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gerontocrat

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Water Resource Management
« on: January 19, 2019, 09:16:43 PM »
The only thread specifically about water is in "Consequences- Water Wars".
A thread about how humankind is, or is not managing water resources seems a good idea. 
Time will tell.

an example....
This study gives a really good look at the good, the bad, and the ugly sides of desalination and possibilities for the future. It also shows that we are talking big numbers.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1KZxjEYk01HEdmDhsLmF4RzV5UXu-mwBd/view
The state of desalination and brine production: A global outlook

Apart from the problem of brine production (salt and other ooh-nasty trace elements being concentrated and dumped in the ocean (shown by the study to be underestimated), the study also shows that at the moment the cost limits the use of the fresh water produced to domestic and industrial use in relatively high income countries.

There is a BBC article based on this study at https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-46863146 . It finishes on an optimistic note - we will see.
 
Concerns over increase in toxic brine from desalination plants
Quote
"There is an urgent need to make desalination technologies more affordable and extend them to low-income and lower-middle income countries. At the same time, though, we have to address potentially severe downsides of desalination - the harm of brine and chemical pollution to the marine environment and human health," said Dr Vladimir Smakhtin, a co-author of the paper from the UN University.

"The good news is that efforts have been made in recent years and, with continuing technology refinement and improving economic affordability, we see a positive and promising outlook."
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etienne

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #1 on: January 20, 2019, 10:55:56 AM »
Water is not only an issue when thinking about desalination pollution. Glaciers are melting and once melting is over the water situation becomes critical.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-23944385

Archimid

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #2 on: March 24, 2019, 02:52:43 PM »
The ultimate survival tool. Water out of thin air:

How Zero Mass is using solar panels to pull drinkable water directly from the air

https://www.theverge.com/2017/11/28/16690042/zero-mass-solar-panel-harvesting-clean-drinking-water-next-level

Quote
Because that’s what Zero Mass does: harvest drinking water out of thin air, using a combination of materials science, solar power, and predictive data. The goal is to use this technology to go from a position of “water scarcity to water abundance,” said founder and chief executive Cody Friesen, regardless of whether you’re in an area where access to clean water is a serious problem, or living in a place where bottled water is often half-drunk and discarded.
I am an energy reservoir seemingly intent on lowering entropy for self preservation.

Sigmetnow

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #3 on: March 24, 2019, 03:41:36 PM »
The ice stupas of Ladakh: solving water crisis in the high desert of Himalaya
Quote
But addressing the water shortages that threatened life in his mountainous home had started to feel like an intractable problem until he saw the chunk of ice: still hanging, improbably, beneath the bridge, long after the shards around it had melted.

In that moment, he says, “I understood that it was not the warmth of the sun that was melting the ice on the ground. It was direct sunlight.”

What Wangchuck saw reflected in the ice that day was realised four years ago, when he unveiled his first “ice stupa”, an artificial glacier that towered surreally over the otherwise arid landscape, and for which in December he received a prestigious £80,000 innovation prize. ...
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/apr/22/the-ice-stupas-of-ladakh-solving-water-crisis-in-the-high-desert-of-himalaya

Image: How the ice pyramids or artificial glaciers work: gravity pressure forces water up through a pipe to form ice stupas that store water for the crop growing season.
People who say it cannot be done should not interrupt those who are doing it.

gerontocrat

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #4 on: March 24, 2019, 03:53:05 PM »
It was World Water Day on 22nd March
To mark this UNICEF issued a report...

Yet another instance where collateral damage far outweighs bullets and bombs.

https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/03/1035171
More children killed by unsafe water, than bullets, says UNICEF chief
Quote
UNICEF’s 16-nation study into how water supplies effect children caught up in emergencies, also shows that children under-five are on average more than 20 times more likely to die from illnesses linked to unsafe water and bad sanitation, than from conflict.

“The odds are already stacked against children living through prolonged conflicts – with many unable to reach a safe water source,” said UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta Fore. “The reality is that there are more children who die from lack of access to safe water than by bullets."

According to the report, every year, 85,700 children under-15 die from diarrhoea linked to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene facilities (WASH), compared with 30,900 from conflict.

Some 72,000 under-fives die annually from similar illnesses linked to WASH-access problems, compared to 3,400 from war-related violence.

UNICEF studied data from Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Myanmar, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria and Yemen.

It compared World Health Organization (WHO) mortality estimates for “collective violence” and “diarrhoeal disease”.

On average, mortality estimates were higher for diarrhoeal disease than violence in under 15-year-olds – except in Libya, Iraq and Syria.

Under-fives were more likely to die from diarrhoeal disease in all countries except Libya and Syria, the UN report found.

The UNICEF report is at ...
https://weshare.unicef.org/CS.aspx?VP3=SearchResult&ALID=2AMZIF3HHUU0&POPUPPN=1&POPUPIID=2AMZIF3JFETA&PN=1&IID=2AMZIF3JFETA

N.B. UN stuff often attacked by hackers. Make sure your virus wall is OK before downloading.

"Para a Causa do Povo a Luta Continua!"
"And that's all I'm going to say about that". Forrest Gump
"Damn, I wanted to see what happened next" (Epitaph)

morganism

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #5 on: June 01, 2019, 11:20:06 PM »
A Rose Inspires Smart Way to Collect and Purify Water

Solar thermal desalination and purification by steam, no electricity required.

https://news.utexas.edu/2019/05/29/a-rose-inspires-smart-way-to-collect-and-purify-water/


https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/adma.201900720

“We were searching for more efficient ways to apply the solar-steaming technique for water production by using black filtered paper coated with a special type of polymer, known as polypyrrole,” Fan said.

Polypyrrole is a material known for its photothermal properties, meaning it’s particularly good at converting solar light into thermal heat.

The device removes any contamination from heavy metals and bacteria, and it removes salt from seawater, producing clean water that meets drinking standard requirements set by the World Health Organization.

morganism

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #6 on: June 01, 2019, 11:54:16 PM »
add:

nanoparticles in water also create steam on exposure to sunlight

Solar Vapor Generation Enabled by Nanoparticles

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn304948h

"Solar illumination of broadly absorbing metal or carbon nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid produces vapor without the requirement of heating the fluid volume. When particles are dispersed in water at ambient temperature, energy is directed primarily to vaporization of water into steam, with a much smaller fraction resulting in heating of the fluid. Sunlight-illuminated particles can also drive H2O–ethanol distillation, yielding fractions significantly richer in ethanol content than simple thermal distillation."

bligh8

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #7 on: July 10, 2019, 12:05:45 PM »
https://www.wired.com/story/desalination-is-booming-as-cities-run-out-of-water/
Desalination Is Booming as Cities Run out of Water

"Some 30 miles north of San Diego, along the Pacific Coast, sits the Claude “Bud” Lewis Carlsbad Desalination Plant, the largest effort to turn salt water into fresh water in North America.
Each day 100 million gallons of seawater are pushed through semi-permeable membranes to create 50 million gallons of water that is piped to municipal users. Carlsbad, which became fully operational in 2015, creates about 10 percent of the fresh water the 3.1 million people in the region use, at about twice the cost of the other main source of water."

"A second plant, similar to Carlsbad, is being built in Huntington, California with the same 50-million-gallon-a-day capability. Currently there are 11 desalination plants in California, and 10 more are proposed.'

"Meanwhile, the cost of desalinated water has been coming down as the technology evolves and the cost of other sources increases. In the last three decades, the cost of desalination has dropped by more than half.
A boom in desal, though, doesn’t mean that everywhere with access to the sea has found a new source of fresh water. Circumstances play a large role. “As populations increase and existing surface water supplies are being tapped out or groundwater is depleted or polluted, then the problems are acute and there are choices to be made” about desal, said Michael Kiparsky of the Wheeler Water Institute at the UC Berkeley School of Law. “There are places around the world where desal makes economic sense, where there is high pressure on the water resources plus a lot of available energy resources,” such as the Middle East.

more within the article

DrTskoul

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #8 on: July 10, 2019, 12:37:36 PM »
add:

nanoparticles in water also create steam on exposure to sunlight

Solar Vapor Generation Enabled by Nanoparticles

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn304948h

"Solar illumination of broadly absorbing metal or carbon nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid produces vapor without the requirement of heating the fluid volume. When particles are dispersed in water at ambient temperature, energy is directed primarily to vaporization of water into steam, with a much smaller fraction resulting in heating of the fluid. Sunlight-illuminated particles can also drive H2O–ethanol distillation, yielding fractions significantly richer in ethanol content than simple thermal distillation."

So the steam does not condense back on to the liquid and escapes as vapor without heat interaction.... yeah... best if they apply it as solar film evaporator where there is a direct escape route !! However a solar frensel trough steam is much better ( higher temperature therefore higher pressure)

kassy

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #9 on: July 10, 2019, 06:35:18 PM »
Another winning technology (this is a quote from the article bligh8 posted) :

Quote
There are ecological impacts as well. It takes two gallons of sea water to make a gallon of fresh water, which means the gallon left behind is briny. It is disposed of by returning it to the ocean and—if not done properly by diffusing it over large areas—can deplete the ocean of oxygen and have negative impacts on sea life.

A study by the UN Institute for Water, Environment and Health published earlier this year contends that the problem of brine waste has been underestimated by 50 percent and that, when mixed with the chemicals meant to keep systems from fouling, the brine is toxic and causes serious pollution.

Another problem comes from the sucking in of sea water for processing. When a fish or other large organism gets stuck on the intake screen, it dies or is injured; in addition, fish larvae, eggs and plankton get sucked into the system and are killed.
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bligh8

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #10 on: July 11, 2019, 03:37:19 AM »
Kassy

The brine is a big problem with these de-sal plants.  I had one on "Horizon" my sailing vessel, it produced 1 to 2.3 fresh to brine.  Luckily I plumbed it in correctly with the brine exiting the vessel while cycling.  I quit using it not because it was energy intensive (it was) but because of the noise the clunk...clunk...clunk. It interfered with the natural backdrop of the vessels noise the wind and water.

I guess in some areas of the planet there are just no other sources of clean water.

bligh

vox_mundi

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #11 on: July 22, 2019, 05:35:00 PM »
More Basra Water Crises Unless Iraq Govt Fxes 'Failures': HRW
https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/07/22/iraq-water-crisis-basra
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-basra-crises-iraq-govt-failures.html

Nearly 120,000 people were hospitalised last summer after drinking polluted water, in a mass health crisis that sparked deadly protests against the dire state of public services.

In a damning report, HRW found the generally poor state of water quality was likely compounded by algae that rapidly spread last year in the Shatt al-Arab waterway that runs through Basra and provides it with its primary water source.

It indicated that the algae, pollution and high salination could together have sparked the mass health crisis.

HRW slammed Iraqi officials as "short-sighted", saying they had not properly communicated with citizens about the emergency at the time, nor released the results of probes in the year since or dealt with underlying causes.

"What our research brought out very clearly is that the crisis in Basra has not ended," said Belkis Wille, HRW's senior Iraq researcher.

She told AFP that officials had an obligation to communicate to all Iraqi citizens about the state of their drinking water.

... The report relies on dozens of interviews with residents of Basra, experts and government officials as well as analysis of satellite imagery.

Those images revealed evidence of oil spills and algal bloom in the Shatt el-Arab and other waterways that contaminated the water which, when consumed, could cause abdominal pain, fever, vomiting and bloody diarrhoea.

Besides the direct health impact, the water crisis forced families to flee Basra in search of potable water, buy expensive bottled water or keep their children at home if there was no plumbing in schools.

With increasingly scarce water, climate change, pollution and poor water usage, "Basra will suffer from acute water crises in coming years in the absence of strategic solutions", HRW warned.


... Jaafar Sabah, a farmer from Abu al-Khasib, a poor town to the southeast of Basra, told Human Rights Watch:

Quote
Each year I was getting 50 percent of the yield of the year before, and then in 2018, almost nothing survived. In 2018, the salinity level in the water was so high that I could grab the salt from the water with my own hands. I am dying of thirst and so are my children. There were four cases of poisoning in my family. I have no money and I cannot take them to the hospital. Where do I get the money from?


https://www.hrw.org/report/2019/07/22/basra-thirsty/iraqs-failure-manage-water-crisis


Satellite imagery shows what appears to be a likely oil spill into the Shatt al-Arab near the Nahr Bin Umar oil and gas field, a site run by the Basra Oil Company (BOC), a governmental oil company, about 25 kilometers upstream from Basra city. The spill apparently lasted for at least 10 days. Satellite image date July 15, 2018. © Planet Labs 2019.
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

vox_mundi

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #12 on: August 22, 2019, 06:04:20 PM »
Too-Cheap-to-Notice Water is Coming to an End, and Water Utilities Must Warn Consumers
https://techxplore.com/news/2019-08-too-cheap-to-notice-consumers.html

Too-cheap-to-notice water and sewer bills are disappearing, and water utilities will need to educate consumers on the true cost of their product much like electricity utilities did in the 1970s, according to new research coauthored by a Rutgers University–Camden finance scholar.

The article—"Electricity in the 1970s, Water in the 2020s," which appears in The Electricity Journal—encourages water utilities to invest in the research necessary to provide consumers with data on water rates and usage.

"America's water utility industry is in a capacity crisis due to a history of inadequate investment that will last for years," explains coauthor Richard Michelfelder, a clinical associate professor of finance at Rutgers University–Camden. "The industry has no choice but to invest in large capacity additions in order to meet our surging national demand for water which, in turn, will result in substantial rate increases for the consumer."

When that happens, "rate shock" will set in, followed by a public demand for utilities to justify rates by customer class and conduct a load study that is used to allocate accelerating water (and wastewater treatment) costs by customer class (such as residential or commercial) to determine who should pay for the rapidly rising expenses.

"The processes currently in place to justify cost allocations simply aren't going to be acceptable when the dollars at stake surge," says Michelfelder. "In such a situation, it wouldn't be surprising for a utility to be obliged to conduct a load study to gauge the impact of the rate shock. And the utility will be required to pick up the cost of that study."
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

nanning

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #13 on: September 16, 2019, 10:15:54 AM »
  'I don't know how we come back from this': Australia's big dry sucks life from once-proud towns

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/sep/14/i-dont-know-how-we-come-back-from-this-australias-big-dry-sucks-life-from-once-proud-towns
  by Anne Davies, Ben Smee and Lorena Allam


 Quotes:
Australia is experiencing one of its most severe droughts on record, resulting in desperate water shortages across large parts of New South Wales and southern Queensland. Dams in some parts of western NSW have all but dried up, with rainfall levels through the winter in the lowest 10% of historical records in some areas.

The crisis in the far west of the state became unavoidable after the mass fish kills along the lower Darling River last summer, but now much bigger towns closer to the coast, including Dubbo, are also running out of water.

Residents of three distinct areas talked to Guardian Australia about the state of their towns under extreme stress from water shortages, expressing anxiety about their future but also determination to keep communities alive.


“Ah, but it will be all right. We’ve got through this before.”

Macdonald says he was called “a communist” by a local Warwick identity for suggesting the weather patterns had changed and that October thunderstorms were no longer a regular occurrence.

“I’d be too frightened to talk about [climate change] in this town,” he says. “It doesn’t get through to people at all. Not one bit.”



Warwick is on track to run out of water within months. Roadside signs heading into town remind residents of the new restrictions: 100 litres per person, per day.
"It is preoccupation with possessions, more than anything else, that prevents us from living freely and nobly" - Bertrand Russell
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wili

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #14 on: September 16, 2019, 02:42:12 PM »
Thanks for this.

More proof that, for some people, no amount of evidence, even 'evidence' that destroys their lives and their towns, will convince some people to discard a cherished ideology.

If devastating droughts don't change their minds, I really doubt a Blue Ocean Event will.
"A force de chercher de bonnes raisons, on en trouve; on les dit; et après on y tient, non pas tant parce qu'elles sont bonnes que pour ne pas se démentir." Choderlos de Laclos "You struggle to come up with some valid reasons, then cling to them, not because they're good, but just to not back down."

vox_mundi

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #15 on: September 20, 2019, 09:13:34 PM »
Water May Be Scarce for New Power Plants in Asia
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-scarce-power-asia.html

Climate change and over-tapped waterways could leave developing parts of Asia without enough water to cool power plants in the near future, new research indicates.

The study found that existing and planned power plants that burn coal for energy could be vulnerable.


That is already a problem for some power plants in the United States, and this study suggests, it is likely to be an even greater problem in developing parts of Asia—Mongolia, Southeast Asia and parts of India and China—where more than 400 gigawatts of new coal-fired power plant capacity are planned for operation by 2030. (By comparison: The largest coal-fired power plant in Ohio has the capacity to produce about 2,600 megawatts of electricity; the new plants planned for developing Asia are the equivalent of more than 150 similar facilities.)

That increasing power production will itself be part of the problem, the researchers found, creating greater demand for water at the same time that climate change significantly limits the supply.

The researchers analyzed databases of existing and planned coal-fired power plants, and combined that information with high-resolution hydrological maps to evaluate the possible strain on water supplies throughout the region. Then they applied different climate scenarios—increases in global temperature of 1.5, 2 and 3 degrees Celsius (2.7—4.8 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels, increases set out as milestones in the Paris Agreement, a 2016 international accord to address climate change.

The researchers then considered different cooling systems and potential use of post-combustion CO2 capture equipment, and the water that might be needed to run them.

Quote
... "The numbers showed that there simply would not be enough water to cool all the power plants, but there is also a lot of local variability"

Open Access: Yaoping Wang et al, Vulnerability of existing and planned coal-fired power plants in Developing Asia to changes in climate and water resources, Energy & Environmental Science (2019).
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

vox_mundi

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #16 on: September 24, 2019, 05:34:24 PM »
Zimbabwe's Capital Runs Dry as Taps Cut Off for 2 Million People
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-zimbabwe-capital-2m-people.html
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-zimbabwe-water/zimbabwe-capital-city-shuts-main-water-plant-shortages-loom-idUSKBN1W82PH



The more than 2 million residents of Zimbabwe's capital and surrounding towns are now without water after authorities shut down the city's main treatment plant, raising new fears about disease after a recent cholera outbreak while the economy crumbles further.

Officials in Harare have struggled to raise foreign currency to import water treatment chemicals; about $2.7 million is needed per month. Meanwhile, water levels in polluted dams are dropping because of drought.

"Everyone living in Harare is affected, they don't have water," City Council spokesman Michael Chideme said Tuesday, as residents turned to options such as bottled water or wells.

Chideme called it a dangerous situation because of the risk of water-borne diseases. "Maybe the situation will be resolved by tomorrow but we are not sure," he said.

The capital now frequently records cases of diseases such as typhoid due to water shortages and dilapidated sewer infrastructure. Some residents are forced to get water from shallow, unsafe wells and defecate in the open.

The Associated Press earlier this month watched some residents pump water then wait a half-hour for enough water to seep into the well to pump again.



------------------------

Elsewhere ...

Gas Shortages Paralyze Haiti, Triggering Protests Against Failing Economy and Dysfunctional Politics
http://theconversation.com/gas-shortages-paralyze-haiti-triggering-protests-against-failing-economy-and-dysfunctional-politics-116337

... In Haiti’s Cap Haitian region and rural northeast, the humanitarian situation is dire. For over a year, a severe drought has left people with hardly any access to water. Crops have shriveled and the Dominican Republic just closed its border with Haiti, so food that once came from there is in short supply.

... Haiti’s financial struggles are also, in large part, the result of an ill-conceived economic system that has failed to meet Haiti’s needs for over a century.

Ever since the American military occupied Haiti from 1915 to 1934, its economic and social policies have been designed to attract foreign investment. The plan, which was crafted in the 1910s and 1920s by the U.S. military government, was to “develop” this rural Caribbean country by making it an appealing operating environment for U.S. firms.

In practice, that meant keeping Haitian wages, corporate taxes and tariffs low. In exchange, the theory went, foreign investment would bring infrastructure development and jobs, benefiting all Haitians.

American agro-corporations began profitably cultivating cash crops like coffee, bananas and sugar in Haiti in the early 20th century.

In 1926, American businessmen backed by the American military government seized more than 12,000 acres of fertile land from Haitian peasants in the Cap Haitian region to grow sisal, a fibrous plant used in weaving. To make room for this massive industrial operation, thousands of families were evicted from their land.

The intensive cultivation of just one crop over two decades so depleted the soil that food production across Cap Haitian was threatened.

This process of exploitation followed by scarcity and environmental degradation has repeated itself for decades.

Chasing low-wage labor and free trade, U.S. corporations and military agencies have established sugar cane plantations, rubber plantations and textile factories in Haiti for the past 100 years, with similarly disappointing results for workers and the environment. ...
« Last Edit: September 24, 2019, 05:46:06 PM by vox_mundi »
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

vox_mundi

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Re: Water Resource Management
« Reply #17 on: November 13, 2019, 12:28:04 AM »
Half of Piedmont Drinking Wells May Exceed North Carolina's Hexavalent Chromium Standards
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-piedmont-wells-nc-hexavalent-chromium.html



A new study which combines measurements from nearly 1,400 drinking water wells across North Carolina estimates that more than half of the wells in the state's central region contain levels of cancer-causing hexavalent chromium in excess of state safety standards.

Only a single North Carolina well in the study violated the maximum contaminant level for total chromium set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of 100 micrograms per liter. But the NC Department of Health and Human Service's much lower health advisory level—0.07 micrograms per liter—is set to protect against a one-in-one-million risk of cancer over a 70-year life span. That level of hexavalent chromium was exceeded by 470 of the 865 wells for which the contaminant was measured.

"There is a huge gap between 100 and 0.07 micrograms per liter," said Rachel Coyte, a doctoral student in Vengosh's lab who was lead author on the study. "If you follow the EPA guidance, we have no problem. But if you look at the NC health recommendations, there is a significant population exposed to hexavalent chromium concentrations at or exceeding a one-in-one-million lifetime risk of cancer. Why is this gap not being addressed?"



Statewide, nearly 4 million people rely on groundwater as their primary source of drinking water. "The areas where we see the largest number of groundwater users, like Wake and Mecklenburg Counties, coincide with some of the highest probabilities for the occurrence of hexavalent chromium above the health advisory level," Coyte said.

Rachel M. Coyte et al, Occurrence and distribution of hexavalent chromium in groundwater from North Carolina, USA, Science of The Total Environment (2019)
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late