Warp drive, as Star Trek fans know, is the ability to fly through space at speeds faster than light.

Well, as a Star Trek fan, i know warp drive does nothing of sorts. It wraps the space and therefore moves the vessel relative in space. Nothing is faster than light.

**... There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy.**

Hamlet Act 1, scene 5, 159–167

Both a STNG 'Warp Drive' and the 'Alcubierre Drive' use a 'Warp Bubble' within which, as you say, the speed of light (c) is not violated (

*no local space/time violation*). However, the 'Warp bubble' can move through space at faster than light speed. This does not violate general relativity.

The most credible way of sending signals faster than light is via negative matter. You can do this by compressing the space in front of you and expanding the space behind you, so that you surf on a tidal wave of warped space. You can calculate that this tidal wave travels faster than light if driven by negative matter. (

*... this is the method I posted, and the way the Enterprise apparently travels*.)

**Negative Matter Propulsion**https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/3.23219?journalCode=jpp**Cosmologists Prove Negative Mass Can Exist In Our Universe**https://medium.com/the-physics-arxiv-blog/cosmologists-prove-negative-mass-can-exist-in-our-universe-250a980320a7**Negative Mass Bubbles In De Sitter Space-Time**http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.1457**Faster Than the Speed of Light: New Model Proposes Jets Go Superluminal in Gamma-Ray Bursts**https://scitechdaily.com/faster-than-the-speed-of-light-new-model-proposes-jets-go-superluminal-in-gamma-ray-bursts/**Superluminal Light Pulse Propagation**https://www.physics.byu.edu/faculty/peatross/Superluminal.aspx**Gain-Assisted Superluminal Light Propagation**https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10917523**Testing the Speed of ‘Spooky Action at a Distance’**https://www.nature.com/articles/nature07121---------------------------

*Hypothetical Speed & Energy Constraints of Warp Drive ...*-----------------------------------------

**Black Holes As We Know Them May Not Exist**https://www.livescience.com/black-holes-may-not-exist.htmlK. S. Croker, J. L. Weiner,

**Implications of Symmetry and Pressure in Friedmann Cosmology. I. Formalism**,

*The Astrophysical Journal*, Volume 882, Number 1, Aug. 2019

... Researchers were looking at Friedmann's equations, which are simplified from Einstein's theory of general relativity. (Relativity describes how mass and energy warp space-time.) Physicists use Friedmann's equations to describe the expansion of the universe, in part because the math is simpler than in Einstein's body of equations describing relativity. The team found that, in order to properly write down Friedmann's equations, ultradense and isolated regions of space, like neutron stars and black holes, had to be treated in the same mathematical way as all other areas. Previously, cosmologists believed it was reasonable to ignore the internal details of ultradense and isolated regions, such as the inside of a black hole.

"We showed there's only one way to [construct these equations] correctly," Croker told Live Science. "And if you do it that one way, which is the correct way to do it, you find some interesting things."

**The new results suggest that all the dark energy required for the accelerated expansion of the universe could be contained in these alternatives to black holes. **The researchers discovered this in the math, after they had corrected the way to write out Friedmann's equations. And in a follow-up paper submitted to The Astrophysical Journal and posted Sept. 7 on the preprint journal arXiv, they showed that these alternatives to black holes, called Generic Objects of Dark Energy (GEODEs), could also help explain peculiarities in gravitational-wave observations from 2016.

**The math from Friedmann's equations showed that over time, these ultradense objects gain weight simply due to the expansion of the universe, even when there is no nearby material for them to consume.** Just as light traveling through expanding space loses energy — an effect known as redshift — matter also loses weight as space expands. The effect is usually so tiny it cannot be seen. But in ultradense material with very strong pressures inside, known as relativistic material, the effect becomes noticeable.

**Dark energy is very relativistic, and its pressure acts oppositely to normal matter and light — so objects made of it (like these hypothetical GEODEs) gain weight over time.**"Light is sort of a weird thing. It behaves counterintuitively, in many ways," Croker said. "People didn't expect that this behavior could also be exhibited in other objects. But we showed, yes, you can see it in another object," namely inside GEODEs.

it turns out these weird objects could also provide a simple explanation for observed large black hole mergers. In 2016, members of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)-Virgo collaboration announced they had the first-ever observations of a black hole merger, but the calculated masses of the supposed black holes was unexpected — scientists expected the masses to be either much higher or lower.

But GEODEs, unlike traditional black holes, gain weight over time. If two GEODEs that had formed in the younger universe eventually collided, by the time they collided, they would have grown larger than typical black holes. By that point, the GEODEs' masses would match the masses seen in the collision observed by LIGO-Virgo.

**Instead of having to conceive of a highly specific situation that led to the merger, GEODEs could provide a simpler solution to explain the observations.** *(See also: Occam's razor)*