Support the Arctic Sea Ice Forum and Blog

Author Topic: The Holocene Extinction  (Read 66992 times)

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2819
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1240
  • Likes Given: 1125
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #550 on: December 10, 2020, 04:34:23 PM »
Quote
The researchers did not consider waste in making their calculation, though if it were factored in, it would have likely tipped the scales in favor of human-made materials as early as 2013, the study found.

...

The study finds that humans have changed the planet with staggering speed.

Since the first agricultural revolution began roughly 12,000 years ago, humans have cut global biomass nearly in half, from 2 teratons to around 1.1 teratons today.
Though an ever-growing amount of Earth's land is being used to grow crops, their total mass is dwarfed by losses elsewhere in the biosphere, where deforestation and other shifts in land use driven by humans have dramatically shrunk plant mass. The study finds that hunting, overfishing and the raising of farm animals have also cut into the overall biomass.

https://edition.cnn.com/2020/12/09/world/human-made-mass-exceeds-biomass-report-2020

Slowly evolving into Coruscant...
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

Tom_Mazanec

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 4176
  • Earth will survive AGW...but will Homo sapiens?
    • View Profile
    • Planet Mazanec
  • Liked: 657
  • Likes Given: 501
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #551 on: December 10, 2020, 05:22:12 PM »
Maybe in a billion years there will be an Anthropocene layer of the Earth’s crust.
SHARKS (CROSSED OUT) MONGEESE (SIC) WITH FRICKIN LASER BEAMS ATTACHED TO THEIR HEADS

vox_mundi

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 4751
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 2561
  • Likes Given: 366
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #552 on: December 11, 2020, 11:26:02 AM »
Mass Extinctions of Land-Dwelling Animals Occur In 27-Million-Year Cycle
https://phys.org/news/2020-12-mass-extinctions-land-dwelling-animals-million-year.html

Mass extinctions of land-dwelling animals—including amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds—follow a cycle of about 27 million years, coinciding with previously reported mass extinctions of ocean life, according to a new analysis published in the journal Historical Biology.

The study also finds that these mass extinctions align with major asteroid impacts and devastating volcanic outpourings of lava called flood-basalt eruptions—providing potential causes for why the extinctions occurred.
« Last Edit: December 11, 2020, 01:50:14 PM by kassy »
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2819
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1240
  • Likes Given: 1125
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #553 on: December 11, 2020, 01:55:14 PM »
This article is very interesting but not relevant to the holocene so i replaced the article with a link to the same article in the astronomy thread. Any discussion of this should also be on that thread.
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2819
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1240
  • Likes Given: 1125
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #554 on: December 20, 2020, 10:17:13 AM »
Devastating Skin Disease Covering Up To 70% Of Dolphin’s Body Tied To Climate Change

Scientists at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, CA – the largest marine mammal hospital in the world – and international colleagues have identified a novel skin disease in dolphins that is linked to climate change.

The study is a groundbreaking discovery, as it is the first time since the disease first appeared in 2005 that scientists have been able to link a cause to the condition that affects coastal dolphin communities worldwide. Due to the decreased water salinity brought upon by climate change, the dolphins develop patchy and raised skin lesions across their bodies – sometimes covering upwards of 70 percent of their skin.

...

This study comes on the heels of significant outbreaks in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida and Texas and Australia in recent years. In all of these locations, a sudden and drastic decrease in salinity in the waters was the common factor. Coastal dolphins are accustomed to seasonal changes in salinity levels in their marine habitat, but they do not live in freshwater. The increasing severity and frequency of storm events like hurricanes and cyclones, particularly if they are preceded by drought conditions, are dumping unusual volumes of rain that turn coastal waters to freshwater. Freshwater conditions can persist for months, particularly after intense storms such as hurricanes Harvey and Katrina. With the increasing climate temperatures, climate scientists have predicted extreme storms like these will occur more frequently and, consequently, will result in more frequent and severe disease outbreaks in dolphins.

“This devastating skin disease has been killing dolphins since Hurricane Katrina, and we’re pleased to finally define the problem,” said Duignan. “With a record hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico this year and more intense storm systems worldwide due to climate change, we can absolutely expect to see more of these devastating outbreaks killing dolphins.”

https://www.eurasiareview.com/20122020-devastating-skin-disease-covering-up-to-70-of-dolphins-body-tied-to-climate-change/

OA article:
Fresh water skin disease in dolphins: a case definition based on pathology and environmental factors in Australia

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-78858-2
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2819
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1240
  • Likes Given: 1125
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #555 on: December 20, 2020, 10:19:56 AM »
Ivory: Elephant decline revealed by shipwreck cargo

Researchers have examined ancient DNA preserved in elephant tusks that were among the cargo of a 487-year-old shipwreck.

Their forensic examination of the 100 tusks pinpointed the devastation caused to the elephant population by centuries of ivory trade.

On this single ship, researchers found genetic evidence of 17 distinct herds of the threatened animals.

Today, scientists can find only four of those herds surviving in Africa.

....

That preservation meant that the international team of researchers - including experts from from Namibia, the US and the UK - could unpick exactly how many herds of elephants the tusks came from.

The team examined something called mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondria are the power stations of every cell, converting food into fuel. And crucially for this study, the genetic blueprint that makes mitochondria is passed down from mother to offspring.

This makes it a particularly revealing piece of code for elephants.

"Elephants live in female-led family groups, and they tend to stay in the same geographic area throughout their lives," explained Alida de Flamingh from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, who led the study. "We were able to reconstruct complete mitochondrial genomes from these really old samples."

Those completed pieces of genetic code showed that the tusks on this single trading vessel came from 17 distinct elephant herds. The most up to date genetic information about the elephants surviving in that part of Africa today showed that only four of those could be found.

"That was quite shocking - that loss of diversity," said Dr Coutu. "Next we'd really like to fill in those gaps in a chronological way. We can look at where these pinch points are in history and create a timeline of exactly how and when the huge trade in ivory had an impact."

...

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-55340975
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

longwalks1

  • Frazil ice
  • Posts: 155
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 55
  • Likes Given: 12
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #556 on: December 21, 2020, 03:17:10 AM »
In re Skin Disease Dolphin

Having lived close to a brackish bay (Mobile Bay - Alabama) I did find the word freshwater, mildly unsettling.   But skimming  the article and seeing that it had gone from >30 ppt to <5 ppt salinity and my quibbling is over.   5 years doing SDWA's (Safe Drinking Water Act - usOfa EPA regulations)  had a factor in my bias more towards an even lower of salinity as being still brackish. 

Although via Wikipedia I get a defintion of brackish as
Quote
Technically, brackish water contains between 0.5 and 30 grams of salt per litre—more often expressed as 0.5 to 30 parts per thousand (‰),
   I'll just chill out.   For a dramatic change I can call the authors usage more nuance than mild exaggeration.   Nuance is needed these days.

Tom_Mazanec

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 4176
  • Earth will survive AGW...but will Homo sapiens?
    • View Profile
    • Planet Mazanec
  • Liked: 657
  • Likes Given: 501
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #557 on: December 21, 2020, 02:03:57 PM »
That confused me, longwalks1. I thought ppt was parts per trillion, like on the SF6 thread. They should use ppth and pptr for something like that.
SHARKS (CROSSED OUT) MONGEESE (SIC) WITH FRICKIN LASER BEAMS ATTACHED TO THEIR HEADS

longwalks1

  • Frazil ice
  • Posts: 155
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 55
  • Likes Given: 12
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #558 on: December 21, 2020, 03:11:34 PM »
Analytical aqueous chemistry is more ppthousands  and ppmillions.   pptrillion is a newer kid on the block, but of course no teenager.   

Tom_Mazanec

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 4176
  • Earth will survive AGW...but will Homo sapiens?
    • View Profile
    • Planet Mazanec
  • Liked: 657
  • Likes Given: 501
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #559 on: December 21, 2020, 09:22:15 PM »
I guess in twenty years we will be arguing if ppq is parts per quadrillion or parts per quintillion.
SHARKS (CROSSED OUT) MONGEESE (SIC) WITH FRICKIN LASER BEAMS ATTACHED TO THEIR HEADS

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2819
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1240
  • Likes Given: 1125
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #560 on: December 21, 2020, 09:24:24 PM »
Different things, different backgrounds. You just have to study them a bit.
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

vox_mundi

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 4751
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 2561
  • Likes Given: 366
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #561 on: December 26, 2020, 01:40:55 PM »
Mass Die-Off of Birds in South-Western US 'Caused By Starvation'
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/dec/26/mass-die-off-of-birds-in-south-western-us-caused-by-starvation-aoe

The mass die-off of thousands of songbirds in south-western US was caused by long-term starvation, made worse by unseasonably cold weather probably linked to the climate crisis, scientists have said.

Flycatchers, swallows and warblers were among the migratory birds “falling out of the sky” in September, with carcasses found in New Mexico, Colorado, Texas, Arizona and Nebraska. A USGS National Wildlife Health Center necropsy has found 80% of specimens showed typical signs of starvation.

... Most of the birds were insect and berry eaters that migrate from tundra landscapes in Alaska and Canada to winter in Central and South America. Most of them have to stop and refuel every few days on their migration.

... We’re not talking about short-term starvation – this is a longer-term starvation,” said Martha Desmond, a professor in the biology department at New Mexico State University (NMSU), who collected carcasses. “They became so emaciated they actually had to turn to wasting their major flight muscles. This means that this isn’t something that happened overnight.”

The birds probably would have started their migration in poor condition, which could be related to the “mega-drought” in the south west of the country. “Here in New Mexico we’ve seen a very dry year, and we’re forecast to have more of those dry years. And in turn I would say it appears that a change in climate is playing a role in this, and that we can expect to see more of this in the future,” said Desmond.
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2819
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1240
  • Likes Given: 1125
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #562 on: January 06, 2021, 10:32:22 AM »
Severe climate-driven loss of native molluscs reported off Israel’s coast

Mediterranean study finds subtidal populations of cockles, whelks and other species have collapsed by 90%

...

Native mollusc populations along the coast of Israel have collapsed by about 90% in recent decades because they cannot tolerate the increasingly hot water, according to a new study, which raises concerns about the wider ecosystem and neighbouring regions.

Scientists said the sharp decline of native cockles, whelks and other shallow subtidal invertebrates is likely to have spread to waters off other countries in the region and would continue to progress westward to Greece and beyond as global temperatures increased.


Revisited: What happens when the oceans heat up?
Read more
The paper – published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B journal – estimates native mollusc populations have fallen to 12% of their historical species richness in shallow subtidal sedimentary substrates, and to 5% on rocky substrates.

...

The authors of the paper expressed surprise at their findings. “The magnitude was totally unexpected,” said Paolo Albano, a marine biologist at the University of Vienna. “I expected a seascape that I was well accustomed to as a Mediterranean specialist but enriched with some interesting exotic species that had entered through the Suez canal. But what I found was a desert, totally devoid of even common Mediterranean species.”

The murex, for example, is a gastropod that has been used throughout the Mediterranean since Roman times for the Tyrian purple clothing dye. Albano said he found no members of this species on the 200km of coastline in the four-year study.

The research team took samples at multiple points, then compared living mollusc numbers with previous population sizes, which were estimated from empty shells found in sediment. The shortfall exceeded anything seen before. “This is the largest climate-driven regional-scale diversity loss in the oceans documented to date,” the paper says.

...

As with the declines of pollinators and soil quality on land, this has wider consequences. Molluscs make up the largest marine phylum, accounting for 23% of all sea organisms. As well as providing meat for the seafood industry, they play an essential role in regulating the chemistry of the ocean by recycling nutrients and removing nitrogen and phosphorus. In part that role might be taken on by new invasive tropical species from the Red Sea, but preliminary results suggested they would not perform the same ecosystem role as the lost native ones.

...

The Israeli coast – which is one of the hottest parts of the Mediterranean – experienced a temperature increase of 3C between 1980 and 2013. The average summer surface temperature is 32C. This is thought to have triggered the eradication of native mollusc populations – a phenomenon detected in previous studies elsewhere.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/jan/06/severe-climate-driven-loss-of-native-molluscs-reported-off-israels-coast

paper:
Native biodiversity collapse in the eastern Mediterranean
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2020.2469
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2819
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1240
  • Likes Given: 1125
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #563 on: January 06, 2021, 11:11:53 AM »
Scots scientists reveal climate change hit on humpback whale breeding

NEW threats to global whale numbers have been identified as Scottish researchers find a "significant" drop in breeding success in the wild.

It's understood that the fall in newborn sightings is linked to the availability of prey fish in the previous year – something itself is connected to ocean conditions.

Experts from St Andrews University documented a major decline in calving rates amongst humpback whales.

...

The St Andrews team has now established that environmental shifts in the krill-rich Gulf of Lawrence in Canada – one of the world's top whale watching sites and an important summer feeding ground – is affecting the breeding of humpbacks.

The sea mammal specialists worked with colleagues from Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans to investigate using blubber biopsy samples to identify pregnant females and sightings records of individual females collected by the Mingan Island Cetacean Study, comparing the years from 2004 to 2018.

They found calving rates have fallen "significantly" over the period.

And the probability of sighting females with calves was found to be linked to the abundance of herring – a main prey species – the previous year.

Prior to the work, it had been thought that humpbacks and other baleen whales could show resilience to climate change because of their ability to change their migratory patterns or change their diet.

However, the results are said to show that these attributes may not be enough to prevent ecosystem change from harming their reproductive success.

and more on:
https://www.thenational.scot/news/18988461.scots-scientists-reveal-climate-change-hit-humpback-whale-breeding/

Declining reproductive success in the Gulf of St. Lawrence’s humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) reflects ecosystem shifts on their feeding grounds
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/gcb.15466
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2819
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1240
  • Likes Given: 1125
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #564 on: January 07, 2021, 05:06:59 PM »
In changing oceans, sea stars may be 'drowning'

For more than seven years, a mysterious wasting disease has nearly killed off sea star populations around the world. Some of these species stand at the brink of extinction.

New Cornell University-led research suggests that starfish, victims of sea star wasting disease (SSWD), may actually be in respiratory distress—literally "drowning" in their own environment—as elevated microbial activity derived from nearby organic matter and warm ocean temperatures rob the creatures of their ability to breathe.

"As humans, we breathe, we ventilate, we bring air into our lungs and we exhale," said Ian Hewson, professor of microbiology at Cornell University. "Sea stars diffuse oxygen over their outer surface through little structures called papulae, or skin gills. If there is not enough oxygen surrounding the papulae, the starfish can't breathe."

The research, "Evidence That Microorganisms at the Animal-Water Interface Drive Sea Star Wasting Disease," was published in the journal Frontiers in Microbiology.

According to Hewson, ocean conditions lead to the production of unusual amounts of organic material, which he said prompts bacteria to thrive. As bacteria consume the organic matter, they deplete the oxygen in the water—creating a low-oxygen micro-environment that surrounds starfish and leads to deflation, discoloration, puffiness, and limb twisting or curling.

"It's a cascade of problems that starts with changes in the environment," Hewson said, explaining that most of the organic matter comes from microscopic algae exudation (a discharge), zooplankton excretion and egestion, and from decaying animal carcasses. This stimulates a group of bacteria called copiotrophs, which survive on carbon and rapidly consume organic matter, he said.

The copiotrophs respire, he said, so while absorbing the organic matter, they deplete oxygen in the sea star's watery space.

"It's organic matter concentrations in the water," he said. "If you have a dead and rotting starfish next to starfish that are healthy, all of that dead one's organic matter drifts and fuels the bacteria, creating a hypoxic environment. It looks like disease is being transmitted."

...

https://phys.org/news/2021-01-oceans-sea-stars.html

paper:
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2020.610009/full

Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

vox_mundi

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 4751
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 2561
  • Likes Given: 366
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #565 on: January 12, 2021, 10:25:13 AM »
Insect Populations Suffering Death by 1,000 Cuts, Say Scientists
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/jan/11/insect-populations-suffering-death-1000-cuts-scientists

... The 12 new studies are published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. “Nature is under siege [and] most biologists agree that the world has entered its sixth mass extinction event,” concludes the lead analysis in the package. “Insects are suffering from ‘death by a thousand cuts’ [and] severe insect declines can potentially have global ecological and economic consequences.”

Prof David Wagner of the University of Connecticut in the US, the lead author of the analysis, said the abundance of many insect populations was falling by 1-2% a year, a rate that should not be seen as small: “You’re losing 10-20% of your animals over a single decade and that is just absolutely frightening. You’re tearing apart the tapestry of life.”

Wagner said most of the causes of insect declines were well known. “But there’s one really big unknown and that’s climate change – that’s the one that really scares me the most.” He said increased climate variability could be “driving [insect] extinctions at a rate that we haven’t seen before”.

“Insects are really susceptible to drought because they’re all surface area and no volume,” Wagner said. “Things like dragonflies and damselflies can desiccate to death in an hour with really low humidity.”

One of the studies identifies an increasingly erratic climate as the overarching reason for region-wide losses of moths and other insects in the forests of north-western Costa Rica since 1978. This could be a “harbinger of the broader fate of Earth’s tropical forests”, said Wagner.

Insect Decline In the Anthropocene: Death By a Thousand Cuts
https://www.pnas.org/content/118/2/e2023989118
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

vox_mundi

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 4751
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 2561
  • Likes Given: 366
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #566 on: January 13, 2021, 10:29:53 AM »
Top Scientists Warn of 'Ghastly Future of Mass Extinction' and Climate Disruption
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/jan/13/top-scientists-warn-of-ghastly-future-of-mass-extinction-and-climate-disruption-aoe

The planet is facing a “ghastly future of mass extinction, declining health and climate-disruption upheavals” that threaten human survival because of ignorance and inaction, according to an international group of scientists, who warn people still haven’t grasped the urgency of the biodiversity and climate crises.

The 17 experts, including Prof Paul Ehrlich from Stanford University, author of The Population Bomb, and scientists from Mexico, Australia and the US, say the planet is in a much worse state than most people – even scientists – understood.

“The scale of the threats to the biosphere and all its lifeforms – including humanity – is in fact so great that it is difficult to grasp for even well-informed experts,” they write in a report in Frontiers in Conservation Science which references more than 150 studies detailing the world’s major environmental challenges.

The delay between destruction of the natural world and the impacts of these actions means people do not recognise how vast the problem is, the paper argues. “[The] mainstream is having difficulty grasping the magnitude of this loss, despite the steady erosion of the fabric of human civilisation.”

The report warns that climate-induced mass migrations, more pandemics and conflicts over resources will be inevitable unless urgent action is taken.

“Environmental deterioration is infinitely more threatening to civilisation than Trumpism or Covid-19,” Ehrlich told the Guardian.

“Our main point is that once you realise the scale and imminence of the problem, it becomes clear that we need much more than individual actions like using less plastic, eating less meat, or flying less. Our point is that we need big systematic changes and fast,” Professor Daniel Blumstein from the University of California Los Angeles, who helped write the paper, told the Guardian.

... The report comes months after the world failed to meet a single UN Aichi biodiversity target, created to stem the destruction of the natural world, the second consecutive time governments have failed to meet their 10-year biodiversity goals. This week a coalition of more than 50 countries pledged to protect almost a third of the planet by 2030.

Underestimating the Challenges of Avoiding a Ghastly Future
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcosc.2020.615419/full
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

gerontocrat

  • Multi-year ice
  • Posts: 10053
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 3885
  • Likes Given: 31
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #567 on: January 13, 2021, 11:59:29 AM »
"The Ghastly Future" - vox_mundi got there first.

Qu:- Will those super-intelligent robots** (currently closer to reality than is comfortable) see the destruction of carbon-based life forms on this planet as undesirable?
(**see vox_mundi's posts on Robots and AI: Our Immortality or Extinction)
« Last Edit: January 13, 2021, 12:05:29 PM by gerontocrat »
"Para a Causa do Povo a Luta Continua!"
"And that's all I'm going to say about that". Forrest Gump
"Damn, I wanted to see what happened next" (Epitaph)

kassy

  • Moderator
  • Young ice
  • Posts: 2819
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 1240
  • Likes Given: 1125
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #568 on: January 13, 2021, 04:34:22 PM »
Lets leave the robots out of this since it is such a big tragedy on its own and we did it mostly without them anyway...
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

vox_mundi

  • Young ice
  • Posts: 4751
    • View Profile
  • Liked: 2561
  • Likes Given: 366
Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #569 on: January 19, 2021, 11:58:17 PM »
Monarch Butterfly Population Moves Closer to Extinction
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-monarch-butterfly-population-closer-extinction.html



The number of western monarch butterflies wintering along the California coast has plummeted precipitously to a record low, putting the orange-and-black insects closer to extinction, researchers announced Tuesday.

An annual winter count by the Xerces Society recorded fewer than 2,000 butterflies, a massive decline from the tens of thousands tallied in recent years and the millions that clustered in trees from Northern California's Marin County to San Diego County in the south in the 1980s.

Western monarch butterflies head south from the Pacific Northwest to California each winter, returning to the same places and even the same trees, where they cluster to keep warm. The monarchs generally arrive in California at the beginning of November and spread across the country once warmer weather arrives in March.

On the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, another monarch population travels from southern Canada and the northeastern United States across thousands of miles to spend the winter in central Mexico. Scientists estimate the monarch population in the eastern U.S. has fallen about 80% since the mid-1990s, but the drop-off in the western U.S. has been even steeper.

The Xerces Society, a nonprofit environmental organization that focuses on the conservation of invertebrates, recorded about 29,000 butterflies in its annual survey last winter. That was not much different than the tally the winter before, when an all-time low of 27,000 monarchs were counted—less than 1% of historic populations.

But the count this year is dismal. At iconic monarch wintering sites in the city of Pacific Grove, volunteers didn't see a single butterfly this winter. Other well-known locations, such as Pismo State Beach Monarch Butterfly Grove and Natural Bridges State Park, only hosted a few hundred butterflies, researchers said.

Massive wildfires throughout the U.S. West last year may have influenced their breeding and migration, researchers said.

A 2017 study by Washington State University researchers predicted that if the monarch population dropped below 30,000, the species would likely go extinct in the next few decades if nothing is done to save them.

https://xerces.org/monarchs/western-monarch-conservation


... all gone ... :(
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late