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Author Topic: Forests: An Endangered Resource  (Read 13675 times)

morganism

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Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #50 on: April 06, 2019, 12:06:03 AM »
American Trees Are Moving West, and No One Knows Why

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/05/go-west-my-sap/526899/

“Different species are responding to climate change differently. Most of the broad-leaf species—deciduous trees—are following moisture moving westward. The evergreen trees—the needle species—are primarily moving northward,”

Susan Anderson

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Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #51 on: April 06, 2019, 10:01:16 AM »
The secret deal to destroy paradise: The story behind the single biggest threat to the rainforests of Indonesia.
https://news.mongabay.com/2018/11/the-secret-deal-to-destroy-paradise/

This is only a small extract, please go to the link:

Quote
The threat to the rainforests of Indonesia was very real. Since the turn of the century, only Brazil has lost more rainforest than Indonesia. One of the leading causes of this deforestation was a boom in industrial-scale plantations that began in the early 2000s. Those plantations enabled Indonesia to become the leading producer of palm oil, an edible oil used in an endless array of consumer products. But it also sparked an environmental crisis, as the carbon locked up in rainforests was released into the atmosphere.

The volume of greenhouse gas emissions from Indonesian rainforests has made it a matter of international concern. Norway has pledged $1 billion in an attempt to incentivize reforms to curb them. Since 2015, the administration of President Joko Widodo has sought to rein in the plantation industry, most recently by enacting a temporary ban on any new permits for palm plantations. Though just a small proportion of the Tanah Merah project has been developed, the permits were issued before the ban came into force, and the forest remains slated for destruction.

Today, an area larger than Manhattan has been cleared within the Tanah Merah project. This is only a fraction of the total project area. If the rest is bulldozed as planned, it will release as much emissions as Virginia produces by burning fossil fuels each year. If the giant sawmill that is today being constructed on the land is completed, it will suck in timber for years to come, settling the fate of swathes of rainforest in southern Papua.

kassy

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Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #52 on: April 07, 2019, 04:45:17 PM »
Logging Is the Leading Driver of Carbon Emissions From US Forests

...

Many people are aware of the importance of protecting rainforests in Brazil to help mitigate climate change, but few realize that more logging occurs in the US, and more wood is consumed here, than in any other nation globally. The rate and scale of logging in the Southeastern US alone is four times that in South American rainforests.

...

Carbon emissions from logging in the US are ten times higher than the combined emissions from wildland fire and tree mortality from native bark beetles. Fire only consumes a minor percentage of forest carbon, while improving availability of key nutrients and stimulating rapid forest regeneration. Within a decade after fire, more carbon has been pulled out of the atmosphere than was emitted. When trees die from drought and native bark beetles, no carbon is consumed or emitted initially, and carbon emissions from decay are extremely small, and slow, while decaying wood helps keeps soils productive, which enhances carbon sequestration capacity over time.

On the other hand, industrial logging — even when conducted under the euphemism of “thinning” — results in a large net loss of forest carbon storage, and a substantial overall increase in carbon emissions that can take decades, if not a century, to recapture with regrowth. Logging also tends to make fires burn faster and more intensely while degrading a forest ecosystem’s ability to provide natural protections against extreme weather events.

Consider this: About 28 percent of tree carbon is contained in branches, and this is emitted when they are burned after logging operations. An additional 53 percent of the carbon in trees removed from forests is emitted as waste in the manufacturing and milling process. Overall, about two-thirds of the carbon in trees that are logged for lumber quickly become greenhouse gas emissions.

When trees are cut down and burned to generate “biomass” electricity under the guise of “renewable energy,” 100 percent of the carbon is emitted. Incinerating wood for energy emits evenmore CO2 than burning coal, for equal energy produced. Yet, the expansion of US production of wood pellets to fuel power stations in Europe has been spreading like wildfire across the Southeast, accelerating the destruction of some of our nation’s most ecologically-important forests and putting the health of some of the nation’s most vulnerable communities at increased risk.

...

https://truthout.org/articles/logging-is-the-leading-driver-of-carbon-emissions-from-us-forests/


gerontocrat

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Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #53 on: April 25, 2019, 11:21:48 AM »
And so it goes on

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/apr/25/death-by-a-thousand-cuts-vast-expanse-rainforest-lost-in-2018

‘Death by a thousand cuts’: vast expanse of rainforest lost in 2018
Quote
“We are nowhere near winning this battle,” said Frances Seymour from the World Resources Institute, part of the Global Forest Watch (GFW) network, which produced the analysis. “It is really tempting to celebrate a second year of decline since peak tree cover loss in 2016 but, if you look back over the last 18 years, it is clear that the overall trend is still upwards.”

I worked occasionally at creating regulations - e.g.s environmental, financial. On bad days it felt like I was simply expanding the Corruption & Bribery Opportunity Programme for politicians and Government officials.

Forestry protection is one of the worst and most dangerous. I can say that from personal experience. My guess is that in recent years Brazil has had a continuous bad day.
« Last Edit: April 25, 2019, 11:40:08 AM by gerontocrat »
"Para a Causa do Povo a Luta Continua!"
"And that's all I'm going to say about that". Forrest Gump
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kassy

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Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #54 on: May 16, 2019, 01:28:23 PM »
Wood wide web: Trees' social networks are mapped

Research has shown that beneath every forest and wood there is a complex underground web of roots, fungi and bacteria helping to connect trees and plants to one another.

This subterranean social network, nearly 500 million years old, has become known as the "wood wide web".

Now, an international study has produced the first global map of the "mycorrhizal fungi networks" dominating this secretive world.

Details appear in Nature journal.

...
Using millions of direct observations of trees and their symbiotic associations on the ground, the researchers could build models from the bottom up to visualise these fungal networks for the first time.

...

The research reveals how important mycorrhizal networks are to limiting climate change - and how vulnerable they are to the effects of it.

...

Mycorrhizal fungi are those that form a symbiotic relationship with plants.

There are two main groups of mycorrhizal fungi: arbuscular fungi (AM) that penetrate the hosts's roots, and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) which surround the tree's roots without penetrating them.

EM fungi, mostly present in temperate and boreal systems, help lock up more carbon from the atmosphere. They are more vulnerable to climate change.

AM fungi, more dominant in the tropics, promote fast carbon cycling.

According to the research, 60% of trees are connected to EM fungi, but, as temperatures rise, these fungi - and their associated tree species - will decline and be replaced by AM fungi.

"The types of fungi that support huge carbon stores in the soil are being lost and are being replaced by the ones that spew out carbon in to the atmosphere."

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-48257315

vox_mundi

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Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #55 on: May 16, 2019, 03:34:05 PM »
Interesting! Reminds me of the movie 'Avatar'.



Do Trees Talk to Each Other?
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-whispering-trees-180968084/

Paul Stamets: Mycillium Running
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycelium_Running
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

kassy

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Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #56 on: June 10, 2019, 03:55:27 PM »
Argentine fossils take oak and beech family history far into Southern Hemisphere

Summary:
One of the world's most important plant families has a history extending much farther south than any live or fossil specimen previously recorded, as shown by chinquapin fruit and leaf fossils unearthed in Patagonia, Argentina, according to researchers.

....

Today, Castanopsis plays an important role in intercepting year-round mountain precipitation that delivers clean water for drinking, fishing and agriculture to more than half a billion people and sustains diverse freshwater and coastal ecosystems. However, humans are clearing these rainforests for timber, development and crop cultivation, and modern climate change is increasing droughts and fire frequency.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190606150310.htm

The science story is pretty cool but i left it out since it is not really topical.

Tom_Mazanec

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SHARKS (CROSSED OUT) MONGEESE (SIC) WITH FRICKIN LASER BEAMS ATTACHED TO THEIR HEADS

nanning

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Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #58 on: June 12, 2019, 08:03:23 AM »
Forests are not a resource. They are habitat and alive.
"It is preoccupation with possessions, more than anything else, that prevents us from living freely and nobly" - Bertrand Russel

"Only men of extraordinary independence of character seem able to resist the pressure of prevailing opinion" - Albert Einstein

kassy

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Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #59 on: June 19, 2019, 04:49:52 PM »
A New Study Finds That Cutting Down One Forest Can Make Neighboring Forests Hotter



Areas cleared of forests bleed heat to neighboring forests, and this fuels increases in temperatures there, new research has found. Average temperatures in forests around the world are already rising because of climate change; this leaked heat exacerbates the problem and accelerates local extinctions of forest-dwelling species.



What struck Sinervo was the unusually high rate of extinction in Madagascar, one of the most biodiverse countries in the world. "I was intrigued why Madagascar had a much higher observed extinction rate  (of lizards) than any other [country] and I saw that Madagascar had warmed faster than mainland Africa," Sinervo says.
In Madagascar, two forest reserves analyzed in the 2010 paper reported an increase in maximum temperatures of two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) and also a 75 percent rate of deforestation in adjacent areas. However, there was insufficient data at the time to investigate whether the rising forest temperatures were related to the nearby deforestation.



In tropical forests, the study found, loss of half of the forest cover leads to an increase of about 1.08 degrees Celsius (1.94 degrees Fahrenheit) in the land surface temperature of the adjacent forest. Based on the model, the team predicted that, in Brazil, current rates of deforestation could lead to as much as 1.45 degrees Celsius (2.61 degrees Fahrenheit) of additional warming by 2050

https://psmag.com/environment/deforestations-impacts-is-wider-than-it-appears


kassy

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Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« Reply #60 on: June 25, 2019, 04:46:43 PM »
Disrupting Tropical Soil Could Be Releasing Previously Unaccounted Ancient Carbon Dioxide


Researchers investigated 19 sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo for dissolved organic carbon that had been drained into streams and rivers. As thousand-year-old soil is upturned and disrupted, they found that older dissolved organics from areas that had seen higher rates of deforestation were richer in energy and more chemically diverse.

“We estimate that while deforestation reduces the overall flux of dissolved organic carbon by approximately 56%, it does not significantly change the yield of biolabile dissolved organic carbon,” wrote the authors. “Ultimately, the exposure of deeper soil horizons through deforestation and agricultural expansion releases old, previously stable, and biolabile soil organic carbon into the modern carbon cycle via the aquatic pathway.”

Areas that have been heavily deforested were more likely to have leached organic carbon older and more biodegradable than organic carbon put off. Older, more unstable organic carbon released when the soil is upturned or disrupted. Microscopic organisms that consume released CO2 then pump it back into the atmosphere, potentially worsening impacts of the greenhouse effect.

"In many ways, this is similar to what happened in the Mississippi River Basin 100 years ago, and in the Amazon more recently," said study author Rob Spencer in a statement. "The Congo is now facing conversion of pristine lands for agriculture. We want to know what that could mean for the carbon cycle."

https://www.iflscience.com/environment/disrupting-tropical-soil-could-be-releasing-previously-unaccounted-ancient-carbon-dioxide/