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ArcticMelt2

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Little known greenhouse gases
« on: July 07, 2019, 04:20:38 PM »
As you know, now the main struggle is with emissions of carbon dioxide and methane. But the chemical industry produces many other gases that have greenhouse properties. Their influence on climate can be comparable to CO2 and CH4.

https://www.fluorocarbons.org/benefits-of-using-hfcs-and-hfos-including-hcfos/

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(H)CFCs are ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and have been successfully been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. As a result, the abundance of ODSs in the atmosphere has declined and the ozone layer is expected to recover. CFCs also had higher Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) than the HFCs replacing them. As such, by replacing CFCs by HFCs, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and other users not only contributed to the preservation of the ozone layer, but also made a most significant and positive contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Their reduction would represent about four times the objective of the Kyoto Protocol. In 1990, CFCs represented 25 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. In 2002, the emissions from the use of HFCs were about 0.5 % of total global GHG emissions and according to the US NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), which provides annual updates of the AGGI (Annual Greenhouse Gas Index), intended to follow the evolution of the radiative forcing (ability of all greenhouse gases to trap heat) of greenhouse gases, the HFC impact in 2016, was 0.89 % of the total GHG emissions.



https://epthinktank.eu/2013/01/16/f-gases-good-for-the-ozone-layer-bad-for-the-climate/

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In the 1980s, scientists discovered that the earth’s protective ozone layer was thinning, raising the risk of skin cancer and cataracts. The culprits were chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), chemical substances widely used in spray cans, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and heretofore considered as safe because they are non-toxic, not inflammable and not explosive.

The international community reacted quickly and adopted the Montreal protocol in 1987, which phases out ozone-destroying substances. However, it turns out that the F-gases which replace CFCs contribute to global warming, having a global warming potential up to 23 000 times higher than CO2. F-gases account for around 2% of the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions.

The worldwide use of F-gases has grown rapidly and reached almost 500 million tonnes CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent) in 2005. The rapid growth is expected to continue with growing demand for refrigeration and air conditioning, especially in developing countries. By 2050, F-gases could account for 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Refrigerant leaks in mobile air conditioning systems are common and hard to prevent. To reduce the climate impacts from air condition in vehicles, the Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) Directive requires that new cars be equipped with air conditioning systems that use more climate-friendly refrigerants. However,  Mercedes-Benz recently discovered that the relatively climate-friendly refrigerant R1234xy can catch fire in a car crash. The company intends to continue using HFC-134a, whose global warming potential 1320 times higher than CO2, and risks infringement proceedings for violation of the MAC Directive.



Projections for global f-gas emissions 2005-2050. Source: Umweltbundesamt
« Last Edit: July 07, 2019, 04:28:55 PM by ArcticMelt2 »

ArcticMelt2

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Re: Little known greenhouse gases
« Reply #1 on: July 07, 2019, 04:26:18 PM »
In general, taking into account all greenhouse gases and deforestation, the total impact on the climate now reaches nearly 60 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year.

https://www.fluorocarbons.org/mediaroom/the-emissions-gap-report-2018-unep/



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Global greenhouse gas emissions show no signs of peaking. Global CO2 emissions from energy and industry increased in 2017, following a three-year period of stabilization. Total annual greenhouse gases emissions, including from land-use change, reached a record high of 53.5 GtCO2e in 2017, an increase of 0.7 GtCO2e compared with 2016.
Fluorinated gases (hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)) are only responsible for 2.4 percent of total GHG emissions and continue to have strong growth at around 5 percent/year. The Kigali Amendment to the
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer aims for the phase-down of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by cutting their production and consumption.

Global greenhouse gas emissions per type of gas
Notes:
LUC = Land Use Change;
The chart includes emissions for the 6 greenhouse gases
CO2, CH4, N2O, and F-Gases (HFCs, SF6, PFCs) and LUC

Global GHG emissions in 2030 need to be approximately 25 percent and 55 percent lower than in 2017 to put the world on a least-cost pathway to limiting global warming to 2°C and 1.5°C respectively.

ArcticMelt2

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Re: Little known greenhouse gases
« Reply #2 on: July 07, 2019, 05:05:09 PM »
It is also important that at the same time with the continuous growth of greenhouse gas emissions, people in pursuit of comfort very quickly reduce emissions of cooling aerosols (SO2).


https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/kml/OMI_Annual_EMI_AMF_Summary_2005-2018.pdf




With these illogical actions, people are increasingly destabilizing and shaking our fragile climate.

Most still do not realize the consequences of the anthropogenic impact on the planet’s climate, considering that it is miserable.

ArcticMelt2

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Re: Little known greenhouse gases
« Reply #3 on: July 07, 2019, 05:24:27 PM »
So in China, first of all, they are struggling with cooling sprays, spitting on greenhouse gases.

https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/18/14095/2018/acp-18-14095-2018.pdf

People consider anthropogenic warming nonsense.

gerontocrat

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Re: Little known greenhouse gases
« Reply #4 on: January 21, 2020, 02:07:01 PM »
Count the ways humanity pollutes our atmosphere

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jan/21/study-finds-shock-rise-in-levels-of-potent-greenhouse-gas-hfc-23
Study finds shock rise in levels of potent greenhouse gas
Scientists had expected fall in levels of HFC-23 after India and China said they had halted emissions


https://agage.mit.edu/biblio/hfc-23-chf3-emission-trend-response-hcfc-22-chclf2-production-and-recent-hfc-23-emission
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Abstract:
HFC-23 (also known as CHF3, fluoroform or trifluoromethane) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), with a global warming potential (GWP) of 14 800 for a 100-year time horizon. It is an unavoidable by-product of HCFC-22 (CHClF2, chlorodifluoromethane) production. HCFC-22, an ozone depleting substance (ODS), is used extensively in commercial refrigeration and air conditioning, in the extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam industries (dispersive applications) and also as a feedstock in fluoropolymer manufacture (a non-dispersive use). Aside from small markets in specialty uses, HFC-23 has historically been considered a waste gas that was, and often still is, simply vented to the atmosphere. Efforts have been made in the past two decades to reduce HFC-23 emissions,
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kassy

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Re: Little known greenhouse gases
« Reply #5 on: January 21, 2020, 02:58:31 PM »
This link is about the same;
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-01/uob-eop011720.php

This gas has very few industrial applications. However, levels have been soaring because it is vented to the atmosphere during the production of another chemical widely used in cooling systems in developing countries.

Looks like we ´forgot´some standards since the market is clearly not interested in preventing the waste of venting. In fact i often wonder about how little some people involved in this seem to care about pollutants they are dumping (mainly related to the Chemical industry).
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kassy

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Re: Little known greenhouse gases
« Reply #6 on: June 19, 2020, 03:47:55 PM »
A Switch in How Hospitals Use Anesthesia Could Have Huge Climate Benefits

...

The problem is that the most common inhalants used for general anaesthesia are nitrous oxide (or laughing gas) and desflurane. Both are greenhouse gases that can stay in the atmosphere for decades and wreak havoc on the climate (they also damage the ozone layer to boot). In fact, nitrous oxide is nearly 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide in terms of planet-warming potential. Desflurane’s potential is up to 3,700 worse than carbon dioxide, making it one of the most intense greenhouse gases in use. The process of using these drugs is also wasteful. When doctors administer these gases, patients inhale just 5% of them. The rest of gets sucked into a ventilation system, and then floats up into the atmosphere.

In 2009, more than one million hip and knee replacement procedures – which are usually done with general anaesthesia – were performed in the US alone. The authors calculated that if all of these were done under general anaesthetic, that would be the equivalent of nearly 247,000 lbs (112,000 kilograms) of desflurane and nearly 20,000 lbs (9,000 kilograms) of nitrous oxide released into the atmosphere. That’s equivalent to burning more than 3.2 million pounds of coal.

...

 in 2019, the hospital chose regional anaesthesia in those procedures whenever they could. Out of the 10,485 hip and knee replacements it carried out that year, hospital doctors gave just 4% of patients general anaesthetic. Doing so, the study found, saved the greenhouse gas equivalent of burning nearly 27,000 lbs (12,246 kilograms) of coal.

https://www.gizmodo.co.uk/2020/06/a-switch-in-how-hospitals-use-anesthesia-could-have-huge-climate-benefits/


https://www.gizmodo.co.uk/2020/06/a-switch-in-how-hospitals-use-anesthesia-could-have-huge-climate-benefits/
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Tom_Mazanec

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Re: Little known greenhouse gases
« Reply #7 on: June 23, 2020, 02:16:36 AM »
Interesting, kassy, but I don't know about that "huge" in the headline. What amount of the CO2 would this measure reduce? 1 ppm? Every little bit helps, but the headline is deceptive.

kassy

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Re: Little known greenhouse gases
« Reply #8 on: June 23, 2020, 01:23:11 PM »
´Huge climate benefits´

This research shows that for many types of operations we can just not use the really polluting general anesthesia. The numbers are for US and then from 1 hospital but they can be scaled up to worldwide. And we can do that now without loss of quality of care (while we can´t stop building etc).

With our small remaining budget we need all the low hanging fruit we can get our hands on.

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kassy

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Re: Little known greenhouse gases
« Reply #9 on: April 06, 2021, 12:03:42 AM »
Louisville super-polluting chemical plant emits not 1, but 2 potent greenhouse gases


LOUISVILLE, Ky. — The Chemours Louisville Works emits a chemical feedstock and a separate gas byproduct that do more damage to the climate than 750,000 passenger vehicles — far more than the Environmental Protection Agency’s main industrial greenhouse gas inventory indicates.

Chemours’ most harmful climate super-pollutant is the byproduct, hydrofluorocarbon-23 (HFC-23), a potent greenhouse gas that produces 12,400 times more warming than carbon dioxide, the main chemical compound responsible for climate change. 

But the plant also emits hundreds of tons of hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22), a chemical ingredient in everything from Teflon to lubricants used on the International Space Station.

In addition to being a climate super-pollutant 1,760 times more effective at warming the atmosphere than carbon dioxide, HCFC-22 also destroys atmospheric ozone that helps protect the Earth from harmful ultraviolet rays.

As such, its production was banned in the United States and other developed countries on January 1, 2020, under an international agreement known as the Montreal Protocol.

But, Chemours is exempt from that prohibition because the HCFC-22 produced in Louisville is used as a feedstock to make other products that do not damage the Earth’s protective ozone layer.

In an article last month, Inside Climate News reported that the Chemours plant, in the city’s Rubbertown industrial area, emits so much of the byproduct HFC-23 that venting this single greenhouse gas likely had a greater climate impact than the emissions of all registered vehicles in the city, according to the main industrial greenhouse gas inventory kept by the EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program.

But the report did not include information on the plant’s emissions of HCFC-22, which the EPA makes public in another database used for different purposes — generally, toxic releases to the air, land and water. 

When data from both EPA repositories are combined, Chemours’ emissions of the two chemicals have a greater annual impact on the climate than the yearly greenhouse gas emissions of 750,000 U.S. passenger vehicles — about 17% more than previously reported.

...

https://eu.courier-journal.com/story/news/2021/04/05/super-polluting-louisville-chemical-plant-emits-more-greenhouse-gases-than-thought/7075408002/
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Sciguy

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Re: Little known greenhouse gases
« Reply #10 on: April 06, 2021, 06:58:56 PM »
HFCs contribute about 1.1% of greenhouse gas forcing.

https://www.fluorocarbons.org/news/2019-hfcs-contribute-1-08-to-climate-warming-influence-of-greenhouse-gases/

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2019: HFCs CONTRIBUTE 1.08% TO CLIMATE WARMING INFLUENCE OF GREENHOUSE GASES
03 July 2020

The US NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) has released its 2019 update of the AGGI (Annual Greenhouse Gas Index), which follows the evolution of the radiative forcing (ability of all greenhouse gases to trap heat) since the onset of the industrial revolution. The HFC impact in 2019 is now 1.08% of the total (compared to 1.03% in 2018). The five major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-12 and CFC-11) account for about 96% of the direct radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gas increases since 1750. The 15 minor halogenated gases (listed below and including HFCs) contribute the remaining 4%.


kassy

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Re: Little known greenhouse gases
« Reply #11 on: November 09, 2021, 01:54:18 PM »
Why nitrous oxide emissions should factor into climate change mitigation

Poorly drained agricultural soils emit enough of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide that the resulting climate change effects could far exceed the benefits of using the same soils as a means of sequestering carbon, according to a recently published scientific study.

The study, published Monday in the academic journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found that a range of agricultural soils produce nitrous oxide emissions in quantities big enough to contribute to climate change. The researchers compared soils with various moisture content and found agricultural soils are capable of high nitrous oxide emissions across a wide range of environmental conditions.

Nitrous oxide has 298 times the warming potential of carbon dioxide over 100 years, according to previous research, suggesting that climate change mitigation efforts must account for nitrous oxide, said Steven Hall, an associate professor of ecology, evolution and organismal biology at Iowa State University and the study's senior author.

"In this study, we show that the climate warming effects of nitrous oxide emissions from local corn and soybean soils are two-fold greater than the climate cooling that might be achieved by increasing soil carbon storage with common agricultural practices," Hall said.

Researchers, farmers and policymakers are considering strategies that might encourage producers to store carbon, also a greenhouse gas, in the soil, where it can't contribute to climate change. Hall said storing carbon in agricultural soils is a valuable tactic to mitigate climate change, but the new research indicates any such policies should first take into account nitrous oxide emissions. Failure to do so could result in policies that are much less effective in addressing climate change.

Instead, Hall said management plans also should encourage nitrous oxide mitigation strategies in concert with carbon sequestration. Examples of such strategies include more precise and efficient use of nitrogen fertilizer. New products known as enhanced efficiency fertilizers, as well as the application of biochar to fields, might also help to limit nitrous oxide emissions.

Microorganisms in the soil give off nitrous oxide as a byproduct as they cycle nitrogen. Nitrogen stimulates nitrous oxide production, so adding nitrogen fertilizers to soil tends to result in more emissions.

"If we want to maximize our climate benefit, we want to be strategic about it," Hall said. "We're not simply going to flip the switch on climate just by putting more carbon in the soil. Nitrous oxide emissions need to be a priority as well."

Hall and his fellow researchers developed a new means of measuring nitrous oxide emissions from corn and soybean fields to help gather data for the study. The scientists tweaked previously existing technologies to measure nitrous oxide emissions every four hours. The technology utilizes small containers placed at various locations on top of the soil of ISU research farms in central Iowa. The containers pump air samples into a central shed where an analyzer automatically measures nitrous oxide content. This method hadn't been used before to measure nitrous oxide, and Hall said the researchers had to design the system to withstand the wet conditions often present in agricultural fields.

Hall's coauthors include Nathaniel Lawrence, an ISU graduate student in ecology, evolution and organismal biology; Carlos Tenesaca, a research scientist in ecology, evolution and organismal biology; and Andy VanLoocke, an associate professor of agronomy.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/11/211108161422.htm
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