitats with less oxygen and nutrients, and allowing microbes that thrive in an oxygen-depleted wasteland to bloom instead.

Recently, it's gotten so bad, the thick green swirls of algal blooms can actually be seen from space.

What you're looking at is Noctiluca scintillans - also known as sea sparkle for its bioluminescent effects. This is a millimetre-long marine dinoflagellate that can survive and thrive without oxygen or sunlight. Before the turn of the century, however, its presence along the coasts of Somalia, Yemen, and Oman was practically unheard of.

...

"This is probably one of the most dramatic changes that we have seen that's related to climate change," says Joaquim I. Goes from Columbia University, who has been studying the rapid rise of this organism for more than 18 years.

"We are seeing Noctiluca in Southeast Asia, off the coasts of Thailand and Vietnam, and as far south as the Seychelles, and everywhere it blooms it is becoming a problem. It also harms water quality and causes a lot of fish mortality."

Using field data and NASA satellite imagery, scientists have now connected the rise of these algae blooms to melting glaciers and a weakened winter monsoon.

"Collectively, these changes have resulted in an increase in net-heat flux from the atmosphere into [Arabian Sea] surface waters that indicates an increase in the upper [Arabian Sea] ocean heat content since 2000," the authors write.

...

On the other hand, Noctiluca can survive in harsher environments, sometimes even by eating other microorganisms. Additionally, ammonia easily builds up in their own bodies, making the algae a particularly nasty, even poisonous morsel.

In today's rapidly changing Arabian Sea, this deadly and adaptive behaviour appears to be "short-circuiting the food chain", leaving fish poisoned, diatoms outcompeted and jellyfish numerous.

...

In countries like Somalia and Yemen, the authors fear this annual bloom, which is only getting bigger with the years, could harm local fisheries, leading to further unrest, poverty and deprivation as climate change strengthens its grip and the Himalayas continue to melt at an unprecedented rate.

"The inability of large zooplankton, except salps and jellyfish to feed on Noctiluca, is indicative of the capacity of Noctiluca blooms to short-circuit the trophic food chain,"

https://www.sciencealert.com/shrinking-snowcaps-in-the-himalayas-might-be-driving-harmful-algal-blooms-in-the-arabian-sea

Ecosystem state change in the Arabian Sea fuelled by the recent loss of snow over the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau region (OA)

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-64360-2
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nanning

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2008 on: May 31, 2020, 07:56:38 AM »
Perhaps not so 'cute' but a very very old and thus successful lifeform

Crab blood to remain big pharma's standard as industry group rejects substitute

Animal rights groups have been pushing a synthetic alternative to horseshoe crab blood in drug safety testing

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/may/31/crab-blood-to-remain-big-pharmas-standard-as-industry-group-rejects-substitute
  by Reuters


 Excerpts:
Horseshoe crabs’ icy-blue blood will remain the drug industry’s standard for safety tests after a powerful US group ditched a plan to give equal status to a synthetic substitute pushed by Swiss biotech Lonza and animal welfare groups.

The crabs’ copper-rich blood clots in the presence of bacterial endotoxins and has long been used in tests to detect contamination in shots and infusions.
More recently, man-made versions called recombinant Factor C (rFC) from Basel-based Lonza and others have emerged.


An industry battle has been brewing, as another testing giant, Lonza’s US-based rival Charles River Laboratories, has criticised the synthetic option on safety grounds.

Maryland-based US Pharmacopeia (USP), whose influential publications guide the drug industry, had initially proposed adding rFC to the existing chapter governing international endotoxin testing standards.
USP has now abandoned that, it announced late on Friday, opting instead to put rFC in a new stand-alone chapter. This means drug companies seeking to use it must continue to do extra validation work, to guarantee their methods of using rFC tests match those of tests made from crab blood.


Endotoxin tests number 70 million annually and estimates put the relevant market at $1bn annually by 2024.

Eli Lilly, one drugmaker that has shifted to synthetic tests for drugs like its migraine treatment Emgality, has said rFC is safe and that the extra validation requirements have been a hurdle to adoption by more companies.

Conservationists, including advocates for migratory birds that dine on horseshoe crab eggs on the US east coast, have also been pushing for rFC’s increased use to take pressure off crabs, some of which die after being returned to the Atlantic Ocean following bleeding.
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Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2009 on: May 31, 2020, 12:45:54 PM »
nanning, horseshoe crabs are relatively unchanged in the last few million centuries but all life forms trace back a pedigree four billion years old.
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kassy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2010 on: May 31, 2020, 02:51:56 PM »
You have to wonder what they think about thier time in the lab. Really looks like some SF movie.
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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2011 on: June 03, 2020, 10:13:19 PM »
Quote
xkcd (@xkcd_rss) 6/1/20, 6:31 PM
Carcinization xkcd.com/2314/ 
https://twitter.com/xkcd_rss/status/1267584482187661331
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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2012 on: June 08, 2020, 11:34:42 AM »
Climate Change Has Degraded Productivity of Shelf Sea Food Webs
https://phys.org/news/2020-06-climate-degraded-productivity-shelf-sea.html

A shortage of summer nutrients as a result of our changing climate has contributed to a 50% decline in important North East Atlantic plankton over the past 60 years.

New research, published in Global Change Biology, shows that larger, nutritious plankton—vital to support fish, seabirds and marine mammals—are being replaced by tiny, primary producers that are of poorer food quality.

Changes from cloudier and wetter summers to longer periods of sunshine and drought have led to decreasing iron and nutrient supply to surface waters. This results in an increased period of suboptimal feeding conditions for zooplankton at a time of year when their metabolic demand is at its highest.

In some areas, large phytoplankton are being almost completely replaced by picoplankton, especially the cyanobacterium Synechococcus, that flourishes when iron and nitrogen levels in surface waters are very low.

However, its small size and lack of essential biomolecules mean it is unable to function in the same way as larger, more nutritious phytoplankton—a vital primary producer of omega-3—and cannot sustain shelf sea food webs efficiently.

With Synechococcus prominent from the tropics to the Arctic, and its abundance increasing worldwide, scientists suggest that competition for scarce summer nutrients will become a key force in structuring shelf sea food webs. Shelf seas provide around 80% of the world's wild-captured seafood, and changes in their productivity will have major effects on humans.

"The increasing dominance of small phytoplankton species might have a broad impact on the marine ecosystem. Other than altering the food chain as suggested in this study, it could also change the biological carbon pump modifying the capacity of the ocean to store carbon. We need to make sure that the shift between large to small phytoplankton species is well captured by marine ecosystem models if we want to reliably simulate future oceans."

Katrin Schmidt, et.al. Increasing picocyanobacteria success in shelf waters contributes to long‐term food web degradation, Global Change Biology, 2020
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/gcb.15161
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kassy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2013 on: June 09, 2020, 03:01:18 PM »
World Oceans Day: New study finds deep ocean waters warming at a faster pace

...

But one of the main impacts is the warming of waters — and not just ocean surfaces. A new international study found deep oceans are warming at a faster pace, which could accelerate even more in the coming decades.

The study has been published in Nature Climate Change.
"In the best case scenario, it's about seven times faster than the surface," said the study's lead author, Issac Brito-Morales of the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia. "The deep ocean and biodiversity below the surface of the ocean, no matter what we do, it's going to be impacted by climate change."

Species, like black sea bass, are already heading towards cooler water.

...

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/world-oceans-day-new-study-finds-deep-ocean-waters-warming-at-a-faster-pace/


The article is not that clear but it links to the paper:

Climate velocity reveals increasing exposure of deep-ocean biodiversity to future warming

Slower warming in the deep ocean encourages a perception that its biodiversity is less exposed to climate change than that of surface waters. We challenge this notion by analysing climate velocity, which provides expectations for species’ range shifts. We find that contemporary (1955–2005) climate velocities are faster in the deep ocean than at the surface. Moreover, projected climate velocities in the future (2050–2100) are faster for all depth layers, except at the surface, under the most aggressive GHG mitigation pathway considered (representative concentration pathway, RCP 2.6). This suggests that while mitigation could limit climate change threats for surface biodiversity, deep-ocean biodiversity faces an unavoidable escalation in climate velocities, most prominently in the mesopelagic (200–1,000 m). To optimize opportunities for climate adaptation among deep-ocean communities, future open-ocean protected areas must be designed to retain species moving at different speeds at different depths under climate change while managing non-climate threats, such as fishing and mining.

....

The paucity of data for all but the most common or prominent marine taxa means that we must often rely on proxy metrics when assessing threats of climate change. Here, we use such a proxy, horizontal climate velocity11,12, to explore expectations for species’ range shifts under projected future ocean warming. This metric estimates the speed and direction of isotherm displacement under a changing climate, providing a simple and generic metric of exposure to warming that predicts species’ range shifts


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The Walrus

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2014 on: June 09, 2020, 04:47:08 PM »
World Oceans Day: New study finds deep ocean waters warming at a faster pace

...

But one of the main impacts is the warming of waters — and not just ocean surfaces. A new international study found deep oceans are warming at a faster pace, which could accelerate even more in the coming decades.

The study has been published in Nature Climate Change.
"In the best case scenario, it's about seven times faster than the surface," said the study's lead author, Issac Brito-Morales of the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia. "The deep ocean and biodiversity below the surface of the ocean, no matter what we do, it's going to be impacted by climate change."

Species, like black sea bass, are already heading towards cooler water.

...

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/world-oceans-day-new-study-finds-deep-ocean-waters-warming-at-a-faster-pace/


The article is not that clear but it links to the paper:

Climate velocity reveals increasing exposure of deep-ocean biodiversity to future warming

Slower warming in the deep ocean encourages a perception that its biodiversity is less exposed to climate change than that of surface waters. We challenge this notion by analysing climate velocity, which provides expectations for species’ range shifts. We find that contemporary (1955–2005) climate velocities are faster in the deep ocean than at the surface. Moreover, projected climate velocities in the future (2050–2100) are faster for all depth layers, except at the surface, under the most aggressive GHG mitigation pathway considered (representative concentration pathway, RCP 2.6). This suggests that while mitigation could limit climate change threats for surface biodiversity, deep-ocean biodiversity faces an unavoidable escalation in climate velocities, most prominently in the mesopelagic (200–1,000 m). To optimize opportunities for climate adaptation among deep-ocean communities, future open-ocean protected areas must be designed to retain species moving at different speeds at different depths under climate change while managing non-climate threats, such as fishing and mining.

....

The paucity of data for all but the most common or prominent marine taxa means that we must often rely on proxy metrics when assessing threats of climate change. Here, we use such a proxy, horizontal climate velocity11,12, to explore expectations for species’ range shifts under projected future ocean warming. This metric estimates the speed and direction of isotherm displacement under a changing climate, providing a simple and generic metric of exposure to warming that predicts species’ range shifts

Apparently, the article is not very clear.  It does NOT say that deep ocean waters are warming at a faster pace.  Rather, it states that climate velocity, defined as the movement of ecosystems in response to changing climates, is faster in the deep ocean waters.  The article is entirely about changing ranges of ocean biodiversity, not the rate of warming.

nanning

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2015 on: June 10, 2020, 07:21:18 AM »
World faces worst food crisis for at least 50 years, UN warns

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/jun/09/world-faces-worst-food-crisis-50-years-un-coronavirus
  by Fiona Harvey


“Unless immediate action is taken, it is increasingly clear that there is an impending global food emergency that could have long-term impacts on hundreds of millions of children and adults,” he said. “We need to act now to avoid the worst impacts of our efforts to control the pandemic.”

Although harvests of staple crops are holding up, and the export bans and protectionism that experts feared have so far been largely avoided, the worst of the impacts of the pandemic and ensuing recession are yet to be felt. Guterres warned: “Even in countries with abundant food, we see risks of disruption in the food supply chain.”

About 50 million people risk falling into extreme poverty this year owing to the pandemic, but the long-term effects will be even worse, as poor nutrition in childhood causes lifelong suffering. Already, one in five children around the world are stunted in their growth by the age of five, and millions more are likely to suffer the same fate if poverty rates soar.

Maximo Torero, the chief economist of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, said the world’s food systems were under threat as never before in recent times, as the pandemic and lockdowns hampered people’s ability to harvest and buy and sell food. “We need to be careful,” he said. “This is a very different food crisis than the ones we have seen.”

Increasing unemployment and the loss of income associated with lockdowns are also putting food out of reach for many struggling people. Though global markets have remained steady, the price of basic foods has begun to rise in some countries.

(bolding by me)
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kassy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2016 on: June 10, 2020, 01:59:55 PM »
The paucity of data for all but the most common or prominent marine taxa means that we must often rely on proxy metrics when assessing threats of climate change. Here, we use such a proxy, horizontal climate velocity11,12, to explore expectations for species’ range shifts under projected future ocean warming. This metric estimates the speed and direction of isotherm displacement under a changing climate, providing a simple and generic metric of exposure to warming that predicts species’ range shifts

Apparently, the article is not very clear.  It does NOT say that deep ocean waters are warming at a faster pace.  Rather, it states that climate velocity, defined as the movement of ecosystems in response to changing climates, is faster in the deep ocean waters.  The article is entirely about changing ranges of ocean biodiversity, not the rate of warming.

I bolded the word isotherm for you. Isotherms are lines of constant temperature.
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The Walrus

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2017 on: June 10, 2020, 03:39:15 PM »
The paucity of data for all but the most common or prominent marine taxa means that we must often rely on proxy metrics when assessing threats of climate change. Here, we use such a proxy, horizontal climate velocity11,12, to explore expectations for species’ range shifts under projected future ocean warming. This metric estimates the speed and direction of isotherm displacement under a changing climate, providing a simple and generic metric of exposure to warming that predicts species’ range shifts

Apparently, the article is not very clear.  It does NOT say that deep ocean waters are warming at a faster pace.  Rather, it states that climate velocity, defined as the movement of ecosystems in response to changing climates, is faster in the deep ocean waters.  The article is entirely about changing ranges of ocean biodiversity, not the rate of warming.

I bolded the word isotherm for you. Isotherms are lines of constant temperature.

I know what isotherms are.  The mention of the isotherms was in reference to their definition of climate velocity, and refers to projected estimates of future warming.  There is absolutely nothing about current warming that could lead to the statement that the deep oceans are warming at a faster rate.  This is disinformation at its finest.  Please do not propagate such false information.

kassy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2018 on: June 10, 2020, 07:07:56 PM »
It is about the distribution of heating patterns they go first because they are driven by these big earth systems.

But i think you are mainly objecting to World Oceans Day: New study finds deep ocean waters warming at a faster pace aka the crap head line from the news article vs World Oceans Day: New study finds deep ocean waters warming at a faster pace which is indeed confusing.

Quote
There is absolutely nothing about current warming that could lead to the statement that the deep oceans are warming at a faster rate.  This is disinformation at its finest.

The magnitude of contemporary climate velocity is relatively fast in the surface layer, slower in the mesopelagic layer, but becomes fastest in the bathypelagic and abyssopelagic layers (Table 1 and Fig. 1). This contrasting pattern with depth arises because the rate of warming (the numerator of climate velocity) is presently greatest at the surface and declines with depth but the spatial gradient (the denominator of climate velocity) becomes gentler (flatter) with depth (see Extended Data Fig. 1 and Supplementary Table 1). The relative magnitude of these contrasting patterns leads to the rapid velocities in the bathypelagic and abyssopelagic layers (henceforth the deep ocean). Fast climate velocities in the deep ocean suggest that species there are currently at least as exposed to effects of warming, in terms of distribution shift21, as species in the surface ocean and could therefore be at similar risk of extirpation22. This provides strong motivation to consider future impacts of ocean warming in this under-explored habitat22.

Data is from CMIP5.

And yes this is not quite the same as some research showing that the deep oceans suddenly warmed up.

Rather it shows that the warming signal propagates faster then we thought and it has more detail about where.

Since this is much more important to fish then us so it ended up in this thread.

I do admit that i am not that sensitive to new headlines since they are usually crap. You always have to look at the science behind it and then join it to all the other science you read about.

Basically you are calling a Nature article disinformation at its finest. Your call.
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The Walrus

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2019 on: June 10, 2020, 07:30:53 PM »
It is about the distribution of heating patterns they go first because they are driven by these big earth systems.

But i think you are mainly objecting to World Oceans Day: New study finds deep ocean waters warming at a faster pace aka the crap head line from the news article vs World Oceans Day: New study finds deep ocean waters warming at a faster pace which is indeed confusing.

Quote
There is absolutely nothing about current warming that could lead to the statement that the deep oceans are warming at a faster rate.  This is disinformation at its finest.

The magnitude of contemporary climate velocity is relatively fast in the surface layer, slower in the mesopelagic layer, but becomes fastest in the bathypelagic and abyssopelagic layers (Table 1 and Fig. 1). This contrasting pattern with depth arises because the rate of warming (the numerator of climate velocity) is presently greatest at the surface and declines with depth but the spatial gradient (the denominator of climate velocity) becomes gentler (flatter) with depth (see Extended Data Fig. 1 and Supplementary Table 1). The relative magnitude of these contrasting patterns leads to the rapid velocities in the bathypelagic and abyssopelagic layers (henceforth the deep ocean). Fast climate velocities in the deep ocean suggest that species there are currently at least as exposed to effects of warming, in terms of distribution shift21, as species in the surface ocean and could therefore be at similar risk of extirpation22. This provides strong motivation to consider future impacts of ocean warming in this under-explored habitat22.

Data is from CMIP5.

And yes this is not quite the same as some research showing that the deep oceans suddenly warmed up.

Rather it shows that the warming signal propagates faster then we thought and it has more detail about where.

Since this is much more important to fish then us so it ended up in this thread.

I do admit that i am not that sensitive to new headlines since they are usually crap. You always have to look at the science behind it and then join it to all the other science you read about.

Basically you are calling a Nature article disinformation at its finest. Your call.

There is nothing wrong with the study, published in Nature.  The issue [as you mentioned] is the erroneous headline posted by World Oceans Day.  Their headline is the disinformation, as they draw erroneous conclusions from the study they referenced.  Again, the study was not about the rate of warming or the propagation of a warming signal; it was about the movement of species due to climate changes.  As you referenced, the movement is theorized, based on projected changes.

vox_mundi

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2020 on: June 11, 2020, 01:18:21 AM »
Pakistan Battles Locusts By Turning Them Into Chicken Feed
https://phys.org/news/2020-06-pakistan-locusts-chicken.html

Chickens in Pakistan have been feasting on captured locusts under an initiative to combat swarms of the insects that are threatening food supplies in the impoverished country.

Prime Minister Imran Khan has endorsed plans to expand a pilot project in the bread-basket province of Punjab, where villagers earned cash to gather locusts that were then dried out, shredded and added into poultry feed.

Farmers are struggling as the worst locust plague in 25 years wipes out entire harvests in Pakistan's agricultural heartlands, leaving people scrambling for income.

Muhammad Khurshid from Pakistan's food ministry and biotechnologist Johar Ali set up the programme, drawing on efforts in war-ravaged Yemen, where authorities have encouraged people to eat the protein-rich locusts amid famine.

The pair chose Punjab's Okara district, where farmers had not used any pesticides that would make locusts unsuitable for consumption.

"We first had to learn, and then teach the locals how to catch the locusts. Nets are useless against them," Khurshid told AFP.

At night the creatures cluster on trees and plants, making them easy to scoop up as they lie motionless in the cooler temperatures until the sun begins to rise.

For a reward of 20 rupees (12 cents) per kilogram of locusts, locals worked all night to collect them.

One farmer who lost all her crops to the insects said she and her son earned 1,600 rupees ($10) during a single locust-gathering outing, helping to offset the financial damage.

Organisers struggled at first to convince farmers to join the hunt, but by the third night word had spread and hundreds joined in—turning up with their own bags to stuff full.

With 20 tonnes of captured locusts, authorities ran out of money to pay the collectors and the programme was paused.

The ministry, which recently announced the results of February's pilot, is now preparing to expand the project to other locations.

The harvested locusts went to Hi-Tech Feeds—Pakistan's largest animal-feed producer—which substituted 10 percent of the soybean in its chicken food with the insects.
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gerontocrat

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2021 on: June 11, 2020, 01:56:54 PM »
The food situation should be good but...

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/jun/09/world-faces-worst-food-crisis-50-years-un-coronavirus
World faces worst food crisis for at least 50 years, UN warns
Governments urged to act to avoid disaster from recession caused by coronavirus
Quote
Maximo Torero, the chief economist of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, said the world’s food systems were under threat as never before in recent times, as the pandemic and lockdowns hampered people’s ability to harvest and buy and sell food. “We need to be careful,” he said. “This is a very different food crisis than the ones we have seen.”

Harvests are healthy and supplies of staple foods such as grains are “robust”, according to the UN report on the impact of Covid-19 on food security and nutrition, published on Tuesday. But most people get their food from local markets, which are vulnerable to disruption from lockdowns.

Increasing unemployment and the loss of income associated with lockdowns are also putting food out of reach for many struggling people. Though global markets have remained steady, the price of basic foods has begun to rise in some countries.

Lockdowns are slowing harvests, while millions of seasonal labourers are unable to work. Food waste has reached damaging levels, with farmers forced to dump perishable produce as the result of supply chain problems, and in the meat industry plants have been forced to close in some countries.

Even before the lockdowns, the global food system was failing in many areas, according to the UN. The report pointed to conflict, natural disasters, the climate crisis, and the arrival of pests and plant and animal plagues as existing problems. East Africa, for instance, is facing the worst swarms of locusts for decades, while heavy rain is hampering relief efforts.

The additional impact of the coronavirus crisis and lockdowns, and the resulting recession, would compound the damage and tip millions into dire hunger, experts warned.

“The Covid-19 crisis is attacking us at every angle,” said Agnes Kalibata, the UN secretary general’s special envoy for the 2021 food systems summit. “It has exposed dangerous deficiencies in our food systems and actively threatens the lives and livelihoods of people around the world, especially the more than 1 billion people who have employment in the various industries in food systems.”
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2022 on: June 14, 2020, 09:30:40 PM »
In Alaska, Summer’s Getting Too Hot for the Salmon Run
Quote
The state stipulates that water temperature must not exceed 59 degrees Fahrenheit in order for salmon to stay healthy during upstream migration. Last summer, however, river temperatures in Bristol Bay reached 76 degrees. That spells problems for the fish: When salmon can’t avoid warm water, they can sicken or die. Warm water adds stress at a time when fish are already tackling the herculean task of returning to headwater lakes and streams to spawn, making them more susceptible to diseases and speeding up their already-taxed metabolisms. Something like a heart attack can follow: Warm water holds less oxygen than cooler water, but at higher temperatures, salmon actually need more oxygen to survive. Under those conditions, their hearts can’t pump blood fast enough to support their brains and bodies.

In Bristol Bay, state biologists manage salmon by opening and closing commercial fishing to allow enough fish to reach the areas where they spawn. Each river system has a target number of adult salmon that should evade capture—an “escapement goal” that is designed to ensure the future of the population. But last summer Alaska sizzled with heat, and warm river water pressed down the Ugashik, preventing salmon from heading upstream. Along Bristol Bay, rubber raingear melted. Some fishermen fished wearing only underwear and waders. The weeks of sunny, windless weather baked the region’s lakes and rivers. ...
https://www.wired.com/story/in-alaska-summers-getting-too-hot-for-the-salmon-run/
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Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2023 on: July 04, 2020, 11:54:04 AM »
Paul Beckwith on stuck Rossby Waves endangering food production in North Temperate Zone:
https://paulbeckwith.net/2020/06/30/global-food-supply-at-risk-from-simultaneous-crop-losses-due-to-specific-jet-stream-patterns/
SHARKS (CROSSED OUT) MONGEESE (SIC) WITH FRICKIN LASER BEAMS ATTACHED TO THEIR HEADS

kassy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2024 on: July 17, 2020, 08:34:10 PM »
World needs 7 planets to eat like a G20 nation, food report finds
At least seven planets would be required for the world to sustain the level of food consumed by G20 countries. Germany and the US are among the worst offenders.


Among all the globe's 20 most industrialized nations, only India and Indonesia maintain a diet low enough in carbon emissions to meet the Paris climate target, according to a report published Thursday. Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Germany and the United States were among the countries that grossly exceeded sustainable levels of food-related carbon emissions, largely due to their high consumption of red meat and dairy products.

"This report clearly shows that food consumption in G20 countries is unsustainable and would require up to 7.4 Earths if adopted globally," said Joao Campari of the World Wildlife Fund.

Rich countries are consuming more red meat and dairy than is laid out in their countries' nutritional guidelines and much more than experts say is sustainable for the planet.

https://www.dw.com/en/world-food-report-g20/a-54193682

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kassy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2025 on: July 28, 2020, 11:32:13 AM »
Some Popular Fish and Invertebrate Seafood Species Rapidly Declining Worldwide

The pink conch, the common octopus, the orange roughy, and other species of fish and invertebrates that are popularly sold as seafood in fish markets are rapidly declining worldwide.


A Pioneering Study
According to a new study published in the journal Estuarine, Coastal & Shelf Science, there is a worldwide decline in many commonly consumed marine species, with some populations experiencing severe drops in population.

...

Among the animal populations analyzed, 82 percent were found to be unable to produce the maximum sustainable catch yields anymore because they are being caught at a higher rate compared to the replenishment of their stocks. This results in fewer and fewer catches over time despite harder and longer fishing efforts. Additionally, over 8 percent of these species, totaling 87 in number, now have less than 20 percent of their maximum sustainable catch levels.

The populations with the highest stock declines were located in the polar and southern temperate Indian Ocean as well as the polar southern Atlantic Ocean, whose populations decreased by more than 50 percent from their 1950 levels.

A few exceptions existed, however. One of them includes the Northern Pacific Ocean, where the biomass of populations rose by 800 percent in the subpolar and polar regions and increased around 150 percent in the temperate regions.

GEOMAR senior scientist and study co-author Rainer Froese says that climate change substantially increased populations of many commercial species, and extended their ranges into the polar regions. This affected such species as the North Pacific Alaska or walleye pollock and Barents Sea Atlantic cod.

...

https://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/44143/20200727/fish-invertebrate-seafood-species-rapidly-declining.htm


Fishery biomass trends of exploited fish populations in marine ecoregions, climatic zones and ocean basins
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771419307644
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glennbuck

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2026 on: July 28, 2020, 02:07:38 PM »
Some Popular Fish and Invertebrate Seafood Species Rapidly Declining Worldwide


Among the animal populations analyzed, 82 percent were found to be unable to produce the maximum sustainable catch yields anymore because they are being caught at a higher rate compared to the replenishment of their stocks. This results in fewer and fewer catches over time despite harder and longer fishing efforts. Additionally, over 8 percent of these species, totaling 87 in number, now have less than 20 percent of their maximum sustainable catch levels.

Might be why the Chinese are doing this!

Ecuador has sounded the alarm after its navy discovered a huge fishing fleet of mostly Chinese-flagged vessels some 200 miles from the Galápagos Islands, the archipelago which inspired Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jul/27/chinese-fishing-vessels-galapagos-islands

<Added the [ / quote] back in. If only the start quote is there the whole message is formatted as quote. Users can fix this by adding the ´end quote´ without spaces. kassy>
« Last Edit: July 28, 2020, 02:21:55 PM by kassy »

kassy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2027 on: August 03, 2020, 07:42:33 PM »
Some Oysters Contain Plastics, Pathogens, Kerosene, Paint, And Baby Formula, Study Finds

Imported oysters, the slurped seafood of choice for fancy people and old sea dogs, may often be riddled with a cocktail of contaminants, according to a new study.

Ecologists at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) found that oysters in Myanmar contain a broad range of contaminants, including infectious pathogens, plastics, kerosene, paint, and milk supplement powders. On a particularly grim note, the presence of some of these pollutants suggests that human poop and raw sewage is making its way back into the food chain.

...


The study looked at oysters found in nine coral reefs located roughly 64 kilometers (40 miles) from the small coastal city of Myeik in Myanmar. Within the samples, they found 87 species of bacteria, over half of which are considered a threat to human health. They also discovered the presence of at least 78 different types of contaminant materials.

“While 48 percent of the microparticles were microplastics – a finding representative across numerous ocean ecosystems – many other particles were not plastic and originated from a variety of human-derived materials that are constituents of fuels, paints, and cosmetics,” said senior author Joleah Lamb, assistant professor of ecology & evolutionary biology at UCI. “We were particularly surprised to find three different brands of milk powder formula, which comprised 14 percent of the microdebris contaminants.”

...

https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/some-oysters-contain-plastics-pathogens-kerosene-paint-and-baby-formula-study-finds/
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kassy

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2028 on: August 03, 2020, 07:58:09 PM »
‘Super-Kelp’ Is Making CO2 Vanish into the Ocean

Tasmania’s towering seaweed forests are amazing climate change fighters. Now scientists are stepping in to make them even stronger.

Sixty years ago, Tasmania’s coastline was cushioned by a velvety forest of kelp so dense it would ensnare local fishers as they headed out in their boats. “We speak especially to the older generation of fishers, and they say, ‘When I was your age, this bay was so thick with kelp, we actually had to cut a channel though it,’” says Cayne Layton, a postdoctoral research fellow at the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the University of Tasmania. “Now, those bays, which are probably at the scale of 10 or 20 football fields, are completely empty of kelp. There’s not a single plant left.”

Since the 1960s, Tasmania’s once expansive kelp forests have declined by 90 percent or more. The primary culprit is climate change. These giant algae need to be bathed in cool, nutrient-rich currents in order to thrive, yet regional warming in recent decades has extended the waters of the warmer East Australian Current into Tasmanian seas to devastating effect, wiping out kelp forests one by one. Warming waters have also boosted populations of predatory urchins, which gnaw on kelp roots and compound the loss.

Tasmania isn’t the only site of destruction. Globally, kelp grow in forests along the coastlines of every continent except Antarctica; most of these are threatened by climate change, coastal development, pollution, fishing and invasive predators. All of this matters because these ecosystems provide huge benefits: They cushion coastlines against the effect of storm surges and sea level rise; they cleanse water by absorbing excess nutrients; and they also slurp up carbon dioxide, which can help drive down ocean acidity and engineer a healthy environment for surrounding marine life. These forests — which in the case of the giant kelp species that grows in Tasmania, can reach heights of 130 feet — also provide habitat for hundreds of marine species.

...

lots more on:
https://reasonstobecheerful.world/super-kelp-carbon-emissions-climate-change-oceans/

The headline is a bit deceptive since all kelp losses they report have probably made less CO2 go into the ocean.
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Bruce Steele

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Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« Reply #2029 on: August 03, 2020, 08:47:03 PM »
Kassy, Kelp is a fast growing algae the does soak up a lot of CO2 but it does not contribute much as a long term carbon sink other than as food for shell growing animals. Kelp lives in shallow water and when it dies it is quickly eaten by animals or bacteria, the carbon in its fronds is quickly remineralized.
So the ocean ends up with the CO2 in the form of dissolved CO2 ( pCO2 ) . Phytoplankton growing over shelf waters die and then their shells sink into the carbonate sink and are therefor contributors to long term carbon sinks.