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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #100 on: August 27, 2019, 11:32:16 AM »
FWIW that was during the hongerwinter. The southern parts had been liberated but operation Market Garden stalled at Arnhem. The famine was mainly in the west and north with the problem being worst in the bigger cities.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_famine_of_1944
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #101 on: August 27, 2019, 06:00:04 PM »
Greek Temple Ruins Suggest Lifting Machines In Use 1.5 Centuries Earlier Than Previously Believed
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-greek-temple-machines-centuries-earlier.html

As modern Greeks undertake to reconstruct the Parthenon, largely using stone material from the site's ruins, a question naturally arises: How did ancient Greeks construct massive temples and other buildings—lifting and placing one heavy block at a time, and up multiple rows in a wall—without modern advanced machinery?

New research by Alessandro Pierattini, assistant professor of architecture at the University of Notre Dame, adds nuance to the broadly accepted view that the crane was not in use until 515 B.C. by demonstrating how forerunners to the machine were experimented with as early as 700-650 B.C



Alessandro Pierattini. Interpreting Rope Channels: Lifting, Setting And The Birth Of Greek Monumental Architecture, The Annual of the British School at Athens (2019)
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #102 on: August 30, 2019, 01:28:43 AM »
New Artifacts Suggest People Arrived in North America Earlier Than Previously Thought
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-artifacts-people-north-america-earlier.html

Stone tools and other artifacts unearthed from an archeological dig at the Cooper's Ferry site in western Idaho suggest that people lived in the area 16,000 years ago, more than a thousand years earlier than scientists previously thought.

The findings, published today in Science, add weight to the hypothesis that initial human migration to the Americas followed a Pacific coastal route rather than through the opening of an inland ice-free corridor, said Loren Davis, a professor of anthropology at Oregon State University and the study's lead author.

"The Cooper's Ferry site is located along the Salmon River, which is a tributary of the larger Columbia River basin. Early peoples moving south along the Pacific coast would have encountered the Columbia River as the first place below the glaciers where they could easily walk and paddle in to North America," Davis said. "Essentially, the Columbia River corridor was the first off-ramp of a Pacific coast migration route.

"The timing and position of the Cooper's Ferry site is consistent with and most easily explained as the result of an early Pacific coastal migration."

... The dates from the oldest artifacts challenge the long-held "Clovis First" theory of early migration to the Americas, which suggested that people crossed from Siberia into North America and traveled down through an opening in the ice sheet near the present-day Dakotas. The ice-free corridor is hypothesized to have opened as early as 14,800 years ago, well after the date of the oldest artifacts found at Cooper's Ferry, Davis said.

"Now we have good evidence that people were in Idaho before that corridor opened," he said. "This evidence leads us to conclude that early peoples moved south of continental ice sheets along the Pacific coast."



L.G. Davis el al., "Late Upper Paleolithic occupation at Cooper's Ferry, Idaho, USA,~16,000 years ago," Science (2019)



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TerryM

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #103 on: August 30, 2019, 02:26:22 AM »
Interesting
It ties in with many earlier finds. Kennewick Man, Spirit Cave Mummy @Paleo woman Paleo child all come to mind but there are many more.
The points & core stones images add intrigue.


Found beneath a black/dark strata?


Thanks
Terry

vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #104 on: August 30, 2019, 03:38:29 AM »
Quote
... Found beneath a black/dark strata? 

Similar to an earlier post...

https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,2470.msg191905.html#msg191905
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TerryM

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #105 on: August 30, 2019, 07:41:45 AM »
Quote
... Found beneath a black/dark strata? 

Similar to an earlier post...

https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,2470.msg191905.html#msg191905


You Betcha!


Black mat & below = Clovis & ice age mega-fauna.


This is presented as Pre-Clovis, so unless there had been flooding or something to wash the overburden away this must be below the mat - if the dating is close to correct.


Terry

kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #106 on: September 03, 2019, 05:21:22 PM »
Nice article about genomics and the mixing between us homo and neanderthals and denisovans.

One cool thing is that they can now identify homo dna in the Neanderthals which comes to 3-6%.
The denisovan dna contains traces of possibly homo erectus.  8)
 

Humans and Neanderthals Kept Breeding—and Breeding—for Ages

Modern humans and Neanderthals commingled at many points in history, raising the possibility that the ancient hominins were just another version of us.


...

“I think Africa is one of the areas that’s going to give a lot more data in the future,” said Chris Stringer, an anthropologist at the Natural History Museum in London and a member of the research team that studied the Greek fossil.
Siepel is also using his algorithm to look for signs of natural selection acting on these DNA sequences: Were ancient hominins any better or worse off for carrying more genes from modern ones? So far, his team has found no evidence for either positive or negative selection in the flow of genes from modern humans into Neanderthals 200,000 years ago, which indicates that “most of this gene flow … is just a signature of populations in contact,” according to Hawks.

“It suggests that maybe Neanderthals actually are us,” he said. “As different as they are, maybe they’re just another version of us.”

https://www.wired.com/story/humans-neanderthals-interbreeding/

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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #107 on: September 08, 2019, 06:34:59 PM »
'‘Natasha’s’ burial with a Xiongnu-era iPhone remains one of the most interesting at this burial site,' Pavel Leus said in a new publication summarising results of several years of recent archeological expeditions to the Ala-Tey burial site.

In fact, the discovery is a large - 18cm by 9cm - chic belt buckle made of gemstone jet with inlaid decorations of turquoise, carnelian and mother-of-pearl.

https://siberiantimes.com/science/others/news/archeologist-in-awe-at-2100-year-old-iphone-like-belt-buckle-unearthed-in-atlantis-grave-in-tuva/

Well the headline certainly grabbed my attention.  :)

The place is a real archaeological treasure trove with undisturbed graves which are rare.

Lets see what more the unearth in the future.
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #108 on: September 10, 2019, 02:56:51 AM »
Rocks at Asteroid Impact Site Record First Day of Dinosaur Extinction
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-asteroid-impact-site-day-dinosaur.html

When the asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs slammed into the planet, the impact set wildfires, triggered tsunamis and blasted so much sulfur into the atmosphere that it blocked the sun, which caused the global cooling that ultimately doomed the dinos.

That's the scenario scientists have hypothesized. Now, a new study led by The University of Texas at Austin has confirmed it by finding hard evidence in the hundreds of feet of rocks that filled the impact crater within the first 24 hours after impact.



The evidence includes bits of charcoal, jumbles of rock brought in by the tsunami's backflow and conspicuously absent sulfur. ...

Most of the material that filled the crater within hours of impact was produced at the impact site or was swept in by seawater pouring back into the crater from the surrounding Gulf of Mexico. Just one day deposited about 425 feet of material—a rate that's among the highest ever encountered in the geologic record. This breakneck rate of accumulation means that the rocks record what was happening in the environment within and around the crater in the minutes and hours after impact and give clues about the longer-lasting effects of the impact that wiped out 75% of life on the planet.

Quote
... "We fried them and then we froze them," ... "Not all the dinosaurs died that day, but many dinosaurs did."

Researchers estimate the asteroid hit with the equivalent power of 10 billion atomic bombs of the size used in World War II. The blast ignited trees and plants that were thousands of miles away and triggered a massive tsunami that reached as far inland as Illinois. Inside the crater, researchers found charcoal and a chemical biomarker associated with soil fungi within or just above layers of sand that shows signs of being deposited by resurging waters. This suggests that the charred landscape was pulled into the crater with the receding waters of the tsunami.

However, one of the most important takeaways from the research is what was missing from the core samples. The area surrounding the impact crater is full of sulfur-rich rocks. But there was no sulfur in the core.

That finding supports a theory that the asteroid impact vaporized the sulfur-bearing minerals present at the impact site and released it into the atmosphere, where it wreaked havoc on the Earth's climate, reflecting sunlight away from the planet and causing global cooling. Researchers estimate that at least 325 billion metric tons would have been released by the impact. To put that in perspective, that's about four orders of magnitude greater than the sulfur that was spewed during the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa—which cooled the Earth's climate by an average of 2.2 degrees Fahrenheit for five years.


Although the asteroid impact created mass destruction at the regional level, it was this global climate change that caused a mass extinction, killing off the dinosaurs along with most other life on the planet at the time.



Sean P. S. Gulick el al., "The first day of the Cenozoic," PNAS (2019).
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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #109 on: September 10, 2019, 10:58:47 AM »
Some short pieces:

First human ancestors breastfed for longer than contemporary relatives

summary:
By analyzing the fossilized teeth of some of our most ancient ancestors, scientists have discovered that the first humans significantly breastfed their infants for longer periods than their contemporary relatives.

...

By reconstructing the age at tooth enamel development, they show that early Homo offspring was breastfed in significant proportions until the age of around three to four years, which likely played a role in the apparition of traits that are specific to human lineage, such as the brain development.

In contrast, infants of Paranthropus robustus, that became extinct around one million years ago and were a more robust species in terms of dental anatomy, as well as infants of Australopithecus africanus, stopped drinking sizeable proportions of mother milk in the course of the first months of life.

...
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190829115427.htm

and
Largest-ever ancient-DNA study illuminates millennia of South and Central Asian prehistory

Summary:
Researchers analyzed the genomes of 524 never before-studied ancient people, including the first genome of an individual from the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Insights answer longstanding questions about the origins of farming and the source of Indo-European languages in South and Central Asia. The study increases the worldwide total of published ancient genomes by some 25 percent.

...

A second line of evidence in favor of a steppe origin is the researchers' discovery that of the 140 present-day South Asian populations analyzed in the study, a handful show a remarkable spike in ancestry from the steppe. All but one of these steppe-enriched populations are historically priestly groups, including Brahmins -- traditional custodians of texts written in the ancient Indo-European language Sanskrit.

...

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190905145348.htm
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #110 on: September 12, 2019, 05:04:06 PM »
'Game-Changing' Research Could Solve Evolution Mysteries
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-game-changing-evolution-mysteries.html

An evolution revolution has begun after scientists extracted genetic information from a 1.7 million-year-old rhino tooth—the largest and oldest genetic data to ever be recorded.

Researchers identified an almost complete set of proteins, a proteome, in the dental enamel of the rhino and the genetic information discovered is one million years older than the oldest DNA sequenced from a 700,000-year-old horse.

... "For 20 years ancient DNA has been used to address questions about the evolution of extinct species, adaptation and human migration but it has limitations. Now for the first time we have retrieved ancient genetic information which allows us to reconstruct molecular evolution way beyond the usual time limit of DNA preservation.

... Professor Cappellini added: "Dental enamel is extremely abundant and it is incredibly durable, which is why a high proportion of fossil records are teeth.

"We have been able to find a way to retrieve genetic information that is more informative and older than any other source before, and it's from a source that is abundant in the fossil records so the potential of the application of this approach is extensive."

Early Pleistocene enamel proteome from Dmanisi resolves Stephanorhinus phylogeny, Nature (2019)
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #111 on: September 14, 2019, 03:44:32 AM »
The Enigma of Bronze Age Tin
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-enigma-bronze-age-tin.html

The origin of the tin used in the Bronze Age has long been one of the greatest enigmas in archaeological research. Now researchers from Heidelberg University and the Curt Engelhorn Centre for Archaeometry in Mannheim have solved part of the puzzle. Using methods of the natural sciences, they examined the tin from the second millennium BCE found at archaeological sites in Israel, Turkey, and Greece. They were able to prove that this tin in the form of ingots does not come from Central Asia, as previously assumed, but from tin deposits in Europe. The findings are proof that even in the Bronze Age, complex and far-reaching trade routes must have existed between Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean

Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, was already being produced in the Middle East, Anatolia, and the Aegean in the late fourth and third millennia BCE. Knowledge on its production spread quickly across wide swaths of the Old World. "Bronze was used to make weapons, jewellery, and all types of daily objects, justifiably bequeathing its name to an entire epoch. The origin of tin has long been an enigma in archaeological research," explains Prof. Dr. Ernst Pernicka. The Eastern Mediterranean region, where some of the objects we studied originated, had practically none of its own deposits. So the raw material in this region must have been imported," explained the researcher.

Using lead and tin isotope data as well as trace element analysis, the Heidelberg-Mannheim research team led by Prof. Pernicka and Dr. Daniel Berger examined the tin ingots found in Turkey, Israel, and Greece. This allowed them to verify that this tin really did derive from tin deposits in Europe. The tin artefacts from Israel, for example, largely match tin from Cornwall and Devon (Great Britain).



Open Access: Daniel Berger et al, Isotope systematics and chemical composition of tin ingots from Mochlos (Crete) and other Late Bronze Age sites in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: An ultimate key to tin provenance?, PLOS ONE (2019)
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #112 on: September 14, 2019, 01:03:24 PM »
An Extreme Drought Has Revealed a 'Spanish Stonehenge,' a Mysterious Circle of Megaliths Once Hidden Beneath a Reservoir
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.thelocal.es/20190822/drought-reveals-long-lost-spanish-stone-henge-in-cacares-reservoir/amp

This past summer, an extreme drought in the Extremadura area of Spain that caused the Valdecañas Reservoir’s water levels to plummet has revealed a series of megalithic stones. Previously submerged underwater, the Dolmen de Guadalperal, often called the Spanish Stonehenge, are now in plain sight.

Though the Dolmen are 7,000 years old, the last time they were seen in their entirety was around 1963, when the reservoir was built as part of Franco’s push toward modernization. Now, residents near the province of Cáceres are thrilled to witness the surreal return of the ancient site.

The approximately 100 menhirs are, like Stonehenge, hulking megalith stones—some standing up to six feet tall—that are arranged in an oval and appear oriented to filter sunlight. Evidence suggests that these stones could actually be 2,000 years older than Stonehenge.



-------------------------

Turkey Prepares to Flood 12,000-Year-Old City to Build Dam
https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2019/sep/12/they-are-barbaric-turkey-prepares-to-flood-12000-year-old-city-to-build-dam

Hasankeyf is thought to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited settlements on Earth, dating as far back as 12,000 years and containing thousands of caves, churches and tombs.

But this jewel of human history will soon be lost; most of the settlement is about to be flooded as part of the highly controversial Ilisu dam project.

... “We’ve asked for the area to be an open-air museum but the government wouldn’t accept it,” Ayhan said. “If you dig here you will find cultures layered on top of one another.”

Only 10% of the area has been explored by archaeologists.

... The Turkish authorities’ crackdown on protests has also hindered Hasankeyf residents’fight to stop the dam.

“If we protest, they take us to prisons,” Ayhan said. “There’s no democracy here. If there was democracy, maybe we could do something.”
« Last Edit: September 14, 2019, 02:53:46 PM by vox_mundi »
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nanning

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #113 on: September 15, 2019, 07:54:07 AM »
  The bizarre social history of beds

https://phys.org/news/2019-09-bizarre-social-history-beds.html
 by Brian Fagan

 Quotes:
Groucho Marx once joked, "Anything that can't be done in bed isn't worth doing at all." You might think he was referring to sleeping and sex. But humans, at one time or another, have done just about everything in bed.

Much about our beds have remained unchanged for centuries. But one aspect of the bed has undergone a dramatic shift.

Today, we usually sleep in bedrooms with the door shut firmly behind us. They're the ultimate realm of privacy. No one else is allowed in them, aside from a spouse or lover.

it wasn't always this way.

But one thing that has changed is who has occupied the bed. For most of human history, people thought nothing of crowding family members or friends into the same bed.

The 17th-century diarist Samuel Pepys often slept with male friends and rated their conversation skills.

Travelers often slept with strangers. In China and Mongolia, kangs – heated stone platforms—were used in inns as early as 5000 B.C. Guests supplied the bedding and slept with fellow tourists.


From public to private

During the 19th century, beds and bedrooms gradually became private spheres. A major impetus was rapid urbanization during the Industrial Revolution. In cities, compact row houses were constructed with small rooms, each with a specific purpose, one of which was sleeping.

Another reason was religion. The Victorian era was a devout age, and Evangelical Christianity was pervasive by the 1830s. Such beliefs placed great emphasis on marriage, chastity, the family, and the bond between parent and child; allowing strangers or friends under the covers was no longer kosher. By 1875, Architect magazine had published an essay declaring that a bedroom used for anything other than sleeping was unwholesome and immoral.
"It is preoccupation with possessions, more than anything else, that prevents us from living freely and nobly" - Bertrand Russell
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #114 on: September 18, 2019, 09:49:18 PM »
Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event: Asteroid Dust Cloud Sparked Explosion in Primitive Life on Earth
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-giant-asteroid-ancient-ice-age.html



About 466 million years ago, long before the age of the dinosaurs, the Earth froze. The seas began to ice over at the Earth's poles, and the new range of temperatures around the planet set the stage for a boom of new species evolving. The cause of this ice age was a mystery, until now: a new study in Science Advances argues that the ice age was caused by global cooling, triggered by extra dust in the atmosphere from a giant asteroid collision in outer space.

When the 93-mile-wide asteroid between Mars and Jupiter broke apart 466 million years ago, it created way more dust than usual. "Normally, Earth gains about 40,000 tons of extraterrestrial material every year," says Philipp Heck, a curator at the Field Museum, associate professor at the University of Chicago, and one of the paper's authors. "Imagine multiplying that by a factor of a thousand or ten thousand." To contextualize that, in a typical year, one thousand semi trucks' worth of interplanetary dust fall to Earth. In the couple million years following the collision, it'd be more like ten million semis.

The levels stayed high for 2m-4m years. “The grains come with the dust so when you see an increase in these, you know there’s been an increase in the dust,” said Schmitz.

Further tests on the ancient limestone revealed a similar spike in levels of an isotope of helium that streams out of the sun in the surge of particles known as the solar wind. The researchers believe that the helium was brought to Earth when it became embedded in the finer space dust particles as they travelled through the solar system.



Open Access: B. Schmitz el al., "An extraterrestrial trigger for the Mid-Ordovician ice age: Dust from the breakup of the L-chondrite parent body," Science Advances (2019)
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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #115 on: October 01, 2019, 11:51:39 PM »
Medieval Skeleton Puts a Face on Accounts of Torture and Violence
https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/10/archaeologists-unearth-the-remains-of-a-medieval-torture-victim/



What’s a little strange is how little archaeological evidence of torture in the past has been found so far. Archaeologists have found evidence of violence between humans dating back to the Paleolithic, but the Milanese wheel victim is one of very few clear cases of actual torture, despite how often torture is mentioned in historical records beginning in ancient times.

Executed for the crime of being different?

... Six-hundred years later, we have no way of knowing who the unfortunate young man was or why he was executed, but historical records and his own skeleton may offer a reasonable line of speculation. In medieval Northern Italy, the wheel was mostly a tool for public executions, especially for men accused of spreading the plague. Based on the details of the wheel victim’s skeleton, his appearance might have caused his medieval neighbors to view him with suspicion, especially if they were already fearful of a plague outbreak.

He was shorter than the average man in medieval northern Italy by about 11cm (4.3 inches). Despite his small stature, he sported an extra thoracic vertebra and an extra rib on each side. The unusual thickening of his frontal bone (the forehead) suggests that he probably had a hormonal disorder. In the sutures between the bones of his skull, archaeologists found several small bits of what are called Wormian bones, which often show up along with a congenital disease. He had a noticeable gap between his upper front teeth, and his upper incisors are turned at an odd angle.

Based on bones and teeth alone, there’s no way of knowing what condition (or conditions) the man had or how else they might have impacted his appearance or his behavior. No single condition could account for everything Mazzarelli and her colleagues observed in the skeleton. But they suggest that he “could have been considered as ‘different’ by his contemporaries, and possibly this discrimination may have been the cause of his final conviction, as he could have been sacrificed, for being a ‘freak,’ by an angry crowd, as a plague spreader.

Quote
... It’s a grim story, but it illustrates one reason that studying violence in the past is relevant today; the tools have changed, but basic patterns of human behavior are still the same.



Holy Inquisitor: Now, how do you plead?

The Condemned: We're innocent.

Holy Inquisitor: We'll soon change your mind about that!
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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #116 on: October 02, 2019, 07:10:40 PM »
Add this to the pile Terry ...

New Research Supports Hypothesis that Asteroid Contributed to Mass Extinction During the Younger Dryas
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-hypothesis-asteroid-contributed-mass-extinction.html



A team of scientists from South Africa has discovered evidence partially supporting a hypothesis that Earth was struck by a meteorite or asteroid 12 800 years ago, leading to global consequences including climate change, and contributing to the extinction of many species of large animals at the time of an episode called the Younger Dryas.

The team, led by Professor Francis Thackeray of the Evolutionary Studies Institute at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, discovered evidence of a remarkable "platinum spike" at a site called Wonderkrater in the Limpopo Province, north of Pretoria in South Africa. Working with researcher Philip Pieterse from the University of Johannesburg and Professor Louis Scott of the University of the Free State, Thackeray discovered this evidence from a core drilled in a peat deposit, notably in a sample about 12 800 years old. This research was published in Palaeontologia Africana.

Noting that meteorites are rich in platinum, Thackeray said "Our finding at least partially supports the highly controversial Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis (YDIH).

... Human populations may have been indirectly affected at the time in question. In North America there is a dramatic termination of the stone tool technology of Clovis people. Remarkably, archaeologists in South Africa have detected an almost simultaneous termination of the Robberg stone artifact industry associated with people in some parts of the country, including the area around Boomplaas near the Cango Caves in the southern Cape, close to the town of Oudshoorn.

... "We cannot be certain, but a cosmic impact could have affected humans as a result of local changes in environment and the availability of food resources, associated with sudden climate change."

At Wonderkrater, the team has evidence from pollen to show that about 12 800 years ago there was temporary cooling, associated with the "Younger Dryas" drop in temperature that is well documented in the northern hemisphere, and now also in South Africa. According to some scientists, this cooling in widespread areas could at least potentially have been associated with the global dispersal of platinum-rich atmospheric dust.

This is the first evidence in Africa for a platinum spike preceding climate change. Younger Dryas spikes in platinum have also been found in Greenland, Eurasia, North America, Mexico and recently also at Pilauco in Chile. Wonderkrater is the 30th site in the world for such evidence.

A large crater 31 kilometers in diameter has been discovered in northern Greenland beneath the Hiawatha Glacier. "There is some evidence to support the view that it might possibly have been the very place where a large meteorite struck the planet earth 12 800 years ago."



Open Access: Thackeray, J. Francis; Scott, Louis; Pieterse, P, The Younger Dryas interval at Wonderkrater (South Africa) in the context of a platinum anomaly, Palaeontologia Africana 2019-10-02
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TerryM

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #117 on: October 02, 2019, 10:05:56 PM »
^^
Thanks Vox
Just as with Continental Drift, or the astronomic solution to the dying off of dinosaurs, we'll have to wait until most of the doubters have died off before the new Younger Dryas Asteroid theory finds acceptance. In the meantime the evidence just keeps building.


We might get our heads around the idea that Paleo Hunters killed the last Mammoth, but imagining people with spears killing the last pride of Saber Toothed Cats, or the last pack of Dire Wolves, takes a fevered imagination.


Terry - hoping I outlive the doubters. ;)

Sebastian Jones

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #118 on: October 03, 2019, 07:35:17 AM »
^^
Thanks Vox
Just as with Continental Drift, or the astronomic solution to the dying off of dinosaurs, we'll have to wait until most of the doubters have died off before the new Younger Dryas Asteroid theory finds acceptance. In the meantime the evidence just keeps building.


We might get our heads around the idea that Paleo Hunters killed the last Mammoth, but imagining people with spears killing the last pride of Saber Toothed Cats, or the last pack of Dire Wolves, takes a fevered imagination.


Terry - hoping I outlive the doubters. ;)

Asteroid impacts coincident with the Younger Dryas event do not have to supersede the conventional theory that a mass outflow of fresh water from the already collapsing Laurentide ice sheet drove the temperature change.They could however have exacerbated the effect. Further, it is much more likely that the end of the Clovis culture was driven by the anthropogenic extinction of ice age mega fauna than by an asteroid- unless it was awfully, awfully big. And, mega predators did not have to be hunted or killed by humans to go extinct once their prey had been killed off. In my not entirely uneducated opinion, the denialism that resists the idea that humans caused the mass extinctions at the end of the last glaciation is similar in nature to that which resists the idea that human caused carbon emissions are changing the climate today.

sidd

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #119 on: October 03, 2019, 08:43:54 AM »
Jeremy Jackson seems convinced we ate the big ocean creatures first. So why not on land ? I have heard him express the same opinion of the disappearance of land megafauna.

I am inclined to the same. We are quite a rapacious species.

sidd

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #120 on: October 03, 2019, 03:31:35 PM »
Today we have the 72 oz. challenge.  [I ate there once, but didn't attempt the challenge.]  Back in the day (Pleistocene), that was nothing!  :o
Arctic ice is healthy for children and other living things.

TerryM

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #121 on: October 03, 2019, 03:34:15 PM »
Sebastian & sidd


Prior to the birth of the Black Mat theory it was known by everyone from paleontologists and anthropologists to weekend potters, arrowhead collectors and rockhounds that in the Mojave and Sonora Deserts there is a black to grey layer of strata that separates Megafauna deposits from modern, and Clovis from Fremont and more recent deposits.


If horse or camel tracks are found, you can be sure that if there is any overburden, it begins with a relatively narrow band of black deposits, often with a slightly organic odor.
When the original Clovis site, where a Clovis Point was found embedded in a mammoth rib proved beyond doubt that Clovis and Mammoths were contemporaries, the find was at the appropriately named "Blackwater Draw".


Outside Las Vegas, near Floyd Lamb State Park, a Clovis/Mammoth kill site was being excavated when remains of a supposed campfire were detected. After removing tons of overburden the outer boundary of the fire couldn't be found. Finally, after hiring a bulldozer they discovered that the ash layer extended for miles in all directions. They hadn't discovered a campfire, rather they'd dug into the Black Mat and assumed it was ashes from large campfire.


At the time it wasn't known that the mat contained iridium, micro diamonds, or other indications of it's extraterrestrial origin. All we knew then was that it lay like a shroud over Clovis and Rancholabrean finds.


The above is a short, sketchy overview of what was known prior to Firestone's Black Mat theory.
The Murray Springs Site in Southern Arizona was a Clovis/Mammoth kill site, then ~1,500 yrs later the site of a Folsom/Buffalo kill. Lots of bones and a scattering of worked stone from both cultures - all properly separated by a very visible Black Mat. The Clovis hammerstones and a bone spear straightener are enough to make it a very interesting site even without it being the location that first peaked Firestone's interest in the mat.


When arguing against the impact theory, I think some other mechanism explaining the dark strata and its relationship to Rancholabrean finds needs to be included.
Terry

kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #122 on: October 03, 2019, 08:21:23 PM »
Ramen.  ;)

This is just starting but it will be interesting to see what they find:

A team of researchers is carrying out the first in-depth archaeological survey of part of Saudi Arabia, in a bid to shed light on a mysterious civilisation that once lived there. The Nabataean culture left behind sophisticated stone monuments, but many sites remain unexplored.

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-49424036
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oren

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #123 on: October 04, 2019, 12:38:48 AM »
Quote
When arguing against the impact theory, I think some other mechanism explaining the dark strata and its relationship to Rancholabrean finds needs to be included.
Terry

From Wikipedia:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Younger_Dryas_impact_hypothesis

Quote
Research published in 2012 has shown that the so-called "black mats" are easily explained by typical earth processes in wetland environments.[15] The study of black mats, that are common in prehistorical wetland deposits which represent shallow marshlands, that were from 6000 to 40,000 years ago in the southwestern USA and Atacama Desert in Chile, showed elevated concentrations of iridium and magnetic sediments, magnetic spherules and titanomagnetite grains. It was suggested that because these markers are found within or at the base of black mats, irrespective of age or location, suggests that these markers arise from processes common to wetland systems, and probably not as a result of catastrophic bolide impacts.[15]

vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #124 on: October 04, 2019, 01:28:25 AM »
Oren - The study you cited is from 2012 - not that that's a bad thing. Since then, however, over 18 other sites have been discovered and dated to ~12,800 BCE.

Most of these sites are NOT wetlands.

The study you cited: Accumulation of impact markers in desert wetlands and implications for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis
https://www.pnas.org/content/109/19/7208

From it's Discussion Section:

... To be clear, the results of our study do not allow us to dismiss the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis outright, nor do they address the origin or significance of the remaining markers of Firestone et al. (e.g. platinum 'spike')

... They point out that Rare Earth Elements (REEs) are approximately two orders of magnitude more common in terrestrial (crustal) rocks than in chondrites and, presumably, cosmic dust ... but they don't mention the concentration in metallic meteors - which the impact crater in Hiawatha Glacier, Greenland appears to be.

Quote
Hiawatha Glacier, Greenland impact site: ... From an interpretation of the crystalline nature of the underlying rock, together with chemical analysis of sediment washed from the crater, the impactor was argued to be a metallic asteroid with a diameter in the order of 1.5 kilometres (0.9 mi).

Before the crater was discovered, the Inuit had found iron meteorites in the region. In 1957 an American surveyor found a 48-kilogram (106 lb) meteorite, and in 1963 Vagn F. Buchwald found the 20-ton Agpalilik meteorite (a fragment of the Cape York meteorite) on a nunatak near Moltke Glacier

It has been suggested that the Cape York meteorite is part of the main object responsible for creating the Hiawatha crater. Estimates of the Hiawatha impact's age (which is still being studied), along with other indicators, suggest that the crater may be connected with the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis.
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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #125 on: October 06, 2019, 07:26:28 PM »
Ancient sippy cup may hold clues about agriculture’s spread in Europe

A recent study found that prehistoric babies drank milk from ceramic sippy cups, including some with cute animal motifs. Lest you be overwhelmed by the cuteness, there's a heartbreaking side to that discovery: Bronze and Iron Age parents buried their dead infants with their clay sippy cups.

A team of archaeologists found microscopic traces of livestock milk in three of the containers: two from Iron Age graves in Germany dating between 800 and 450 BCE, and a broken one from a much earlier Bronze Age grave nearby. The results suggest that feeding babies milk from livestock may have helped early European farming populations grow and expand.

...

“This paper is important as it is the first direct evidence for animal milk being contained in these bottles for feeding to babies,” Halcrow told Ars. Since the Iron Age baby bottles from Bavaria look so similar to the ones being used thousands of years earlier during the Neolithic, it’s reasonable to speculate that the practice may have been much older, but archaeologists will need to study those earlier vessels directly to say for sure.

https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/10/ancient-sippy-cup-may-hold-clues-about-agricultures-spread-in-europe/

Nice article.

The last time i was in an archaeological museum was in the old Athens museum.

They had a nice collection of prehistoric stuff. Much of it familiar...although the style was of course very old school.  ::)
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vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #126 on: October 06, 2019, 08:12:44 PM »
Israeli Archaeologists Claim to Discover Ancient City
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-israeli-archaeologists-ancient-city.html

Israel's Antiquities Authority on Sunday said that researchers have discovered the remains of a large, 5,000-year-old city that sheds new light on experts' understanding of the period.

Calling it a "cosmopolitan and planned city," the authority said the early Bronze Age settlement covered 65 hectares (160 acres) and was home to about 6,000 people.

... Among the discoveries was an unusual ritual temple, burnt animal bones—evidence of sacrificial offerings—and a figurine of a human head. There also were millions of pottery fragments, flint tools and stone vessels.

"The remains of residential buildings, diverse facilities and the public buildings are an indication of the organized society and the social hierarchy that existed at the time," the researchers said.

... The Antiquities Authority said that during the dig, archaeologists also found evidence of an earlier settlement dating back 7,000 years underneath the city's houses.
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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #127 on: October 10, 2019, 01:56:54 PM »
Israel cave bones: Early humans 'conserved food to eat later'

Scientists in Israel say they have found evidence that prehistoric humans deliberately stored bones from animals to eat the fatty marrow later. ....  hey identified cut marks on most of the bone surfaces - consistent with preservation and delayed consumption.

The researchers suggest the marks came about because the early humans had to make greater effort to remove skin which had dried on bones which had been kept longer.

The cut marks were found on 78% of the more than 80,000 animal bone specimens analysed.

...

"We found that the deer leg bones, specifically the metapodials, exhibited unique chopping marks on the shafts, which are not characteristic of the marks left from stripping fresh skin to fracture the bone and extract the marrow," he said.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-49998934
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kassy

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #128 on: October 15, 2019, 02:44:21 PM »
3000-year-old toolkit suggests skilled warriors crossed Europe to fight an epic battle

...

The battle raged in a narrow, swampy valley that runs along the Tollense River, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 160 kilometers north of Berlin. Many of the artifacts sank below the water and so were preserved in pristine condition. Since the site was discovered in 1996, archaeologists have uncovered metal and wooden weaponry and more than 12,000 pieces of human bone.

The new find, unearthed in 2016, includes cylindrical fragments of bronze, along with a bronze knife, awl, and small chisel. The jumble of tools and scrap metal resemble someone’s personal effects, rather than a ritual deposit or hoard. Archaeologists say the tools were likely in a bag or box that decayed. But the contents were held in place by the thick mud of the riverbed—until divers found them some 3000 years later.

For details and a photo of the objects:
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/10/3000-year-old-toolkit-suggests-skilled-warriors-crossed-europe-fight-epic-battle

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TerryM

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #129 on: October 15, 2019, 03:03:38 PM »
^^
The chisel design appears unchanged over the last 3k yrs. An amazing find!
Terry

vox_mundi

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #130 on: October 16, 2019, 01:11:54 AM »
Aerial Laser Scans Uncover Hidden Early Capital of the Khmer Empire
https://gizmodo.com/aerial-laser-scans-uncover-hidden-early-capital-of-the-1839061686

Archaeologists in Cambodia have used jungle-penetrating laser to confirm the location and layout of an ancient capital city associated with the early stages of the Khmer Empire.

Researchers from the French Institute of Asian Studies and APSARA, Cambodia’s management authority for Angkor Archaeological Park, have used LIDAR to pinpoint the exact location of Mahendraparvata—an early Angkorian city and one of the first capital cities associated with the Khmer Empire. The ancient city, which dates back to the 8th and 9th century CE, was spotted in the dense jungles of Cambodia’s Phnom Kulen mountains. Details of the discovery were published today in the science journal Antiquity.

The Khmer Empire dominated much of southeast Asia from the 9th to 15th century CE, establishing the foundations of modern Cambodia. Among its many achievements, the Khmer Empire is famous for Angkor Wat—an elaborate temple complex located in the ancient city of Angkor in northwest Cambodia. Mahendraparvata was built before Angkor, and it’s very possibly the first large-scale, centrally designed, grid-plan city built by the Khmer Empire, according to the new research.



Inscriptions and other archaeological evidence had pointed to the Phnom Kulen mountain as the likely location of Mahendraparvata, but scientists were only able to uncover small and apparently isolated shrines. The city remained largely undetected owing to dense vegetation growing at the site, and because of the presence of Khmer Rouge guerillas who stayed in the area until the 1990s; the jungle remains littered with landmines and unexploded ordnance, making it an unsafe space for archaeologists.



Near Mahendraparvata, the researchers also found 366 individual mounds arranged in geometric patterns and built in groups of 15. The purpose of these mounds is unclear, but the lack of associated archaeological evidence suggests they weren’t funeral structures, former habitats, or architectural foundations. It will take further work to discern the purpose of these strange mounds as well as similar formations found elsewhere in Cambodia



Open Access: Mahendraparvata: an early Angkor-period capital defined through airborne laser scanning at Phnom Kulen
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/antiquity/article/mahendraparvata-an-early-angkorperiod-capital-defined-through-airborne-laser-scanning-at-phnom-kulen/CAC3E93D6046CC27D862C1E333FD0713/core-reader
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ael

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Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« Reply #131 on: October 16, 2019, 05:11:03 AM »
Lee Berger gets a hat trick.

https://www.newscientist.com/article/2219742-lee-berger-we-have-made-another-major-discovery-about-early-humans/

Lee Berger: We have made another major discovery about early humans

Humanity’s ancient family tree is set to be shaken up by fossil skeletons found embedded in rock at a site near Johannesburg, South Africa. They could be from another long lost human cousin. “We have another major hominin discovery,” said Lee Berger at New Scientist Live on Saturday.