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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #150 on: November 15, 2019, 10:01:59 PM »
From Ancient Seeds to Scraps of Clothing, Rats’ Nests Are Full of Treasures

...

Paleobotanists and climatologists have studied the ecosystems of the past by analyzing millennia-old material in rat nests, tracking ice age climates and changing flora across the American Southwest. In centuries-old homes of the antebellum South, objects preserved in rats’ nests have even taught us new things about the lives of enslaved African Americans whose stories were not preserved in the written records of the time.

Pack rats, also known as wood rats, are notorious for collecting an odd assortment of items from their surroundings to make their nests, called middens. Although pack rats are similarly sized to their city-dwelling brown and black rat cousins, they have bushy (not hairless) tails and belong to the genus Neotoma rather than Rattus. These stockpiling rodents tend to only range 100 to 150 feet from their middens, collecting items from about a 50-foot radius. Pack rats will gather everything from plants and branches to insects and bones, which they pack into their middens. While you might not expect such materials to survive for very long, pack rats also have a special trick to conserve their haul: urine.

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/archaeological-treasures-hidden-rat-nests-180973544/



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nanning

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #151 on: November 16, 2019, 08:15:45 AM »
Those rats must have some special urine (I haven't read the article).
Where I have been pissing over the forest floor, most leaves have become black. The microorganisms seem to love my urine.
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TerryM

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #152 on: November 16, 2019, 08:05:29 PM »
Those rats must have some special urine (I haven't read the article).
Where I have been pissing over the forest floor, most leaves have become black. The microorganisms seem to love my urine.


Don't know if the article mentions it but packrats inhabit the same midden for many, many generations. A huge rat midden near a petroglyph of a mammoth tossing someone with his tusks was inhabited in the 1980's when a friend first discovered it. It may well be older than the petroglyph.
Terry

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #153 on: November 17, 2019, 07:19:33 AM »
Thanks for that info Terry. It seems that those rats spoil their own generations old midden (nest) with daily urine. Maybe it's not spoiling but conserving :).
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TerryM

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #154 on: November 17, 2019, 04:22:51 PM »
^^
Portions of the ancient desert middens I've seen appear almost crystalline, as if slowly encased in something resembling discoloured amber.
It would make an interesting field of study.
Terry

kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #155 on: November 17, 2019, 11:56:52 PM »
There is a ton of links to detailed research in the article.

The trick is that their urine is concentrated and it works best in dry places. They keep doing it in the same places forever if they can so they are great samplers collecting stuff and preserving it yes, yes.  ;)
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #156 on: November 19, 2019, 05:20:45 PM »
Huge Tsunami Hit Oman 1,000 Years Ago
https://m.phys.org/news/2019-11-huge-tsunami-oman-years.html

Fifteen-meter high waves that pushed boulders the weight of a Leopard tank inland: This is more or less how one can imagine the tsunami that hit the coast of today's Sultanate of Oman about 1,000 years ago, as concluded by a recent study by the universities of Bonn, Jena, Freiburg and RWTH Aachen. The findings also show how urgently the region needs a well-functioning early warning system. But even then, coastal residents would have a maximum of 30 minutes to get to safety in a similar catastrophe. The study will be published in the journal Marine Geology, but is already available online.

... Even a smaller tsunami would have devastating consequences today: A large part of the vital infrastructure in the Sultanate of Oman has been built near the coast, such as the oil refineries and seawater desalination plants.



Gösta Hoffmann et al. Large Holocene tsunamis in the northern Arabian Sea, Marine Geology (2019)
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #157 on: November 20, 2019, 01:50:10 AM »
AI helps discover new geoglyph in the Nazca Lines
https://www.theverge.com/platform/amp/2019/11/19/20970578/nazca-lines-ai-machine-learning-143-new-geoglyphs-ibm-japan-yamagata-university

Scientists from Japan have used machine learning for the first time to identify a new figure among the ancient motifs of Peru’s Nazca Lines.

The illustration, known as a geoglyph, is thought to date to between 100 BC and 500 AD, and was made by removing the dark stones of the Nazca Desert to reveal the white sand beneath. It’s small, just five meters in height, and it shows a humanoid figure grasping a cane or club. Like the other drawings in the Nazca Desert, its exact function is unknown, but its discovery next to an ancient path suggests it might have been used as a waypoint.

“It is in an area that we often investigated, but we did not know the geoglyph existed,” Professor Makato Sakai, the leader of a team from Yamagata University that conducted the research, told The Verge over email. “It’s a large achievement.”

It’s the first design in the Nazca Lines to be discovered with the help of artificial intelligence.



https://www.yamagata-u.ac.jp/en/information/info/20191115_01/
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TerryM

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #158 on: November 22, 2019, 01:41:05 AM »
^^
It's rather obvious that this is a life size representation of a robotic overseer. His 3 antenna were for communications with the Master AI and up to two henchmen, his "screen face" was for communication with his slaves, and the "club" representing his physical domination over any foolish enough to resist.


The 3 dots on the screen represent the 3 levels that he operated on.


1 - I Club You
2 - I Club You Hard
3 - I Club You Dead


Representing him as a recumbent figure lying in the sand, as opposed to a vertical statue was no accident as it was rendered immediately after the successful slave revolt by the Bowler Hat Gang. The indigenous still don headwear totally unsuited to their environment.
Terry

vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #159 on: November 22, 2019, 06:02:18 AM »
I was initially going with 'a teletubby having a tantrum', but you might be right.  ;)

https://us.teletubbies.com/
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teletubbies

« Last Edit: November 22, 2019, 06:33:43 AM by vox_mundi »
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TerryM

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #160 on: November 22, 2019, 07:08:16 AM »
Did you ever watch one of their shows?
Is like taking a strong soperific. DO NOT DRIVE OR OPERATE MACHINERY AFTER WATCHING.
Terry

vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #161 on: November 23, 2019, 10:22:57 PM »
^^


--------------------------

Back on topic ...

Why Did Vikings Bury Two People in Boats on Top of Each Other, 100 Years Apart?
https://gizmodo.com/why-did-vikings-bury-two-people-in-boats-on-top-of-each-1840005029


A video from NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology (with Norwegian captions) illustrating the Viking boat burials

... The graves hold two bodies, a male and female. The older grave, containing a Viking man, dates back to the 8th century CE, while the more recent grave, of a Viking woman, dates back to the 9th century CE. The Vikings unearthed the original grave after some 100 years, placed the second boat grave on top, and then reburied both, reports ScienceNorway. The reason isn’t entirely clear, but the archaeologists have good reason to believe the individuals were related.

Few details were given about the man, but he was found buried alongside his shield and a single-edged sword. His weapon dates to the Merovingian era in Northern Europe, reports ScienceNorway.

The woman’s boat was around 7 to 8 meters (23 to 26 feet) long. She was buried wearing a necklace with a cross-shaped pendant, and her dress was fastened at the front with a pair of large shell-shaped brooches made from gilded bronze. Around her body lay an assortment of funerary items, including a pearl necklace, scissors, a spindle whorl, and the head of a cow.

Most of the wood is gone from the two boats, but the archaeologists found the remaining rivets in their original positions, allowing them to visualize the placement of the boat graves. The boats were buried together within a large burial mound that protruded from the landscape. The site is at the edge of a cliff overlooking a fjord, so it was likely an impressive view, according to Sauvage.
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Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #162 on: November 23, 2019, 11:22:21 PM »
vox_mundi:
Buried someone on top a 100 year old skeleton?
YUCK!
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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #163 on: November 24, 2019, 12:41:56 PM »
Nothing yuck about old skeletons. I once visited the Capuchin Crypt in Rome now that was something else but still not yuck.
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Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #164 on: November 24, 2019, 03:34:24 PM »
kassy:
YMMV
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #165 on: November 26, 2019, 03:51:19 PM »
Archaeologists Fear Bolsonaro Agenda Will Kill Amazon Civilisation Research
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/nov/26/brazil-amazon-archaeologists-bolsonaro-civilisation

Brazil’s president has cut science funding while opening the region to loggers, miners and farmers – putting priceless evidence of ancient cultures at risk.

... Recent findings are radically changing our understanding of the region’s prehistory. New evidence suggests that pre-Columbian Amazonian civilisations were comparable in scale and complexity to better-known Andean and Mesoamerican cultures. They had populations numbering in the millions, living in interconnected, fortified villages.
They left rock art, vast ceremonial earthworks, sprawling irrigation channels and causeways, but any stone buildings, described in fanciful accounts by conquistadors, have not survived. Perhaps even more intriguingly, a growing body of research suggests that much of the world’s largest rainforest was moulded by humans.

But archaeologists across the Amazon warn that progress is imperilled by the policies of Brazil’s nationalist president, Jair Bolsonaro. The field is facing dramatic funding cuts, while proposed legal changes on salvage archaeology will endanger priceless physical evidence.

And the mass displacement of indigenous communities – resulting from Bolsonaro’s promises to turn the Amazon over to loggers, miners and farmers in the name of development – risks destroying the local knowledge needed to reconstruct the Amazon’s past, and potentially safeguard its future.

... In March, Bolsonaro’s administration announced a surprise budget cut of 42% to the science ministry and of 30% to university funding.

In September, the government indicated that CNPq, the main grant-providing body for trainee scientists will lose 87% of its research budget in 2020, while another scientific funding agency, Capes, will suffer cuts of 50%.

... Bolsonaro’s administration has revived proposals that prior surveys are only carried out where archaeological material is already proven to exist. Most describe this as absurd: in most cases the archaeology is completely unknown until surveyed. “If they change the law, archaeology in Brazil is over.”

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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #166 on: November 27, 2019, 09:32:14 PM »
Inbreeding and Population/Demographic Shifts May Have Led to Neanderthal Extinction
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-inbreeding-populationdemographic-shifts-neanderthal-extinction.html

Small populations, inbreeding, and random demographic fluctuations could have been enough to cause Neanderthal extinction, according to a study published November 27, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE

Using data from extant hunter-gatherer populations as parameters, the authors developed population models for simulated Neanderthal populations of various initial sizes (50, 100, 500, 1,000, or 5,000 individuals). They then simulated for their model populations the effects of inbreeding, Allee effects (where reduced population size negatively impacts individuals' fitness), and annual random demographic fluctuations in births, deaths, and the sex ratio, to see if these factors could bring about an extinction event over a 10,000-year period.

The population models show that inbreeding alone was unlikely to have led to extinction (this only occurred in the smallest model population). However, reproduction-related Allee effects where 25 percent or fewer Neanderthal females gave birth within a given year (as is common in extant hunter-gatherers) could have caused extinction in populations of up to 1,000 individuals. In conjunction with demographic fluctuations, Allee effects plus inbreeding could have caused extinction across all population sizes modelled within the 10,000 years allotted.

Vaesen K, Scherjon F, Hemerik L, Verpoorte A (2019) Inbreeding, Allee effects and stochasticity might be sufficient to account for Neanderthal extinction. PLoS ONE 14(11): e0225117
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Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #167 on: November 27, 2019, 10:35:33 PM »
Humans (Cro-Magnon) were hunter-gatherers for more than 10,000 years and were subject to the same demographic factors. Why did they not go extinct?
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johnm33

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #168 on: November 27, 2019, 11:14:42 PM »
Hunter gatherers tend to breastfeed on demand, that generally leads to children being born about 4 years apart, so 25% is close to the max rate.
Isolated communities of all types suffer increasing loss of fertility and congenital defects from excess consanquinity, island girls deal with this by the warm reception given to passing sailors, peasants/serfs by some type of try before you buy, aristocracies by heir, spare then miscellany. I imagine when isolated groups of hominids met they happily miscegenated, some hybrids prospering some not, but since H.Sap. was/is the only one who was hard wired for grammatical language once, any hominid group had been penetrated by H.Sap. the word got passed on.  ;)

vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #169 on: November 30, 2019, 03:32:15 AM »
18,000-Year-Old Puppy Found Frozen and Almost Perfectly Preserved in Permafrost
https://gizmodo.com/found-frozen-and-almost-perfectly-preserved-in-permafro-1840093915

Researchers are trying to determine whether an 18,000-year-old puppy found in Siberia is a dog or a wolf.

The frozen puppy, found near Yakutsk in eastern Siberia, was just two months old when it died, reports CNN. Scientists from the Centre for Palaeogenetics—a joint project between Stockholm University and the Swedish Museum of Natural History—used radiocarbon dating on its rib bone to place its brief time on Earth to 18,000 years ago, during the tail end of the last Ice Age.

As to which species this animal belonged is now an intriguing question, as the DNA analysis was inconclusive. The little critter doesn’t seem to fit the genetic profile of a dog or a wolf, and it quite possibly represents an intermediary stage during the domestication of dogs.

The origin of dogs is still not completely clear, hence the importance of the new discovery. The first domesticated dogs emerged in Asia around 14,000 to 16,000 years ago, but genetic evidence suggests the divergence date between dogs and ancient wolves happened at some point between 20,000 to 40,000 years ago. To complicate matters, dogs may have been domesticated twice, once in Asia and once in Europe.

That the newly discovered puppy is some kind of evolutionary missing link is wholly plausible, as the timing appears to be right. But more evidence is needed.
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johnm33

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #170 on: December 01, 2019, 02:25:48 PM »
A little confirmation bias here conditions would arise where miscegenation was the optimal choice.
" We present two independent models that capture the internal dynamics of Neanderthal populations―the models thus ignore, among other things, competitive interactions with AMHs―and that suggest that the disappearance of Neanderthals might have resided in the small size of their population(s) alone. Accordingly, our study substantiates the suggestion, made in passing by French [42], that “it may simply be the case that Neanderthal populations declined below their minimum viable population threshold”."

kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #171 on: December 04, 2019, 01:39:23 PM »
Did a million years of rain jump-start dinosaur evolution?

...

Three decades later, there is a growing consensus that they were right, after all. Something strange happened in the Late Triassic — and not just in Somerset. About 232 million years ago, during a span known as the Carnian age, it rained almost everywhere. After millions of years of dry climates, Earth entered a wet period lasting one million to two million years. Nearly any place where geologists find rocks of that age, there are signs of wet weather. This so-called Carnian pluvial episode coincides with some massive evolutionary shifts.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-03699-7
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Tor Bejnar

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #172 on: December 04, 2019, 03:36:24 PM »
Quote
Did a million years of rain jump-start dinosaur evolution?
That article also asks:  did a million years of global warming (potentially) caused by episodes of flood basalt eruptions in (what is now) Western Canada and Alaska jump-start evolutionary changes which developed the dinosaurs (and ultimately birds) as well as corals (as we know them today) and mammals.

Maybe after we (h. sapiens) are dead and gone, really interesting biology will flourish, nurtured by the extra rain and warmth caused by our 'burning the Carboniferous', and aided by the concentration of radioactive nuclides in certain areas (currently called 'nuclear power plants' and 'military bases')!
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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #173 on: December 07, 2019, 10:20:40 PM »
Floor Pavements in Pompeii Illustrate Surveying Technology
https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/12/floor-pavements-in-pompeii-illustrate-surveying-technology/



Decorative pavements in the floor of a recently unearthed Roman house in Pompeii offer a glimpse into the life and work of an ancient land surveyor. The pavements depict a stylized drawing of an ancient surveyor’s tool called a groma, along with a diagram of a surveying technique and the plan of a construction project in Pompeii. So far, they’re the only original Roman illustrations of the tools and techniques the Romans used to help build an empire and its infrastructure.

Only a few metal fragments of a Roman groma exist today (also recovered from Pompeii), and archaeologists have found only a few images carved into surveyors’ tombstones. Otherwise, we know the tool only from descriptions in medieval versions of ancient Roman surveying manuals.

The newly unearthed pavements at Pompeii suggest that those medieval copies were pretty close to the original ancient texts. An image on the floor of the entrance hall is nearly identical to illustrations in medieval copies of Roman texts, attributed to Roman surveyor Hygius and famed architect Vitruvius.

... For some reason, Hygius and Vitrivius didn’t include illustrations of a groma in their texts, so modern scholars have to rely on their descriptions and on fragments of a real groma found at Pompeii. The instrument consisted of a set of crossed arms balanced at the end of a horizontal pole so they could spin freely around the center. Four weighted plumb lines hung from the ends of the arms. A Roman land surveyor would line up two of the plumb lines on a distant point and then use the four arms of the groma to calculate an angle in relation to that line.

That seems to be what’s depicted in the pavement: a cross in a circle, at the top of a long straight line. ...
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Aporia_filia

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #174 on: December 09, 2019, 10:34:45 AM »
I have found something that supports my theory (that belongs to anybody), that humans have gone (and still are) through self domesticating processes. Maybe that helps explain why we behave like cattle when in mass.  ::) :o
Without wanting to hurt anybody, to me it also shows the role that religions have had in this process, aiming to control the human livestock under the good shepherd (before taken them to the slaughter house)
 
https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/12/eaaw7908

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“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #176 on: December 09, 2019, 02:56:37 PM »
Reply #174

We are constantly adapting to our environment and you can look at it that way. For example there was some research that showed that Chinese that lived way out in the country were much more likely to have an argument then Chinese living in the big cities. This was because they actually needed to do it more compared to the ones in the cities in day to day life.

Aside not all religions follow that pattern but unsurprisingly the big ones do because they nicely co-evolved with feudal exploitation and then capitalist exploitation. 
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nanning

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #177 on: December 09, 2019, 05:38:31 PM »
Civilisation is what I read but that is just a part of humans and humanity.

That is an important distinction to make and it gives some respect and justice to the remaining indiginous people today and all the conquered tribes of old, of which there are many.

My advise is: Try to break through your civilisation bubble for more clarity and understanding.
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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #178 on: December 09, 2019, 05:55:55 PM »
And ancient Imperial exploitation before that.
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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #179 on: December 12, 2019, 05:33:58 PM »
World's Oldest Artwork Uncovered in Indonesian Cave
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-world-oldest-artwork-uncovered-indonesian.html



“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #180 on: December 13, 2019, 05:37:53 PM »
New Evidence Suggests Ancient Egyptian Head Cones Were Real
https://gizmodo.com/new-evidence-suggests-ancient-egyptian-head-cones-were-1840389989

For years, archaeologists have debated the existence of ancient Egyptian head cones. These objects are portrayed in Egyptian artworks, but not a single one has been found by archaeologists—until now.

Ancient Egyptian head cones actually existed, according to a new paper published this week in the science journal Antiquity. The new research, led by archaeologist Anna Stevens from Monash University in Australia, suggests the adornments served an important funerary function: They were found atop the heads of two skeletons buried in a cemetery at the ancient Egyptian city of Akhetaten, now known as the Amarna site. Whether or not these head cones were worn in daily life is unknown, but the composition and design of the unusual objects strongly suggests this was the case.



The head cones were found as broken fragments, but the researchers managed to reconstruct their overall shape. A non-destructive spectroscopic analysis showed that the relics were hollow and made from wax, likely beeswax. The wax caps measured around 3 inches high and 4 inches wide.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/antiquity/article/from-representation-to-reality-ancient-egyptian-wax-head-cones-from-amarna/4D5FA4C424606455FF935FFF07C1E5E2
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late