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Ken Feldman

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4950 on: September 01, 2020, 07:51:31 PM »
The Netherlands will have the world's largest offshore windfarm operational in 2023.

https://constructionreviewonline.com/2020/08/netherlands-plans-to-have-the-worlds-largest-offshore-wind-farm/

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Netherlands plans to have the world’s largest offshore wind farm.
By Cukia M
Aug 31, 2020

The Netherlands has announced plans to construct the world’s largest offshore wind farm that will be located in the country’s Dutch North Sea. The wind farm named the Hollandse Kust Zuid 1-4 offshore wind energy project will be constructed by Vattenfall without any subsidy and will have a capacity of 1.5 GW, making it the largest offshore wind farm both in the Netherlands and on the globe. It is expected to begin operations by 2023  with 140 11 MW wind turbines from manufacturer Siemens Gamesa, which will be the first to be installed offshore.
...

Ken Feldman

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4951 on: September 01, 2020, 08:24:58 PM »
Solar and wind power were 67% of the new electricity capacity additions globally in 2019.  Fossil fuels were 25%.

https://www.rechargenews.com/transition/solar-outshines-wind-to-become-worlds-biggest-new-power-source-bnef/2-1-867385

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Solar outshines wind to become world's biggest new power source: BNEF

Clean-energy technologies now together account for 2.5TW of installed capacity globally, more than coal or gas, says new report
1 September 2020

Solar energy stormed ahead last year to become the leading new power-generating source in the world, carrying clean-energy technologies including wind and hydro to overtake coal in global installed capacity, according to latest calculations by research consultancy BloombergNEF (BNEF).

PV added 118GW of new plant in 2019 on its way to reaching 651GW of capacity, outpacing wind’s total 644GW, to become the fourth largest power source on the planet, behind coal’s 2.1TW, gas’ 1.8TW and hydro’s 1.2TW.

Solar and wind together accounted for 67% of new capacity added globally in 2019, while fossil fuels slide to 25%, according to BNEF’s new Power Transition Trends 2020 report, which tracks capacity and generation data over the past decade. Taken together with hydro dams, the clean-energy sector has built out some 2.5TW of plant worldwide.

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PV eclipsed all-comes in new-build terms and was the most popular technology deployed in 33% of nations, with 81 countries building at least 1MW of solar during the last calendar year and representing nearly half of all new power generation capacity constructed worldwide.

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4952 on: September 02, 2020, 12:40:37 AM »
(US)
Planned capacity changes in GW from end of June 2020 to end of the year.
(some additions may not be built)

additions GW   retirements GW
wind        19.34   coal            3.69
solar         9.38   nuclear    0.60
battery    0.80   nat gas    0.30
nat gas    0.64   petro    0.03
hydro      0.23   wood    0.02
biomas    0.05         
petro       0.01     

oren

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4953 on: September 02, 2020, 06:34:08 AM »
A chart from the EIA report on US battery capacity. Not sure why it's only updated to 2018, but at least it's not confusing between MW and MWh.


Simon

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4954 on: September 02, 2020, 07:45:55 AM »
It is obvious that humanity needs to ensure that atmospheric co2 does not rise and indeed there is a need for it to fall. There has been an explosion of ideas recently about how to achieve this. I find the idea of synthetic manufacture of hydrocarbon fuel intriguing but I have severe doubts about its efficacy. However, at least it may save us from the madness of biofuels which would need very approximately an area three times the size of the US for it to supply our energy needs.

My idea has for a long time, been to consider use of our sunny deserts for a mass coverage of solar PV, combined with half a million perhaps up to a million offshore wind turbines, as our primary source of energy. Intermittency is a huge problem however, but one that is being thoroughly discussed on this thread, but pumped storage and battery storage has its limits IMO.

Back to synthetic hydrocarbons.

A good review is here for you all to read!

https://royalsociety.org/-/media/policy/projects/synthetic-fuels/synthetic-fuels-briefing.pdf




ralfy

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4955 on: September 02, 2020, 11:01:05 AM »
If you're trying to prove that 10 billion people cannot live as the average American does, you're preaching to the choir. But some comments about the numbers are justified:
* Assuming the average American as the goal/steady state is a harsh assumption. Americans live a wasteful lifestyle. Typical European energy consumption is about half, at a rather similar level of living.
* The concept of Primary Energy is very misleading, as it includes all the heat not used for any useful work. Since this is the renewables thread, and renewables have very little inefficiencies resulting in waste heat, it would be more appropriate to consider actual energy used. This decreases energy consumption by about 2/3.

So the world would need 15-20 TW of renewable energy production to bring forecast population to a European level of living.

I'm not sure if primary energy can be ignored, i.e., if oil is needed for mining, manufacturing, and shipping of renewable energy components, plus the infrastructure to make energy from that available, and the consumer goods that will use the energy.

Your other point is correct. The U.S. consumes around 3 TW and it has around 4 pct of the world's population. Half of that would be 1.5 TW, which means the world will need around 37.5 TW.

The problem is that the global economy that is expected to produce that energy is based on competitive capitalism, i.e., investors will fund renewable energy projects because they expect higher returns, consumers are expected to consume more energy to fuel more funding, etc.

Jim Hunt

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4956 on: September 02, 2020, 01:59:13 PM »
Investors will fund renewable energy projects because they expect higher returns, consumers are expected to consume more energy to fuel more funding, etc.

An extract from the "public description" of a UK R&D funding bid I submitted just before the deadline of 10Z this morning:

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The SaMDES project will allow domestic "prosumers" and organisations both large and small to reduce their "external" electricity consumption. The incorporation of both "static" and "mobile" battery storage further reduces energy bills by allowing the purchase of energy for both building and mobility needs when electricity prices are low.

We're due to hear UK plc's verdict on our proposal in a month or so!
Reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very persistent one - Albert Einstein

ralfy

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4957 on: September 03, 2020, 04:07:52 AM »

An extract from the "public description" of a UK R&D funding bid I submitted just before the deadline of 10Z this morning:

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The SaMDES project will allow domestic "prosumers" and organisations both large and small to reduce their "external" electricity consumption. The incorporation of both "static" and "mobile" battery storage further reduces energy bills by allowing the purchase of energy for both building and mobility needs when electricity prices are low.

We're due to hear UK plc's verdict on our proposal in a month or so!

I do not know anything about your project, but in for-profit corporations, there is usually something in the by-laws which state that the main goal of the business is to maximize profits in favor of its owners, the investors. Those are the same investors which approve or or may fire the CEO if that goal is not fulfilled.

In addition, when a business sell shares to the public, the value of those shares generally go up when it is noted that it is profitable, and will be even more profitable when those new investments are poured into expansion.

Put simply, investments become attractive because they offer better returns, and they can only offer better returns when they are more profitable per annum. That means lower costs with the same production, higher production at the same cost, or both. It's usually both when competition is involved, as businesses attempt to gain market share plus meet expanding markets.

Any savings thanks to lower costs are re-invested elsewhere, with the same premise.

In short, the very goal of a capitalist economy, especially a global one controlled by a few:

https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21228354-500-revealed-the-capitalist-network-that-runs-the-world/

is continuous growth, which means not only more energy consumed but a higher ecological footprint per capita. And the potential for that is huge:

https://money.cnn.com/2015/07/08/news/economy/global-low-income/

https://www.bbc.com/news/business-22956470

That is, 70 pct of people worldwide are poor, and their main goal is to become richer. More of them are becoming so and they're buying more cars, houses, appliances, etc. That's the booming market of businesses worldwide.

Some say that the equivalent amount of resources needed to support their needs in terms of ecological footprint is one more earth. In order to support a European or U.S. lifestyle, likely more:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_ecological_footprint

especially given issues such as lack of roads, electric grids, and other necessary infrastructure in many parts of the world.

This is probably the scenario where one can see the 37.5 TW figure given earlier. It might be a lower range if more people want to have more than just basic needs, such as accessing this and other websites using broadband, traveling by sea or air to other countries, and receiving tertiary education and being employed in white collar jobs (where food production and manufacturing are mechanized or outsourced to poorer countries). Also, if major industrialization, infrastructure development, and so on has to take place for most of the world population to even catch up with Europe, then even more energy will be needed. After that comes additional energy for a growing population due to momentum, to minimize ecological damage, and counter diminishing returns (e.g., increasing amounts of energy needed to extract minerals of lower quantity and quality or that's deeper).


KiwiGriff

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4958 on: September 03, 2020, 08:04:20 AM »
Quote
I'm not sure if primary energy can be ignored, i.e., if oil is needed for mining, manufacturing, and shipping of renewable energy components, plus the infrastructure to make energy from that available, and the consumer goods that will use the energy.
You miss orens point.
Much of the energy from hydro carbon use is waste heat that you have to dispose of .
ie the most efficient fossil fuel generation from a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant coverts only 63% of the energy into a form that is usable the rest is wasted heat that must be disposed of https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/431420-most-efficient-combined-cycle-power-plant
When used In transport only about 20% of the energy contained in fossil fuel is converted to useful work.

This is not a thing with renewable energy 100% of the output is usable energy available to do work. Even when used for  transport  around 80% of renewable energy is converted to  useful work driving you forward.

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kassy

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4959 on: September 06, 2020, 09:23:52 PM »
The broader discussion on consumption and renewable energy has been moved to it´s own thread:
https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,3286.0.html

Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

Sigmetnow

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4960 on: September 07, 2020, 09:45:24 PM »
Quote
TeslaStraya (@TeslaStraya) 9/6/20, 7:18 PM
Don’t let anyone in Australia tell you that east facing solar panels aren’t worth it. Powerwall’s charged already at 9am so the rest of the day will be exports at 21c/kWh.
https://twitter.com/teslastraya/status/1302748093205471232
Image from the powerflow app at the link.
People who say it cannot be done should not interrupt those who are doing it.

Ken Feldman

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4961 on: September 15, 2020, 01:04:47 AM »
100% of new electric capacity installed in the USA in June 2020 was renewable!

https://cleantechnica.com/2020/09/11/solar-power-60-of-new-us-power-capacity-in-june/

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Solar Power = 60% of New US Power Capacity in June

September 11th, 2020 by Zachary Shahan
100% of New Power Capacity in USA Came from Renewables in June

Solar power keeps growing in the United States. In the month of June, 60.1% of new power capacity added in the country was from solar power plants. Another 37.5% was from wind power plants. And 2.4% was from hydropower. If you’ve done the quick math on that, that means that 100% of new power capacity came from renewable energy sources in June. (Toggle the dropdown button in the interactive chart below to also see charts for January–June 2020, January–June 2019, and total installed capacity in the United States.)



Ken Feldman

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4962 on: September 17, 2020, 01:20:12 AM »
Vectran, an electric utility in Southern Indiana, announced plans to retire 730 MW of coal plants by 2023 and replace them with solar and wind power.

https://www.realclearenergy.org/articles/2020/09/16/indiana_utility_trading_coal_for_solar_577647.html

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Indiana Utility Trading Coal for Solar
By Emily Folk
September 16, 2020

Throughout the conversations around climate change, companies have been slow to transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy. One company in Indiana, though, is now making waves as it switches out coal for solar. Though there have been conflicting opinions on this decision, renewable energy is a crucial part of global change. It starts on a company-wide scale.

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According to Vectren's Integrated Resource Plans, the company aims for immediate switches in the coming years. By 2023, the company plans to get rid of 730 MW of coal in favor of renewables. Instead, solar panels up to 1,000 MW will operate with wind as the primary source of energy.

Aet the moment, the company is running on 78% coal. By 2025, though, company leaders hope to reduce this number down to 12%. Doing so may save customers up to a total of $320 million over the next two decades.

Ken Feldman

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4963 on: September 17, 2020, 06:20:34 PM »
Some manufacturers are foregoing PPAs and just installing their own solar farms to power their factories.

https://www.assemblymag.com/articles/95875-solar-project-at-toyota-assembly-plant-to-be-largest-in-west-virginia

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Solar Project at Toyota Assembly Plant to be Largest in West Virginia
September 8, 2020

BUFFALO, WV—Toyota’s engine and transmission assembly plant here will soon be the site of the largest solar panel array in the state.

To be completed by March 2021, the $4.9 million solar project will reduce CO2 emissions at the plant by 1,822 metric tons annually, according to Jacob Plasters, senior engineering manager Toyota Motor Manufacturing West Virginia. “The array will span 6 acres and generate 2.6 megawatts of solar-generated energy,” he says. “This is part of the company’s strategic goals to reduce its reliance on outside energy needed for operations.”

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The automaker is also planning solar projects at its assembly plants in Alabama and Missouri. In Alabama, the company’s Huntsville engine plant will have a 3.3-acre solar array that will generate 1.6 megawatts of solar-generated energy and reduce the plant’s CO2 emissions by 1,732 metric tons annually. That project is expected to be complete by December. In Missouri, the company’s assembly plant in Troy will will have a 1.5-acre solar panel array that will generate 0.75 megawatt of energy and reduce CO2 emissions 750 metric tons annually. That project is expected to be complete in January 2021.

vox_mundi

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4964 on: September 18, 2020, 09:43:54 PM »
Airborne Wind Energy Company Closes Shop, Opens-Sources Patents
https://spectrum.ieee.org/energywise/energy/renewables/exclusive-airborne-wind-energy-company-closes-shop-opens-patents



This week, a 13-year experiment in harnessing wind power using kites and modified gliders finally closes down for good. But the technology behind it is open-sourced and is being passed on to others in the field.

As of 10 September, the airborne wind energy (AWE) company Makani Technologies has officially announced its closure. A key investor, the energy company Shell, also released a statement to the press indicating that “given the current economic environment” it would not be developing any of Makani’s intellectual property either. Meanwhile, Makani’s parent company, X, Alphabet’s moonshot factory, has made a non-assertion pledge on Makani’s patent portfolio. That means anyone who wants to use Makani patents, designs, software, and research results can do so without fear of legal reprisal.

Not only is the company releasing its patents into the wild, it’s also giving away its code base, flight logs, and a Makani flyer simulation tool called KiteFAST.

https://github.com/rafmudaf/openfast/tree/kitefast

https://console.cloud.google.com/marketplace/product/bigquery-public-datasets/makani-logs

https://github.com/google/makani


Pulling Power from the Sky

Pulling Power recounts Makani’s story from its very earliest days, circa 2006, when kites like the ones kite surfers use were the wind energy harvester of choice. However, using kites also means drawing power out of the tug on the kite’s tether. Which, as revealed by the company’s early experiments, couldn’t compete with propellers on a glider plane.

What became the Makani basic flyer, the M600 Energy Kite, looked like an oversized hobbyist’s glider but with a bank of propellers across the wing. These props would first be used to loft the glider to its energy-harvesting altitude. Then the engine would shut off and the glider would ride the air currents—using the props as mini wind turbines.

Makani is also releasing online a free 1,180-page ebook (Part 1, Part 2, Part 3) The Energy Kite

https://storage.googleapis.com/x-prod.appspot.com/files/Makani_TheEnergyKiteReport_Part1.pdf

https://storage.googleapis.com/x-prod.appspot.com/files/Makani_TheEnergyKiteReport_Part2.pdf

https://storage.googleapis.com/x-prod.appspot.com/files/Makani_TheEnergyKiteReport_Part3.pdf

Efficiency: ... Wind turbines (in shallow water) fixed to the seabed might require 200 to 400 tons of metal for every megawatt of power the turbine generated. And floating deep-water turbines, anchored to seabed by cables, typically involve 800 tons or more per megawatt. Meanwhile, a Makani AWE platform—which can be anchored in even deeper water—weighed only 70 tons per rated megawatt of generating capacity.



Yet, according to the ebook, in real-world tests, Makani’s M600 proved difficult to fly at optimum speed. In high winds, it couldn’t fly fast enough to pull as much power out of the wind as the designers had hoped. In low winds, it often flew too fast. In all cases, the report says, the rotors just couldn’t operate at peak capacity through much of the flyer’s maneuvers.
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vox_mundi

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Re: Renewable Energy
« Reply #4965 on: September 18, 2020, 09:47:16 PM »

https://www.walleniusmarine.com/blog/ship-design-newbulding/introducing-oceanbird/

Oceanbird Cargo Ship Relies On Wind to Transport Autos
https://techxplore.com/news/2020-09-oceanbird-cargo-ship-autos.html

... A Swedish company, Wallenius Marine, announced last week plans to build a sleek-looking wind-powered car and truck carrier ship that can haul 7,000 vehicles at a time. The ship, named Oceanbird, will sport five 260-foot retractable sails composed of metal and composite materials. The sails can be lowered to 66 feet to pass under bridges or accommodate changing wind conditions. Upon completion, the 650-foot-long, 130-foot-wide ship will hold the distinction of being the world's largest sailing vessel.

The Oceanbird can travel at an average speed of 10 knots. That is a bit slower than conventional vessels, but cruising with the wind means it can eliminate emissions by 90 percent.



... When asked why the company was willing to share so many details about construction of the ship, Tunell replied, "It is not a competition, but rather a direction we all need to take. By being transparent in the process, we want to inspire others to test the limit to what is possible… We need to make a change and it just can't wait anymore."

https://www.walleniusmarine.com/blog/ship-design-newbulding/introducing-oceanbird/
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late