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Author Topic: Direct Air Capture (of Carbon Dioxide)  (Read 661 times)

jai mitchell

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Direct Air Capture (of Carbon Dioxide)
« on: November 26, 2018, 07:28:56 PM »
Surprised this thread doesn't yet exist since it will be absolutely necessary to remove between 800 and 1,000 Giga-tonnes of Carbon Dioxide from the Earth's atmosphere by 2100.  This, largely due to the shift of land, southern oceans, tropic peats and boreal systems into carbon sources. (this process is starting already)

so lets continue to post new developments regarding the process of direct air capture of carbon dioxide.  This is through agriculture, ocean nutrient seeding, reforestation/preservation and industrial activity.  Maybe we will find others too along the way.

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jai mitchell

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Re: Direct Air Capture (of Carbon Dioxide)
« Reply #1 on: November 26, 2018, 07:30:32 PM »
This new paper shows a highly efficient method to convert soluble carbon dioxide (in water) to plastics.

https://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-have-figured-out-a-way-to-convert-carbon-dioxide-into-plastic

Quote
Researchers have developed catalysts that can convert carbon dioxide—the main cause of global warming—into plastics, fabrics, resins, and other products.

The electrocatalysts are the first materials, aside from enzymes, that can turn carbon dioxide and water into carbon building blocks containing one, two, three, or four carbon atoms with more than 99 percent efficiency.

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crandles

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Re: Direct Air Capture (of Carbon Dioxide)
« Reply #2 on: November 26, 2018, 07:32:30 PM »
This has been posted on CCS thread

Does anyone have any comments on this?

https://www.technologyreview.com/s/540706/researcher-demonstrates-how-to-suck-carbon-from-the-air-make-stuff-from-it/

I'm hearing it touted as a way to reduce CO2 to preindustrial levels in 10 years (admittedly with very extensive deployment!), but there seems to be little information on how the atmospheric capture actually works... and whether there's enough lithium to do it on that scale in the first place! Call me a sceptic, but to have no news after two and a half years...

Any further info on this process?

There's a later, and highly detailed article in Nature:
Tracking airborne CO2 mitigation and low cost transformation into valuable carbon nanotubes
https://www.nature.com/articles/srep27760

jai mitchell

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Re: Direct Air Capture (of Carbon Dioxide)
« Reply #3 on: November 26, 2018, 08:07:36 PM »
cran,

thanks but those are not talking about the technology I posted about.

carbon capture and storage (CCS) refers to high-temperature capture of carbon from fossil fuel or industrial fossil fuel energy exhaust.

this is a thread for the kinds of links crandles posted about Direct Air Capture (DAC) of carbon dioxide.

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Ken Feldman

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Re: Direct Air Capture (of Carbon Dioxide)
« Reply #4 on: November 27, 2018, 05:44:33 PM »
There are so many studies going on in this field, that it's difficult to track them all.  Here is a study of the studies (from 2017):

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aa5ee5/meta

Excerpt from the abstract (emphasis added):

Quote
Despite being a relatively young topic, negative emission technologies (NETs) have attracted growing attention in climate change research over the last decade. A sizeable body of evidence on NETs has accumulated across different fields that is by today too large and too diverse to be comprehensively tracked by individuals. Yet, understanding the size, composition and thematic structure of this literature corpus is a crucial pre-condition for effective scientific assessments of NETs as, for example, required for the new special report on the 1.5 °C by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In this paper we use scientometric methods and topic modelling to identify and characterize the available evidence on NETs as recorded in the Web of Science. We find that the development of the literature on NETs has started later than for climate change as a whole, but proceeds more quickly by now. A total number of about 2900 studies have accumulated between 1991 and 2016 with almost 500 new publications in 2016.

Ken Feldman

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Re: Direct Air Capture (of Carbon Dioxide)
« Reply #5 on: February 14, 2019, 12:58:33 AM »
A breakthrough in artificial leaf technology that allows the artificial leaf to operate at normal atmospheric pressures has been announced:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/02/190212160020.htm

Quote
Singh and his colleague Aditya Prajapati, a graduate student in his lab, proposed solving this problem by encapsulating a traditional artificial leaf inside a transparent capsule made of a semi-permeable membrane of quaternary ammonium resin and filled with water. The membrane allows water from inside to evaporate out when warmed by sunlight. As water passes out through the membrane, it selectively pulls in carbon dioxide from the air. The artificial photosynthetic unit inside the capsule is made up of a light absorber coated with catalysts that convert the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, which can be siphoned off and used as a basis for the creation of various synthetic fuels. Oxygen is also produced and can either be collected or released into the surrounding environment.

"By enveloping traditional artificial leaf technology inside this specialized membrane, the whole unit is able to function outside, like a natural leaf," Singh said.

According to their calculations, 360 leaves, each 1.7 meters long and 0.2 meters wide, would produce close to a half-ton of carbon monoxide per day that could be used as the basis for synthetic fuels. Three hundred and sixty of these artificial leaves covering a 500-meter square area would be able to reduce carbon dioxide levels by 10 percent in the surrounding air within 100 meters of the array in one day.

"Our conceptual design uses readily available materials and technology, that when combined can produce an artificial leaf that is ready to be deployed outside the lab where it can play a significant role in reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere," Singh said.

Once you get the carbon dioxide converted to carbon monoxide, it opens up a lot of possible uses as fuels:

https://phys.org/news/2018-03-co2-usable-energy.html

Quote
"There are many ways to use CO," said Eli Stavitski, a scientist at Brookhaven and an author on the paper. "You can react it with water to produce energy-rich hydrogen gas, or with hydrogen to produce useful chemicals, such as hydrocarbons or alcohols. If there were a sustainable, cost-efficient route to transform CO2 to CO, it would benefit society greatly."

Ken Feldman

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Re: Direct Air Capture (of Carbon Dioxide)
« Reply #6 on: March 01, 2019, 06:39:25 PM »
Once carbon dioxide is captured, it will need to be stored in a way it can't escape back into the atmosphere.  Researchers have just announced a new method for turning CO2 into a solid:

https://www.technologynetworks.com/tn/news/turning-carbon-dioxide-back-into-coal-316011

Quote
The research team led by RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, have developed a new technique that can efficiently convert CO2 from a gas into solid particles of carbon.

Published in the journal Nature Communications, the research offers an alternative pathway for safely and permanently removing the greenhouse gas from our atmosphere.

Quote
“To date, CO2 has only been converted into a solid at extremely high temperatures, making it industrially unviable.

“By using liquid metals as a catalyst, we’ve shown it’s possible to turn the gas back into carbon at room temperature, in a process that’s efficient and scalable.

“While more research needs to be done, it’s a crucial first step to delivering solid storage of carbon.”

Quote
The CO2 slowly converts into solid flakes of carbon, which are naturally detached from the liquid metal surface, allowing the continuous production of carbonaceous solid.

Esrafilzadeh said the carbon produced could also be used as an electrode.

“A side benefit of the process is that the carbon can hold electrical charge, becoming a supercapacitor, so it could potentially be used as a component in future vehicles.”

“The process also produces synthetic fuel as a by-product, which could also have industrial applications.”