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Author Topic: The Holocene Extinction  (Read 44901 times)

nanning

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Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #450 on: January 30, 2020, 02:02:21 PM »
^^
Thank you for that gerontocrat.



Shamen, spirits, survival: how Claudia Andujar fought for the Yanomami tribe

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2020/jan/29/claudia-andujar-photography-yanomami-brazil-jair-bolsonaro
  by Oliver Basciano

An interesting article describing a period when Claudia, a photographer, lived for some time with the tribe. Beautiful photo's.


In the context of upthread discussion, these excerpts caught my attention:


"Claudia took her time to get to know us; she slept in our shabono,” he says, referring to the ring-shaped wooden buildings that the Yanomami live in communally."

"Elsewhere, the Yanomami are shown sympathetically, romanticised perhaps, with no hint to what some conservative anthropologists claim to be a violent culture inherent to the tribe."

"Traditionally, Yanomami do not give each other names, referring only to their relationships with one another."





I post this here because three days ago, Terry mentioned civilisation behaviour by the pre-contacted tribe from the article above:

https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,2305.msg246552.html#msg246552

This Guardian article gives me another and very different and non-conservative view.
It is easy to try to counter my research with such random unscientific conservative examples. Then it's up to me to find out what's going on without a having a link. Sorry, but I find that tiresome and unfair.

I don't need and I don't want to explain my research to people who are not interested.
I had thought that losing distorted views is very important to people who want to see the truth. Apparently not. This truth-loving goes not very deep in my view. Especially where the truth implies that your culture is very bad and insane. That's a truth that intelligent truth-people don't want to see it seems.
"It is preoccupation with possessions, more than anything else, that prevents us from living freely and nobly" - Bertrand Russell
   Simple: minimize your possessions and be free and kind    It's just a mindset.       Refugees welcome

kassy

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Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #451 on: January 31, 2020, 11:08:22 AM »
Warming Swiss rivers threaten fish stocks

Swiss rivers are warming as the volume of glacial meltwater decreases, according to a study. Researchers warn that the phenomenon is threatening fish stocks and is likely to get worse in the coming years.

The report, published in the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciencesexternal link, measured both the melting of glaciers over the course of 40 years and the temperature of rivers they discharge into. They found that rivers had warmed by an average of 0.33°C every decade since 1980, and by 0.37°C per decade over the past 20 years.

They also observed a 3% average decrease in meltwater discharge over the past 40 years as glaciers shrink. The trend has accelerated in the past two decades with a 10% decrease in glacial meltwater discharge into rivers.

...

“We were surprised to find that Swiss rivers are warming at 95% of the rate of the surrounding air,” he saidexternal link. “The conventional wisdom was that the melting of snow and glaciers and the fact that this water then flowed into lakes were counteracting the effect of warmer air on the Swiss plateau. That’s no longer the case.”

Thresholds
“There’s a commonly held belief that one or two degrees of warming won’t make much difference,” he added.

“The truth is that these ecosystems aren’t resilient enough to cope when the temperature exceeds certain thresholds several times a year, especially in summer. A few degrees’ warming means we’re going to see those thresholds surpassed much more often.”

https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/sci-tech/shrinking-glaciers_warming-swiss-rivers-threaten-fish-stocks/45530254

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kassy

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Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #452 on: February 02, 2020, 10:15:54 PM »
Koalas found dead on Australia logging plantation

Dozens of koalas have been found dead or injured at a timber plantation in the Australian state of Victoria, sparking an investigation by officials.

Blue gum trees - an important koala habitat - were harvested from the plantation in December, leaving only a few isolated stands of trees.

Some koalas had starved to death in the remaining trees. Others were apparently killed by bulldozers.

About 80 surviving koalas have been removed and are being cared for.

The deaths come after tens of thousands of koalas were killed in the bushfires that have ravaged Australia. The marsupial is listed as "vulnerable" by Australia's Environment Ministry.

'Australia should be ashamed'
After the plantation was logged in December, reports of hundreds of starving koalas came in, environmental group Friends of the Earth Australia said.

"People apparently witnessed the bulldozing of many dead koalas into slash piles," it said.

The Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning said it was prepared to prosecute over the incident.

more sad on:
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-australia-51346637
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Florifulgurator

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Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #453 on: February 05, 2020, 03:29:45 AM »
Re: nerve gas

Seek medical help.

sidd


Damn good advice!
I inhaled a huge quantity of R-12 that had passed through an Oxy-Acetylene flame. The phosgene, a WW1 nerve gas, left me unable to scale a ladder for >a week.
The doctors couldn't do much about it, but they did make me very conscious of the danger the next times I was welding R-12 systems.


It's not impossible that it is responsible for my present problems, though the doctors think not.


Stay Healthy
Terry

There are easier ways to get a dose of phosgene: Burn old impregnated wood (e.g. with Lindane).
Google image search on my avatar image gives "wood". In fact it is the lower part of David Hilbert's tombstone.

gerontocrat

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Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #454 on: February 07, 2020, 09:28:15 PM »
A report that at last highlights the multiplier effect of interlinked environmental emergencies

Link to download here - https://futureearth.org/publications/our-future-on-earth/

Extract from guardian article below.

Humanity under threat from perfect storm of crises – study
Climate, extreme weather, biodiversity, food and water crises could lead to ‘systemic collapse’
Quote
The world is facing a series of interlinked emergencies that are threatening the existence of humans, because the sum of the effects of the crises is much greater than their individual impacts, according to a new global study.

Climate breakdown and extreme weather, species loss, water scarcity and a food production crisis are all serious in themselves, but the combination of all five together is amplifying the risks of each, creating a perfect storm that threatens to engulf humanity unless swift action is taken.

The links among the crises are clear in many cases, but the methods the world has chosen to try to solve them do not take account of these connecting factors. For instance, extreme heatwaves can add to global heating, because they release vast amounts of stored carbon from affected ecosystems, in a feedback loop. It has been seen clearly in the Australian bushfires, which are already contributing significantly to the store of carbon in the atmosphere.

The links do not stop there: as the heatwaves damage natural ecosystems, killing off wildlife and flora, they also lead to greater water scarcity, and in turn damage agriculture. These combined effects exacerbate the harm done to people struggling with food and water shortages, in a vicious cycle.

Faced with these crises in nature individually, it could be possible to fix the problems causing them. But confronted with multiple interlinked emergencies that in combination amplify one another’s impacts, people are facing unprecedented dangers and many communities cannot cope.

The report, which took the form of a survey of 222 leading scientists from 52 countries, conducted by the international sustainability network Future Earth, found that the responses to these emergencies by governments, civil society, business and institutions did not recognise their interlinked nature. Trying to solve the problems individually, without taking account of the “cascading” impacts, was likely to be ineffective, the scientists said.

More than a third of the scientists surveyed said the five crisis types would worsen one another “in ways that might cascade to create global systemic collapse”.
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kassy

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Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #455 on: February 11, 2020, 08:26:55 PM »
Some background stuff:

Here is some recent stuff...

Himalayan glacier shows evidence of start of Industrial Revolution

...

Dasuopu -- at 7,200 meters or 23,600 feet above sea level -- is the highest-altitude site in the world where scientists have obtained a climate record from an ice core. Dasuopu is located on Shishapangma, one of the world's 14 tallest mountains, which are all located in the Himalayas.

For this study, the research team analyzed one core taken from Dasuopu in 1997 for 23 trace metals.

The ice cores operate as a sort of timeline, and show new ice forming in layers on the glacier over time. It is possible for researchers to tell almost the precise year a layer of the glacier formed because of environmental clues like snowfall or other known natural or human-made disasters. The ice the researchers evaluated formed between 1499 and 1992, the team determined. Their goal was to see whether human activity had affected the ice in any way, and, if so, when the effects had begun.

Their analysis showed it had: The team found higher-than-natural levels of a number of toxic metals, including cadmium, chromium, nickel and zinc, in the ice starting at around 1780 -- the very start of the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom. Those metals are all byproducts of burning coal, a key part of industry at the end of the 18th century and throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.

The researchers found that those metals were likely transported by winter winds, which travel around the globe from west to east.

They also believe it is possible that some of the metals, most notably zinc, came from large-scale forest fires, including those used in the 1800s and 1900s to clear trees to make way for farms.

"What happens is at that time, in addition to the Industrial Revolution, the human population exploded and expanded," Gabrielli said. "And so there was a greater need for agricultural fields -- and, typically, the way they got new fields was to burn forests."

...

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/02/200210153343.htm
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TerryM

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Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #456 on: February 11, 2020, 09:42:53 PM »
<snipped>
"What happens is at that time, in addition to the Industrial Revolution, the human population exploded and expanded," Gabrielli said. "And so there was a greater need for agricultural fields -- and, typically, the way they got new fields was to burn forests."

...

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/02/200210153343.htm
Today there is a "greater need" for Giga Factories.


Today we'd clear cut the forest, but only after assuring the community that the ants, insects and fledgling birds have been lovingly removed from their nests - and promising that we'll plant 3 times as many trees as we've destroyed. :)


In half a century these seedlings (should they survive) could be sequestering more carbon than the forest we removed, perhaps in a century they'll have made up for the lean years and perhaps by the 22nd century we'll look back and wonder why none of the "brown fields" were available for restoration.
Terry


kassy

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Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #457 on: February 12, 2020, 03:10:15 PM »
And so much dies with it...the small critters , the fungal networks. All mostly invisible stuff providing free services to the planet until you kill it.

Penguins starving as Antarctica warms: Drones help count the losses

...

Liu, a doctoral student of robotics at Northeastern, is part of a scientific expedition that has sailed on the Greenpeace vessel Esperanza from Ushuaia, on the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of Argentina, to Elephant Island.

Scientists suspect that the population of the chinstrap penguins that inhabit the island is dwindling. Using drones and machine learning algorithms to speed up the process of counting penguins in large and inaccessible areas, the team is seeking to measure the decline.

...

Changes within the environment around the peninsula's shores might mean that populations of krill, the small crustaceans that are the chinstrap's favorite food, are moving southward, toward colder locations beyond the reach of chinstrap penguins on Elephant Island.

....

The chinstraps haven't been counted on Elephant Island since 1971. Now, the team's data suggest that over half of that population is gone. The observations are similar to the falling numbers of chinstrap penguins in other parts of the continent.

The story is different when the team counts the gentoo, another penguin species that lives on the island. Gentoo numbers are on the rise, and that is no surprise. Scientists believe that warmer temperatures allow gentoo penguins, which feed on more than just krill, to thrive farther south.



https://phys.org/news/2020-02-penguins-starving-antarctica-drones-losses.html

Article is worth a read, i just quoted the penguin extinction related bits here.

Interesting place to end up in doing robotics.  :)
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kassy

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Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #458 on: March 03, 2020, 02:45:59 PM »
Study indicates alarming fall in dolphin numbers

A study of how many dolphins are caught in tuna fishing nets estimates the mammals may now be at just 13 per cent of their numbers prior to 1980.

James Cook University’s Dr Putu Mustika was part of an international group that looked at the bycatch from tuna gillnets (including driftnets) in the Indian Ocean. The group was led by Dr Charles Anderson of the Manta Marine organisation in the Maldives.

“We combined results from 10 bycatch sampling programmes between 1981 and 2016 in Australia, Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan to estimate bycatch rates for cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) across all Indian Ocean tuna gillnet fisheries,” said Dr Mustika.

She said while some of the official data may be unreliable, scientists had been able to come up with a credible picture of the dolphin catch.

Dr Mustika said tuna fishers operating in theIndian Ocean caught about 4.1 million small cetaceans between 1950 and 2018.

“The vast majority of the cetacean bycatch is dolphins. Estimated cetacean bycatch peaked at almost 100,000 a year during 2004−2006, but has declined to 80,000 animals a year, despite an increase in the tuna gillnet fishing effort,” she said.

Dr Mustika said the numbers may be substantially higher as the figures take little or no account of things such as delayed mortality of cetaceans that escape from the nets or mortality associated with ghost nets.

“But the declining cetacean bycatch rates shown by what we can measure suggest current mortality rates are not sustainable. The estimates we have developed show that average small cetacean abundance may currently be 13 percent of the 1980 levels,” she said.

...

Background:

Tuna gillnets deployed in the Indian Ocean vary in length from 100 m to over 30 km in length, and less than 5 m to more than 20 m in depth.

The current cetacean bycatch rate may be in the order of 175 cetaceans per 1000 tonne of tuna, down from an estimate of 600 in the late 1970s.

If tuna abundance is currently in the order of 44% of pre-commercial exploitation (1980) levels, then average cetacean abundance may now be about 13% of pre-fishery levels (175 / 600 × 0.44).

The countries with the largest current gillnet catches of tuna and likely to have the largest cetacean bycatch are (in order): Iran, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Oman, Yemen, UAE and Tanzania.

Iran and Indonesia have no national monitoring of cetacean bycatch. Dr Mustika said some other countries report numbers that may not be accurate.

https://www.jcu.edu.au/news/releases/2020/february/study-indicates-alarming-fall-in-dolphin-numbers
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kassy

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Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #459 on: March 06, 2020, 03:41:38 PM »
Hooded vultures 'on brink of extinction' in Africa after mass poisoning

Accidental ingestion of strychnine believed to be cause of nearly 1,000 deaths in Guinea-Bissau

Nearly 1,000 hooded vultures have died in a mass poisoning in Guinea-Bissau, pushing the endangered species towards the brink of extinction in Africa, according to conservationists.

Vultures were seen apparently searching for water and “bubbling from their beaks”, and hundreds were found dead on the outskirts of two towns, Bafatá and Gabú, which are 30 miles apart, over the past two weeks.

The poisoning is the biggest mass death of vultures for more than a decade, according to the Vulture Conservation Foundation.

The likeliest cause of death is accidental poisoning after strychnine – which is banned in Europe – was used to control the feral dog population around rubbish dumps where vultures, which scavenge on dead animals, also feed.

...

Vulture populations in India have declined by 99% after the birds ingested a toxic veterinary drug, diclofenac, through cattle carcasses it fed on.

In Africa, mass poisoning events largely linked to wildlife crimes are causing the loss of thousands of vultures each year, with other single incidents killing 600 vultures and 400 vultures in southern and eastern parts of the continent.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/06/hooded-vultures-extinction-africa-mass-poisoning
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kassy

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Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #460 on: March 21, 2020, 04:21:07 PM »
Fallout from Australia’s Huge Wildfires Is Choking Rivers

...

As gruesome as the scene had been on land that January day, Pearce’s main concern then, and in the ensuing weeks, has been for a fish, the Macquarie perch. This species, which grows to about 16 inches in length and can live for 25 years, was once abundant and commercially fished throughout the Murray River basin. Today it’s endangered and only found in a handful of sites across southeast Australia, including in this 3.7-mile section of the Mannus Creek. Even before the bush fires, Pearce had been thinking about moving perch out of the creek and into captivity because of declining water quality caused by drought; the fires made that urgent. He managed to net nine perch in the days following the fires—at least some were still alive, he was glad to find—and arranged to return with some colleagues to net more.

Then, on January 19, thunderstorms dumped large amounts of rain in the Mannus Creek catchment area. It was a relief for many, putting out fires and watering parched cattle paddocks, but the downpours triggered disaster in the creek. When Pearce arrived in Bogandyera Nature Reserve with his fish-netting teams around midday on January 20, they watched in “complete and utter despair” as huge volumes of ashy sediment, like dark, runny mud, came down the stream. “My initial feeling was that everything was going to die,” said Pearce, “I just didn’t know how anything was going to survive in that thick soup.”

...

Luiz Silva and Katie Doyle, freshwater fish scientists at Charles Sturt University, have now documented 14 sites where ash-related fish kills occurred across southeastern Australia in recent months.

“We have never seen that extent of fire-related fish kills anywhere in the world,” said Silva, adding that he and Doyle documented fish mortality along more than 40 miles of the upper Murray River, even in its large main channel, where pollution would normally be diluted.

...

At Mannus Creek, one of the primary impacts of the large pulse of ash was a rapid decline in dissolved oxygen levels in the water. With an electronic probe, Pearce documented oxygen levels dropping from an already-low 7.5 milligrams per liter to 0.06 milligrams per liter on January 20—virtually zero. “Everything was trying to get out of the creek,” he recalled. “Freshwater shrimp, yabbies [Australian freshwater crayfish], mayfly larvae, freshwater snails—they were all crawling out.”

Pearce even saw dragonfly larvae emerge from the muck and try to molt into their flying, adult forms. They were too immature, and died while he watched. “I found dead tadpoles and Gambusia [small, non-native mosquitofish], which was surprising, because nothing kills Gambusia normally,” he said. “I even saw platypus swimming about at the surface, all stressed, in the middle of the day. You never see them in the middle of the day.”

Elsewhere in New South Wales, Silva and Doyle found large, dead fish that appeared to have asphyxiated, their gills blackened and clogged with ash. Some had red eyes and appeared to have been “cooked” in fire-heated water. Pulses of ash can cause rapid changes in pH, for example making usually acidic rivers extremely alkaline within a short time, with lethal impacts on river life, said Doyle. Other experts are estimating that hundreds of thousands of fish, at a minimum, have died in southeastern Australia during this fire season.

...

When I visited Mannus Creek this week with Pearce, the creek’s water was beginning to clear up, though it was still very dirty. Although he has seen a few Macquarie perch in recent days, the deep pools that provide cool water for them to find refuge during hot spells were filled with ash and sediment, as were the gravel beds they need to lay their eggs. No breeding habitat for the species was visible. Pearce said that over time, successive floods would normally flush out the sediment. But with the fire burning so hot in the creek catchment, there was little vegetation regrowth to hold the topsoil. The next rains might dump more sediment in the stream rather than cleaning it.

As for the plans to breed threatened fish in captivity, this is easier said than done. Pearce told me that female Macquarie perch are difficult to bring into breeding condition in captive facilities. Lintermans pointed out that the stocky galaxias’ breeding biology is virtually unknown. Fisheries managers will have to try to breed it through trial and error, and they might fail.

https://www.wired.com/story/fallout-from-australias-huge-wildfires-is-choking-rivers/
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kassy

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Re: The Holocene Extinction
« Reply #461 on: April 03, 2020, 01:04:50 AM »
While we fixate on coronavirus, Earth is hurtling towards a catastrophe worse than the dinosaur extinction

...

For example, about 66 million years ago an asteroid hit Earth. The subsequent smashed rocks and widespread fires released massive amounts of carbon dioxide over about 10,000 years. Global temperatures soared, sea levels rose and oceans became acidic. About 80% of species, including the dinosaurs, were wiped out.

And about 55 million years ago, global temperatures spiked again, over 100,000 years or so. The cause of this event, known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, is not entirely clear. One theory, known as the “methane burp” hypothesis, posits that a massive volcanic eruption triggered the sudden release of methane from ocean sediments, making oceans more acidic and killing off many species.

...

Comparing greenhouse gas levels
Before industrial times began at the end of the 18th century, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere sat at around 300 parts per million. This means that for every one million molecules of gas in the atmosphere, 300 were carbon dioxide.

In February this year, atmospheric carbon dioxide reached 414.1 parts per million. Total greenhouse gas level – carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide combined – reached almost 500 parts per million of carbon dioxide-equivalent

Carbon dioxide is now pouring into the atmosphere at a rate of two to three parts per million each year.

Using carbon records stored in fossils and organic matter, I have determined that current carbon emissions constitute an extreme event in the recorded history of Earth.

My research has demonstrated that annual carbon dioxide emissions are now faster than after both the asteroid impact that eradicated the dinosaurs (about 0.18 parts per million CO2 per year), and the thermal maximum 55 million years ago (about 0.11 parts per million CO2 per year).

https://theconversation.com/while-we-fixate-on-coronavirus-earth-is-hurtling-towards-a-catastrophe-worse-than-the-dinosaur-extinction-130869

One thing that surprised me is that asteroid impact actually beat the PETM then again that is function of time (like those hugest lasers actually shooting in real short time frames).

Off course we know that were the asteroid hit caused problem because of the rock type.

Lots of links in the article.

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