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Pmt111500

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Archaeology/Paleontology news
« on: November 26, 2018, 07:21:47 AM »
This thread may be used to inform forumites of interesting archeology/paleontology news, lets keep the posts short and always link to a source, please.
I'm opening the thread with a local find. The site is under 10 km from my place.
Part of the burial ground of the earliest christian church yet found in Finland has been found, and the burial of a 13th century women has been excavated. No written records of this site exist. Among finds are remnants of cloth used during the time, as of yet the colors used are unknown, samples of the cloths are sent to Belgian laboratory for color analysis. Parts of socks and a skirt (apparently also a cape) have been identified.
 https://www.is.fi/tiede/art-2000005911736.html
« Last Edit: November 26, 2018, 07:59:28 AM by Pmt111500 »
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Pmt111500

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #1 on: December 09, 2018, 09:24:58 AM »
1400s AD fisherman found probably drowned in then Thames mudflats, wearing tigh high boots: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-london-46444769
« Last Edit: December 09, 2018, 11:08:19 AM by Pmt111500 »
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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #2 on: December 09, 2018, 09:45:48 PM »
Meanwhile in Denmark...

Oldest ever traces of the plague found in Falköping

In a 5,000 year old grave outside Falköping, scientists have found the oldest traces of the plague bacterium's DNA in the world.

"The discovery of such an early variant of the bacterium in Falköping was totally unexpected since previous findings pointed to Yersinia pestis as having originated in Asia.

The find in Falköping also means that the researchers may have solved another mystery. It was only recently discovered that people in different regions of Eurasia were all infected with the plague during the Bronze Age.

t was by analysing 'molecular clock' data that the researchers discovered that different strains of the plague bacterium spread very rapidly in Eurasia between 5,000 and 6,000 years ago. This matches exactly a period in South-East Europe when the first large population densities arose but also collapsed. It was also at this time that many technological breakthroughs occurred such as the wheel, the use of draught animals, and metallurgy – breakthroughs that facilitated long-distance trade, for example.

For full details see
https://phys.org/news/2018-12-oldest-plague-falkping.html

or this
https://www.heritagedaily.com/2018/12/an-ancient-strain-of-plague-may-have-led-to-the-decline-of-neolithic-europeans/122286


kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #3 on: December 14, 2018, 02:58:30 PM »
Not archaeology per se if if this pans out it will be useful for the field so i am smuggling it in here:

Chinese cave holds carbon dating ‘Holy Grail’

Stalagmites in a Chinese cave have given scientists all they need to reconstruct the historical record of atmospheric radiocarbon (carbon-14) back to the carbon dating limit of around 54,000 years ago.

...

 carbon dating requires calibrating because levels of carbon-14 in the atmosphere vary from year to year. Tree ring data provides a good gauge for carbon dating because their growth reflects their yearly uptake of atmospheric carbon-14. But tree ring data only goes back around 13,000 years.

...
Hai Cheng at Xi’an Jiaotong University, China, and colleagues in the US previously discovered that a stalagmite in Hulu Cave in China showed unusually low and stable amounts of dead carbon that allowed for accurate carbon-14 calibration between around 27,000 and 10,500 years ago. Now the team have studied two older stalagmites in the cave to help take carbon dating to its limit.

https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/chinese-cave-holds-carbon-dating-holy-grail/3009899.article

kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #4 on: December 16, 2018, 01:29:32 PM »
Archaeologists in Egypt have made an exciting tomb discovery - the final resting place of a high priest, untouched for 4,400 years.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-46580264

Lots of pictures on the link. Quite a bit of the paint is preserved.

Pmt111500

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #5 on: December 17, 2018, 05:49:09 PM »
Feathers were present way earlier than thought, international group discovers,

https://www.bristol.ac.uk/news/2018/december/origin-of-feathers-.html
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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #6 on: January 27, 2019, 04:48:46 PM »
Neanderthals Were Intelligent Enough To Make Spears That Could Kill Animals At A Distance

...

The 300,000-year-old Schöningen spears are throwing spears from the Palaeolithic Age that hold the record as the oldest known wooden artifacts in the world. They are also the oldest completely preserved hunting weapons from prehistoric Europe so far discovered.

...

To find out if the Schöningen spears could hit a target at a distance, Annemieke Milks, from University College London, and colleagues made replicas of the prehistoric weapons. They also asked six javelin athletes to throw the spears.

The researchers chose javelin athletes for the study because they have the skill to throw at high velocity, which can match of the capability of Neanderthal hunters.

Hunting Prey At A Distance
The athletes showed they could hit a target at a range of up to 20 meters, and with significant impact that could translate into killing a prey.

This means the wooden spears would have allowed the Neanderthals to use them as hunting weapons and kill at a distance.

The Neanderthals have long been known as hunters but the finding is significant since earlier studies suggest these archaic human species could only hunt and kill their prey at a close range. The demonstrated range was, in fact, double the distance scientists previously thought the spears could be thrown.

and more on:
https://www.techtimes.com/articles/237995/20190126/neanderthals-were-intelligent-enough-to-make-spears-that-could-kill-animals-at-a-distance.htm

One of my pet peeves is scientists painting Neanderthals as primitive brutes (which they did to make modern us more special). Of course nowadays we know they and Homo Sapiens mixed so they could probably communicate.

Sebastian Jones

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #7 on: January 28, 2019, 06:17:36 AM »
Neanderthals Were Intelligent Enough To Make Spears That Could Kill Animals At A Distance

...



One of my pet peeves is scientists painting Neanderthals as primitive brutes (which they did to make modern us more special). Of course nowadays we know they and Homo Sapiens mixed so they could probably communicate.

Agreed, with the additional observation that Neanderthals were Homo Sapiens...Also as we learn how many non-homo animals use tools, even as weapons, this news makes even more sense.

sidd

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #8 on: January 28, 2019, 07:06:42 AM »
Isnt that older than neanderthal ? thats two glaciations ago ...

sidd

bbr2314

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #9 on: January 28, 2019, 10:17:28 AM »
I think Neanderthals domesticated homo sapiens and then interbred with their livestock, explaining our current situation today where large parts of the population have Neanderthal ancestry and small segments have significant Neanderthal ancestry. I believe some aspects of Neanderthal culture have also been maintained through religion, most likely Judaism, which is why so many people from Central Europe have such a high Neanderthal DNA component (I.E., the "chosen people").

vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #10 on: January 28, 2019, 10:21:06 AM »

A model of the evolution of the genus Homo over the last 2 million years (vertical axis). The rapid "Out of Africa" expansion of H. sapiens is indicated at the top of the diagram, with admixture indicated with Neanderthals, Denisovans, and unspecified archaic African hominins. Late survival of robust australopithecines (Paranthropus) alongside Homo until 1.2 Mya is indicated in purple.

Homo sapiens (anatomically modern humans) emerges close to 300,000 to 200,000 years ago,[6] most likely in Africa, and Homo neanderthalensis emerges at around the same time in Europe and Western Asia.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaic_humans
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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #11 on: January 31, 2019, 02:45:47 PM »
Neanderthals and Denisovans Shared a Siberian Cave for Thousands of Years, New Research Suggests


Results from this work showed that Denisovans first occupied the cave around 287,000 years ago, and continued to live in the cave until around 55,000 years ago. Neanderthals arrived at the cave around 193,000 years ago, and they continued to live there up until around 97,000 years ago—an overlap of 96,000 years. The bones of 27 animals, including mammals and fishes, along with 72 species of plants, were also analysed, pointing to a variable climate in the region during the millennia of occupation at the cave. At times, the region was relatively warm, featuring forests of broad-leaved trees, but at other times it was a harsh and desolate tundra-steppe habitat.

for the details see:
http://www.gizmodo.co.uk/2019/01/neanderthals-and-denisovans-shared-a-siberian-cave-for-thousands-of-years-new-research-suggests/

kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #12 on: February 06, 2019, 11:08:58 AM »
A taste for fat may have made us human

Long before human ancestors began hunting large mammals for meat, a fatty diet provided them with the nutrition to develop bigger brains, posits a new paper in Current Anthropology.

The paper argues that our early ancestors acquired a taste for fat by eating marrow scavenged from the skeletal remains of large animals that had been killed and eaten by other predators. The argument challenges the widely held view among anthropologists that eating meat was the critical factor in setting the stage for the evolution of humans.

...

"The reservoirs of fat in the long bones of carcasses were a huge calorie package on a calorie-poor landscape. That could have been what gave an ancestral population the advantage it needed to set off the chain of human evolution."

...

A meat-centered paradigm for human evolution hypothesizes that an ape population began more actively hunting and eating small game, which became an evolutionary stepping stone to the human behavior of hunting large animals.

The paper argues that this theory does not make nutritional sense. "The meat of wild animals is lean," Thompson says. "It actually takes more work to metabolize lean protein than you get back."

In fact, eating lean meat without a good source of fat can lead to protein poisoning and acute malnutrition. Early Arctic explorers, who attempted to survive on rabbit meat exclusively, described the condition as "rabbit starvation."

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/02/190205161420.htm

gerontocrat

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #13 on: February 06, 2019, 12:27:18 PM »
A taste for fat may have made us human

. "The meat of wild animals is lean," Thompson says. "It actually takes more work to metabolize lean protein than you get back."

In fact, eating lean meat without a good source of fat can lead to protein poisoning and acute malnutrition. Early Arctic explorers, who attempted to survive on rabbit meat exclusively, described the condition as "rabbit starvation."
Modern 21st Century Anglo-Saxon man mostly just eats the lean meat of an animal. Three or four generations or more ago this was not the case for most people. Everything got eaten - the offal, the tripes, the head, and the marrow. I remember being at a smallholder credit meeting in Malawi back in the early 1980's. The one bit of the goat we had for dinner I could not eat was intestines on a stick. I was not keen on bat kebabs either. Chinese cuisine - in China - also uses all of the animal.

To say that an early humanoid would just have eaten the lean meat from an animal it killed is just stupid, as were those early Arctic explorers (and like Scott who would not eat the horses to supplement their food supply on his fatal Antarctic adventure).

And just about all predators will eat carrion if it is available and digestible. So an argument that says carrion vs an argument that says hunting is also completely dumb, as they are not mutually exclusive.

Some scientists need to get out of their studies and laboratories more
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johnm33

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #14 on: February 07, 2019, 11:50:38 AM »
I thought Elane Morgan had the transition pretty much nailed down with her aquatic ape hypothesis. A prolonged period of exploiting the tidal reaches, using the high protien harvest available there, the closer for me was that menses ceases whilst swimming.

Sebastian Jones

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #15 on: February 08, 2019, 05:10:44 AM »
the closer for me was that menses ceases whilst swimming.
Are you joking? If so, my apologies for being slow. If not please provide a reference for this assertion.

vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #16 on: February 08, 2019, 11:05:23 PM »
Danish Workers Unearth 'Still-Sharp' Medieval Sword While Digging Out Sewer
https://gizmodo.com/danish-workers-unearth-still-sharp-medieval-sword-while-1832465793

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johnm33

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #17 on: February 09, 2019, 10:26:07 AM »
"Are you joking" Iirc it's what the book said, the consensus now seems to be that the flow ceases due to external water pressure[?] whereas the book associated it with other reflex actions, the heart slowing when the head goes under water being one, rapid reduction of flow to near surface capillaries another.

TerryM

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #18 on: February 09, 2019, 11:01:06 PM »
I thought Elane Morgan had the transition pretty much nailed down with her aquatic ape hypothesis. A prolonged period of exploiting the tidal reaches, using the high protien harvest available there, the closer for me was that menses ceases whilst swimming.


"The Naked Ape" by Desmond Morris opened my mind to the possibility of an aquatic ancestor. Living in a commune at Ortega Hot Springs convinced me that those ancestors were on to something good. :)
Terry