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Tom_Mazanec

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DrTskoul

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #101 on: July 30, 2019, 11:00:37 PM »
Probably vultures will like AGW too...

Tom_Mazanec

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« Last Edit: August 02, 2019, 02:08:16 AM by Tom_Mazanec »
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vox_mundi

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #103 on: August 07, 2019, 12:08:11 AM »
Calcium Levels in Freshwater Lakes Declining in Europe and North America
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-calcium-freshwater-lakes-declining-europe.html

A new global study of how calcium concentrations are changing in freshwater lakes around the world has revealed that in widespread areas in Europe and eastern North America, calcium levels are declining towards levels that can be critically low for the reproduction and survival of many aquatic organisms.

The decline of calcium may have significant impacts on freshwater organisms that depend on calcium deposition, including integral parts of the food web, such as freshwater mussels and zooplankton.

In Widespread diminishing anthropogenic effects on calcium in freshwaters, published recently in Scientific Reports, researchers discovered that the global median calcium concentration was 4.0 mg/L, with 20.7% of the water samples showing calcium concentrations < 1.5 mg/L.

1.5 mg/L is a threshold considered critical for the survival of many organisms that require calcium for their survival, therefore, some lakes are approaching levels of calcium that endanger organisms that rely on that calcium for structure and growth.

Open Access: Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer et al, Widespread diminishing anthropogenic effects on calcium in freshwaters, Scientific Reports (2019)
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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vox_mundi

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #104 on: August 07, 2019, 06:19:38 PM »
Stranger Sea Things Turning Up Off Nova Scotia Shores
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-stranger-sea-nova-scotia-shores.html

... In recent years, recreational divers have been spotting far more exotic species that appear to be drifting north and settling into warmer Atlantic waters.

They have documented everything from tiny seahorses and sleek cornet fish to triggerfish and brightly colored butterfly fish—all creatures that appear to be moving north on the Gulf Stream.

And what was once a rare occurrence is not so unusual for Bond who routinely sees tropical and subtropical fish in his favorite dive sites after seeing his first one in Nova Scotia about eight years ago.

"It seems that in the last five years, it is more and more regular and some species I find every year," says Bond, the paint shop supervisor at Dalhousie.

Quote
"I caught a triggerfish in Mexico one year and then I saw one here the next year and I was thinking, 'Something's not right here—I shouldn't be seeing this here.'"

The tropical species may be lingering longer in northern waters too as the water temperatures stay warmer longer.

A recently published federal government report documented the warming trends for both air and water temperatures. The study, titled "Canada's Oceans Now: Atlantic Ecosystems," found there was a 100-year record high water temperature in the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence in the 2012-2016 period.

https://dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans/publications/soto-rceo/2018/atlantic-ecosystems-ecosystemes-atlantiques/index-eng.html
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

bligh8

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #105 on: August 08, 2019, 02:51:36 PM »
Quote
"I caught a triggerfish in Mexico one year and then I saw one here the next year and I was thinking, 'Something's not right here—I shouldn't be seeing this here.'"

Going back to the early/mid nineties tropical oddities were often seen in inlets and some in shallower water areas where there was an obstruction, rocks, wreaks & jetties.  From trigger fish to sea horse's they would all be here locally, at times, in high numbers.  Some felt that their eggs would ride north on sargassum seaweed and be born locally, others suggested these small creatures would traverse that long ride from the tropics to the northern reaches of the
temperate zone within the stream.  The gulf stream does at times deliver waves of tropical water up against the coast,  I found it disorienting to roll off my boat and clearly see the pebbles on the bottom some 50ft below , in water that one would expect 10-15 ft of viz.  It was very unusual but not un-heard of to have 200ft of visibility…. mostly, late summer.
I could see the population of these tropical creatures fall in-step with the water temps.  The pic below is of my dive boat "Miss Fitt"  your typical down-east, hard chine, full keel & stable platform from which to dive.






kassy

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #106 on: August 08, 2019, 04:56:29 PM »
A marine microbe could play increasingly important role in regulating climate

...

The study finds bacteria containing rhodopsins, a sunshine-grabbing pigment, are more abundant than once thought. Unlike algae, they don't pull carbon dioxide (CO2) out of the air. And they will likely become more abundant in warming oceans, signaling a shuffling of microbial communities at the base of the food chain where the nitty-gritty work of energy conversion occurs.

...

hodopsin photosystems were much more abundant than previously realized and concentrated in nutrient-poor waters. In such oligotrophic zones, they outperform algae at capturing light. While algae use sunlight and CO2 to produce organic material and oxygen, rhodopsin pigments use light to make adenosine triphosphate, the basic energy currency that drives many cellular processes.

Rhodopsins appear to be more abundant in a nutrient-poor ocean, and in the future, the ocean will be more nutrient poor as temperatures change," Gómez-Consarnau explained. "So, with fewer nutrients near the surface, algae will have limited photosynthesis, and the rhodopsin process will be more abundant. We may have a shift in the future, which means the ocean won't be able to absorb as much carbon as it does today. So more CO2 gas may remain in the atmosphere, and the planet may warm faster."

and more on:
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-marine-microbe-increasingly-important-role.html
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Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #107 on: August 10, 2019, 08:30:57 PM »
Coral becomes 15% weaker in warmer water. Worse than bleaching, pieces are breaking off:
https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-49255642
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vox_mundi

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #108 on: August 12, 2019, 07:26:24 PM »
Nice boat bligh8. Reminds me of my lobstering days. Looks like you'll have some company in the water this summer/fall ...

Droves of Blacktip Sharks Are Summering in Long Island for the First Time
https://www.livescience.com/amp/sharks-vacation-in-hamptons.html

... Blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus), which range from 4 to 8 feet (1.2 to 2.4 meters) long, spend much of the year in Florida before heading north to cooler waters. In the past, the Carolinas were the sharks' destination of choice. But not anymore. Because of climate change, the waters off North and South Carolina are no longer cool enough in the summer. So blacktips are seeking waters farther north — and Long Island fits the bill. And just like the New Yorkers eager to spend the last weeks of summer in the Hamptons, these finned beachgoers are traveling in droves.

Long Island is much more packed with humans than blacktips' former habitat. That means more encounters between sharks and humans are probable, Kajiura said. ... That's because blacktips are shallow-water species; they hang out where people swim.

Many of these sharks are tagged with devices that allow scientists to track their locations. But it wasn't until 2016 that scientists noticed that many of the tagged sharks' had new migration pattern. At first, it seemed like a fluke, but it’s happened every summer since then — including this one, Kajiura said. Kajiura was blown away by the change

There are two possible reasons blacktips might choose the Hamptons over the Carolinas, according to Kajiura. It might be that the Carolina waters are getting too hot for them; most sharks, including blacktips, are ectotherms, so they can't cool down their bodies like mammals can. Even a small change in ocean temperature can cause them to overheat. Or, it could be that it's the fish the sharks eat, not the sharks themselves, that are moving due to warming waters —  and the sharks are simply following them, Kajiura said. Either way, there's no question about this: Temperatures along the Atlantic Seaboard are changing rapidly. Since 1960, the temperatures of the waters between Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and the Gulf of Maine have shot up by 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius), National Geographic reported.
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

vox_mundi

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #109 on: August 13, 2019, 05:35:30 PM »
Climate Change Turning Florida's Sea Turtles Female. How Long Can Species Survive?
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-climate-florida-sea-turtles-female.html

As is the case with some reptiles, the sex of sea turtles is determined by the temperature of the sand where the eggs incubate. With climate change turning up the heat in South Florida, producing longer and hotter summers, sea turtle gender balance is being thrown way out of whack.

"It's scary," Wyneken said. "I'm seeing more and more all-female nests, and even when we have males, it's a very small percentage."

... Wyneken's research over the past 20 years shows that the number of males is decreasing across the three species she monitors, even as they lay eggs at different times during the March-October nesting season. Using the past decade as a reference, she said that seven out of the 10 years produced 100% female hatchlings. The three years in which nests produced males, the ratios ranged from just 10 to 20%.

Wyneken said that for the past few years, especially since scorching summers of 2015 and 2016, she hasn't seen a significant difference in the sex ratios of the species in South Florida: it's girls, girls and more girls, in every nest.

What scientists have observed in South Florida is happening in other sea turtle nesting areas around the world.

On Australia's Raine Island, the biggest green turtle nesting ground in the Pacific, the ratio was 116 females to one male in a 2018 study led by Michael Jensen and Camryn Allen, scientists with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The study found that older turtles that had hatched 30 or 40 years earlier were mostly female, but only by a 6 to 1 ratio. Younger turtles, however, born during the last 20 years, were more than 99% female.

Another study done recently with green turtles in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, by the University of Exeter and Portugal's Marine and Environmental Sciences Center showed similar results.

"All organisms tend to adapt to their changing environment by evolving through natural selection, but the question is, will turtles adapt as fast as the climate is changing around them?" said Fredric Janzen, an evolutionary biologist at Iowa State University who was one of the first scientists to connect climate change to temperature-dependent sex determination in turtles. In a 1994 study titled "Climate Change and Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination in Reptiles," Janzen found that even a small increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) was enough to drastically skew the sex ratio of the painted turtles in his research.

In his opinion, changes are occurring faster than they did prior to human influence, and this can potentially—and fatally—outpace the ability of some species to adapt.
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #110 on: August 14, 2019, 03:11:11 AM »
Elephants and monkeys help trees, which help lower AGW, so losing these species will worsen climate change:
https://www.popsci.com/elephants-monkeys-and-climate-change/
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Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #111 on: August 15, 2019, 12:05:06 AM »
Carnivorous plant invades New York.
And that may be its only hope:
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/13/science/waterwheel-plants-carnivorous.html
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vox_mundi

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #112 on: August 15, 2019, 03:18:24 PM »
If you understand the science of this - this is VERY BAD!

--------------

Research: Link Between Increased Atmospheric Vapor Deficit and Worldwide Loss of Vegetation
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-link-atmospheric-vapor-deficit-worldwide.html

Scientists have been studying the possible repercussions of global warming for several years, and suggest it is likely to lead not only to warmer temperatures, but also changes to weather patterns. One such weather change not often mentioned is VPD, which is the difference in air pressure due to water vapor during fully saturated times versus times when it unsaturated. When VPD is increasing, there is less water in the air. VPD is important because of its impact on plants. When VPD rises a certain amount, plants react by closing their stomata, the pores in their leaves, to prevent water loss. But this also shuts down the release of oxygen and the absorption of carbon dioxide—partially shutting down photosynthesis and slowing growth. In this new effort, the researchers wondered if there might be a connection between observed losses of vegetation worldwide and changes to VPD in some parts of the world.

To find out, the researchers obtained datasets that included observation information from across the globe going all the way back to the 1950s. When focusing on VPD, they found that prior to the 1990s, VPD increased only slightly. But after 1998, the VPD grew quite dramatically—by up to 17 times over the next several years in some places, and it remained at those levels. They also found that over half of all vegetated land on the planet experienced a rise in VPD. The researchers also found that the upswing in VPD occurred in lockstep with the rise in global temperatures and the decrease in worldwide vegetative cover. They suggest that global warming is pushing VPD ever higher, resulting in more loss of vegetation—and because the planet is growing hotter, they predict that VPD will continue to increase, as well, resulting in diminishing vegetative cover.


Fig. 1 Global mean vapor pressure deficit (VPD) anomalies of vegetated area over the growing season

Open Access: Wenping Yuan et al. Increased atmospheric vapor pressure deficit reduces global vegetation growth, Science Advances (2019).
« Last Edit: August 15, 2019, 03:29:22 PM by vox_mundi »
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

SteveMDFP

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #113 on: August 18, 2019, 09:59:27 PM »
A new fungal pathogen now marching slowly around the world might (or might not) directly be a consequence of global warming.   But almost surely this process is facilitated by global trade, something that helps drive warming.

In this case, we may lose the common banana:

Our Favorite Banana May Be Doomed; Can New Varieties Replace It?


"...There's a deadly fungus that attacks banana plants. In the past century, an earlier version of this fungus wiped out commercial plantings of a banana variety called Gros Michel that once dominated the global banana trade.

Now history may be repeating itself. A new version of the fungus, called Tropical Race 4, is killing off the Cavendish variety.

Tropical Race 4 has marched across China and Southeast Asia, laying waste to banana plantations. It's killing bananas in Australia, and cases have been reported in southern Africa...."

Well, at least the extinction might result in less tropical foods being flown to northern cities.


kassy

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #114 on: August 18, 2019, 11:15:18 PM »
Our favorite banana is always a huge monoculture. It´s in many places but it is all the same which makes it vulnerable.

Long ago i stopped at a banana market in Sri Lanka or rather our guide did (they have cute tiny cars runnning on what seems like moped engines and huge drops next to the road sometimes). They had over 30 kinds of banana there and i tasted a couple of the snack ones. Other types were only for cooking and the really big ones were expensive because if you ate enough some parts of you grew.

There are many types but we go for the monoculture which always makes the food vulnerable and the land it is grown on one sided.

 
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nanning

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #115 on: August 19, 2019, 06:44:33 AM »
<snip>
Well, at least the extinction might result in less tropical foods being flown to northern cities.

Sorry to shoehorn this here to focus attention on personal carbon footprint and awareness of where your food comes from.

Stop those planes flying!  8)

By not buying anything from far away, preferably nothing from outside my country, the Netherlands, these planes don't have to transport my food all the way across the world.
I have not eaten a banana in years and I love eating them. They were my favourite fruit. You really get used to it and will adapt.
Same with apples and pears in june. Don't buy them if you're living in the NH.

@kassy
Thanks for mentioning your Sri Lanka experiences.
I guess what the article in SteveMDFP's post means is those varieties are not yet eligible for monoculture because they probably die when showered with the current biocides.
What do you think the reason is?
"It is preoccupation with possessions, more than anything else, that prevents us from living freely and nobly"

vox_mundi

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #116 on: August 19, 2019, 02:15:03 PM »
Quote
... I guess what the article in SteveMDFP's post means is those varieties are not yet eligible for monoculture because they probably die when showered with the current biocides.

What do you think the reason is? 
The biggest issue for bananas is shipping and storage quality, productivity, size uniformity, and finally taste.

Shipping and storage is essential for a global food product. The produce at a local food market just wouldn't stand up.
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #117 on: August 19, 2019, 03:24:23 PM »
Good nanning. I respect you more than those rich leftists who say I have to give up my lifestyle but they don’t.
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TerryM

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #118 on: August 19, 2019, 04:15:06 PM »
Quote
... I guess what the article in SteveMDFP's post means is those varieties are not yet eligible for monoculture because they probably die when showered with the current biocides.

What do you think the reason is? 
The biggest issue for bananas is shipping and storage quality, productivity, size uniformity, and finally taste.

Shipping and storage is essential for a global food product. The produce at a local food market just wouldn't stand up.


Eat a banana in Hawaii, and discover what bananas really taste like. WoW!
Terry

Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #119 on: August 19, 2019, 05:44:30 PM »
Red kites are a common sight in UK skies thanks to a reintroduction programme that means the raptor has gone from virtually extinct to more than 1,800 breeding pairs. It now appears a changing climate will mean its close cousin the black kite will be the latest species to populate our skies.
https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/black-kites-breed-uk-climate-change-raptor-breeding-conservation-a9063046.html
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