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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #100 on: August 27, 2019, 11:32:16 AM »
FWIW that was during the hongerwinter. The southern parts had been liberated but operation Market Garden stalled at Arnhem. The famine was mainly in the west and north with the problem being worst in the bigger cities.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_famine_of_1944
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #101 on: August 27, 2019, 06:00:04 PM »
Greek Temple Ruins Suggest Lifting Machines In Use 1.5 Centuries Earlier Than Previously Believed
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-greek-temple-machines-centuries-earlier.html

As modern Greeks undertake to reconstruct the Parthenon, largely using stone material from the site's ruins, a question naturally arises: How did ancient Greeks construct massive temples and other buildings—lifting and placing one heavy block at a time, and up multiple rows in a wall—without modern advanced machinery?

New research by Alessandro Pierattini, assistant professor of architecture at the University of Notre Dame, adds nuance to the broadly accepted view that the crane was not in use until 515 B.C. by demonstrating how forerunners to the machine were experimented with as early as 700-650 B.C



Alessandro Pierattini. Interpreting Rope Channels: Lifting, Setting And The Birth Of Greek Monumental Architecture, The Annual of the British School at Athens (2019)
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #102 on: August 30, 2019, 01:28:43 AM »
New Artifacts Suggest People Arrived in North America Earlier Than Previously Thought
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-artifacts-people-north-america-earlier.html

Stone tools and other artifacts unearthed from an archeological dig at the Cooper's Ferry site in western Idaho suggest that people lived in the area 16,000 years ago, more than a thousand years earlier than scientists previously thought.

The findings, published today in Science, add weight to the hypothesis that initial human migration to the Americas followed a Pacific coastal route rather than through the opening of an inland ice-free corridor, said Loren Davis, a professor of anthropology at Oregon State University and the study's lead author.

"The Cooper's Ferry site is located along the Salmon River, which is a tributary of the larger Columbia River basin. Early peoples moving south along the Pacific coast would have encountered the Columbia River as the first place below the glaciers where they could easily walk and paddle in to North America," Davis said. "Essentially, the Columbia River corridor was the first off-ramp of a Pacific coast migration route.

"The timing and position of the Cooper's Ferry site is consistent with and most easily explained as the result of an early Pacific coastal migration."

... The dates from the oldest artifacts challenge the long-held "Clovis First" theory of early migration to the Americas, which suggested that people crossed from Siberia into North America and traveled down through an opening in the ice sheet near the present-day Dakotas. The ice-free corridor is hypothesized to have opened as early as 14,800 years ago, well after the date of the oldest artifacts found at Cooper's Ferry, Davis said.

"Now we have good evidence that people were in Idaho before that corridor opened," he said. "This evidence leads us to conclude that early peoples moved south of continental ice sheets along the Pacific coast."



L.G. Davis el al., "Late Upper Paleolithic occupation at Cooper's Ferry, Idaho, USA,~16,000 years ago," Science (2019)



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TerryM

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #103 on: August 30, 2019, 02:26:22 AM »
Interesting
It ties in with many earlier finds. Kennewick Man, Spirit Cave Mummy @Paleo woman Paleo child all come to mind but there are many more.
The points & core stones images add intrigue.


Found beneath a black/dark strata?


Thanks
Terry

vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #104 on: August 30, 2019, 03:38:29 AM »
Quote
... Found beneath a black/dark strata? 

Similar to an earlier post...

https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,2470.msg191905.html#msg191905
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TerryM

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #105 on: August 30, 2019, 07:41:45 AM »
Quote
... Found beneath a black/dark strata? 

Similar to an earlier post...

https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,2470.msg191905.html#msg191905


You Betcha!


Black mat & below = Clovis & ice age mega-fauna.


This is presented as Pre-Clovis, so unless there had been flooding or something to wash the overburden away this must be below the mat - if the dating is close to correct.


Terry

kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #106 on: September 03, 2019, 05:21:22 PM »
Nice article about genomics and the mixing between us homo and neanderthals and denisovans.

One cool thing is that they can now identify homo dna in the Neanderthals which comes to 3-6%.
The denisovan dna contains traces of possibly homo erectus.  8)
 

Humans and Neanderthals Kept Breeding—and Breeding—for Ages

Modern humans and Neanderthals commingled at many points in history, raising the possibility that the ancient hominins were just another version of us.


...

“I think Africa is one of the areas that’s going to give a lot more data in the future,” said Chris Stringer, an anthropologist at the Natural History Museum in London and a member of the research team that studied the Greek fossil.
Siepel is also using his algorithm to look for signs of natural selection acting on these DNA sequences: Were ancient hominins any better or worse off for carrying more genes from modern ones? So far, his team has found no evidence for either positive or negative selection in the flow of genes from modern humans into Neanderthals 200,000 years ago, which indicates that “most of this gene flow … is just a signature of populations in contact,” according to Hawks.

“It suggests that maybe Neanderthals actually are us,” he said. “As different as they are, maybe they’re just another version of us.”

https://www.wired.com/story/humans-neanderthals-interbreeding/

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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #107 on: September 08, 2019, 06:34:59 PM »
'‘Natasha’s’ burial with a Xiongnu-era iPhone remains one of the most interesting at this burial site,' Pavel Leus said in a new publication summarising results of several years of recent archeological expeditions to the Ala-Tey burial site.

In fact, the discovery is a large - 18cm by 9cm - chic belt buckle made of gemstone jet with inlaid decorations of turquoise, carnelian and mother-of-pearl.

https://siberiantimes.com/science/others/news/archeologist-in-awe-at-2100-year-old-iphone-like-belt-buckle-unearthed-in-atlantis-grave-in-tuva/

Well the headline certainly grabbed my attention.  :)

The place is a real archaeological treasure trove with undisturbed graves which are rare.

Lets see what more the unearth in the future.
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #108 on: September 10, 2019, 02:56:51 AM »
Rocks at Asteroid Impact Site Record First Day of Dinosaur Extinction
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-asteroid-impact-site-day-dinosaur.html

When the asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs slammed into the planet, the impact set wildfires, triggered tsunamis and blasted so much sulfur into the atmosphere that it blocked the sun, which caused the global cooling that ultimately doomed the dinos.

That's the scenario scientists have hypothesized. Now, a new study led by The University of Texas at Austin has confirmed it by finding hard evidence in the hundreds of feet of rocks that filled the impact crater within the first 24 hours after impact.



The evidence includes bits of charcoal, jumbles of rock brought in by the tsunami's backflow and conspicuously absent sulfur. ...

Most of the material that filled the crater within hours of impact was produced at the impact site or was swept in by seawater pouring back into the crater from the surrounding Gulf of Mexico. Just one day deposited about 425 feet of material—a rate that's among the highest ever encountered in the geologic record. This breakneck rate of accumulation means that the rocks record what was happening in the environment within and around the crater in the minutes and hours after impact and give clues about the longer-lasting effects of the impact that wiped out 75% of life on the planet.

Quote
... "We fried them and then we froze them," ... "Not all the dinosaurs died that day, but many dinosaurs did."

Researchers estimate the asteroid hit with the equivalent power of 10 billion atomic bombs of the size used in World War II. The blast ignited trees and plants that were thousands of miles away and triggered a massive tsunami that reached as far inland as Illinois. Inside the crater, researchers found charcoal and a chemical biomarker associated with soil fungi within or just above layers of sand that shows signs of being deposited by resurging waters. This suggests that the charred landscape was pulled into the crater with the receding waters of the tsunami.

However, one of the most important takeaways from the research is what was missing from the core samples. The area surrounding the impact crater is full of sulfur-rich rocks. But there was no sulfur in the core.

That finding supports a theory that the asteroid impact vaporized the sulfur-bearing minerals present at the impact site and released it into the atmosphere, where it wreaked havoc on the Earth's climate, reflecting sunlight away from the planet and causing global cooling. Researchers estimate that at least 325 billion metric tons would have been released by the impact. To put that in perspective, that's about four orders of magnitude greater than the sulfur that was spewed during the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa—which cooled the Earth's climate by an average of 2.2 degrees Fahrenheit for five years.


Although the asteroid impact created mass destruction at the regional level, it was this global climate change that caused a mass extinction, killing off the dinosaurs along with most other life on the planet at the time.



Sean P. S. Gulick el al., "The first day of the Cenozoic," PNAS (2019).
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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #109 on: September 10, 2019, 10:58:47 AM »
Some short pieces:

First human ancestors breastfed for longer than contemporary relatives

summary:
By analyzing the fossilized teeth of some of our most ancient ancestors, scientists have discovered that the first humans significantly breastfed their infants for longer periods than their contemporary relatives.

...

By reconstructing the age at tooth enamel development, they show that early Homo offspring was breastfed in significant proportions until the age of around three to four years, which likely played a role in the apparition of traits that are specific to human lineage, such as the brain development.

In contrast, infants of Paranthropus robustus, that became extinct around one million years ago and were a more robust species in terms of dental anatomy, as well as infants of Australopithecus africanus, stopped drinking sizeable proportions of mother milk in the course of the first months of life.

...
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190829115427.htm

and
Largest-ever ancient-DNA study illuminates millennia of South and Central Asian prehistory

Summary:
Researchers analyzed the genomes of 524 never before-studied ancient people, including the first genome of an individual from the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Insights answer longstanding questions about the origins of farming and the source of Indo-European languages in South and Central Asia. The study increases the worldwide total of published ancient genomes by some 25 percent.

...

A second line of evidence in favor of a steppe origin is the researchers' discovery that of the 140 present-day South Asian populations analyzed in the study, a handful show a remarkable spike in ancestry from the steppe. All but one of these steppe-enriched populations are historically priestly groups, including Brahmins -- traditional custodians of texts written in the ancient Indo-European language Sanskrit.

...

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190905145348.htm
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #110 on: September 12, 2019, 05:04:06 PM »
'Game-Changing' Research Could Solve Evolution Mysteries
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-game-changing-evolution-mysteries.html

An evolution revolution has begun after scientists extracted genetic information from a 1.7 million-year-old rhino tooth—the largest and oldest genetic data to ever be recorded.

Researchers identified an almost complete set of proteins, a proteome, in the dental enamel of the rhino and the genetic information discovered is one million years older than the oldest DNA sequenced from a 700,000-year-old horse.

... "For 20 years ancient DNA has been used to address questions about the evolution of extinct species, adaptation and human migration but it has limitations. Now for the first time we have retrieved ancient genetic information which allows us to reconstruct molecular evolution way beyond the usual time limit of DNA preservation.

... Professor Cappellini added: "Dental enamel is extremely abundant and it is incredibly durable, which is why a high proportion of fossil records are teeth.

"We have been able to find a way to retrieve genetic information that is more informative and older than any other source before, and it's from a source that is abundant in the fossil records so the potential of the application of this approach is extensive."

Early Pleistocene enamel proteome from Dmanisi resolves Stephanorhinus phylogeny, Nature (2019)
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #111 on: September 14, 2019, 03:44:32 AM »
The Enigma of Bronze Age Tin
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-enigma-bronze-age-tin.html

The origin of the tin used in the Bronze Age has long been one of the greatest enigmas in archaeological research. Now researchers from Heidelberg University and the Curt Engelhorn Centre for Archaeometry in Mannheim have solved part of the puzzle. Using methods of the natural sciences, they examined the tin from the second millennium BCE found at archaeological sites in Israel, Turkey, and Greece. They were able to prove that this tin in the form of ingots does not come from Central Asia, as previously assumed, but from tin deposits in Europe. The findings are proof that even in the Bronze Age, complex and far-reaching trade routes must have existed between Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean

Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, was already being produced in the Middle East, Anatolia, and the Aegean in the late fourth and third millennia BCE. Knowledge on its production spread quickly across wide swaths of the Old World. "Bronze was used to make weapons, jewellery, and all types of daily objects, justifiably bequeathing its name to an entire epoch. The origin of tin has long been an enigma in archaeological research," explains Prof. Dr. Ernst Pernicka. The Eastern Mediterranean region, where some of the objects we studied originated, had practically none of its own deposits. So the raw material in this region must have been imported," explained the researcher.

Using lead and tin isotope data as well as trace element analysis, the Heidelberg-Mannheim research team led by Prof. Pernicka and Dr. Daniel Berger examined the tin ingots found in Turkey, Israel, and Greece. This allowed them to verify that this tin really did derive from tin deposits in Europe. The tin artefacts from Israel, for example, largely match tin from Cornwall and Devon (Great Britain).



Open Access: Daniel Berger et al, Isotope systematics and chemical composition of tin ingots from Mochlos (Crete) and other Late Bronze Age sites in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: An ultimate key to tin provenance?, PLOS ONE (2019)
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #112 on: September 14, 2019, 01:03:24 PM »
An Extreme Drought Has Revealed a 'Spanish Stonehenge,' a Mysterious Circle of Megaliths Once Hidden Beneath a Reservoir
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.thelocal.es/20190822/drought-reveals-long-lost-spanish-stone-henge-in-cacares-reservoir/amp

This past summer, an extreme drought in the Extremadura area of Spain that caused the Valdecañas Reservoir’s water levels to plummet has revealed a series of megalithic stones. Previously submerged underwater, the Dolmen de Guadalperal, often called the Spanish Stonehenge, are now in plain sight.

Though the Dolmen are 7,000 years old, the last time they were seen in their entirety was around 1963, when the reservoir was built as part of Franco’s push toward modernization. Now, residents near the province of Cáceres are thrilled to witness the surreal return of the ancient site.

The approximately 100 menhirs are, like Stonehenge, hulking megalith stones—some standing up to six feet tall—that are arranged in an oval and appear oriented to filter sunlight. Evidence suggests that these stones could actually be 2,000 years older than Stonehenge.



-------------------------

Turkey Prepares to Flood 12,000-Year-Old City to Build Dam
https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2019/sep/12/they-are-barbaric-turkey-prepares-to-flood-12000-year-old-city-to-build-dam

Hasankeyf is thought to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited settlements on Earth, dating as far back as 12,000 years and containing thousands of caves, churches and tombs.

But this jewel of human history will soon be lost; most of the settlement is about to be flooded as part of the highly controversial Ilisu dam project.

... “We’ve asked for the area to be an open-air museum but the government wouldn’t accept it,” Ayhan said. “If you dig here you will find cultures layered on top of one another.”

Only 10% of the area has been explored by archaeologists.

... The Turkish authorities’ crackdown on protests has also hindered Hasankeyf residents’fight to stop the dam.

“If we protest, they take us to prisons,” Ayhan said. “There’s no democracy here. If there was democracy, maybe we could do something.”
« Last Edit: September 14, 2019, 02:53:46 PM by vox_mundi »
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nanning

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #113 on: September 15, 2019, 07:54:07 AM »
  The bizarre social history of beds

https://phys.org/news/2019-09-bizarre-social-history-beds.html
 by Brian Fagan

 Quotes:
Groucho Marx once joked, "Anything that can't be done in bed isn't worth doing at all." You might think he was referring to sleeping and sex. But humans, at one time or another, have done just about everything in bed.

Much about our beds have remained unchanged for centuries. But one aspect of the bed has undergone a dramatic shift.

Today, we usually sleep in bedrooms with the door shut firmly behind us. They're the ultimate realm of privacy. No one else is allowed in them, aside from a spouse or lover.

it wasn't always this way.

But one thing that has changed is who has occupied the bed. For most of human history, people thought nothing of crowding family members or friends into the same bed.

The 17th-century diarist Samuel Pepys often slept with male friends and rated their conversation skills.

Travelers often slept with strangers. In China and Mongolia, kangs – heated stone platforms—were used in inns as early as 5000 B.C. Guests supplied the bedding and slept with fellow tourists.


From public to private

During the 19th century, beds and bedrooms gradually became private spheres. A major impetus was rapid urbanization during the Industrial Revolution. In cities, compact row houses were constructed with small rooms, each with a specific purpose, one of which was sleeping.

Another reason was religion. The Victorian era was a devout age, and Evangelical Christianity was pervasive by the 1830s. Such beliefs placed great emphasis on marriage, chastity, the family, and the bond between parent and child; allowing strangers or friends under the covers was no longer kosher. By 1875, Architect magazine had published an essay declaring that a bedroom used for anything other than sleeping was unwholesome and immoral.
"It is preoccupation with possessions, more than anything else, that prevents us from living freely and nobly" - Bertrand Russell

vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #114 on: September 18, 2019, 09:49:18 PM »
Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event: Asteroid Dust Cloud Sparked Explosion in Primitive Life on Earth
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-giant-asteroid-ancient-ice-age.html



About 466 million years ago, long before the age of the dinosaurs, the Earth froze. The seas began to ice over at the Earth's poles, and the new range of temperatures around the planet set the stage for a boom of new species evolving. The cause of this ice age was a mystery, until now: a new study in Science Advances argues that the ice age was caused by global cooling, triggered by extra dust in the atmosphere from a giant asteroid collision in outer space.

When the 93-mile-wide asteroid between Mars and Jupiter broke apart 466 million years ago, it created way more dust than usual. "Normally, Earth gains about 40,000 tons of extraterrestrial material every year," says Philipp Heck, a curator at the Field Museum, associate professor at the University of Chicago, and one of the paper's authors. "Imagine multiplying that by a factor of a thousand or ten thousand." To contextualize that, in a typical year, one thousand semi trucks' worth of interplanetary dust fall to Earth. In the couple million years following the collision, it'd be more like ten million semis.

The levels stayed high for 2m-4m years. “The grains come with the dust so when you see an increase in these, you know there’s been an increase in the dust,” said Schmitz.

Further tests on the ancient limestone revealed a similar spike in levels of an isotope of helium that streams out of the sun in the surge of particles known as the solar wind. The researchers believe that the helium was brought to Earth when it became embedded in the finer space dust particles as they travelled through the solar system.



Open Access: B. Schmitz el al., "An extraterrestrial trigger for the Mid-Ordovician ice age: Dust from the breakup of the L-chondrite parent body," Science Advances (2019)
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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