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vox_mundi

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Re: Masks
« Reply #100 on: April 16, 2020, 11:45:46 PM »
NIH Study Validates Decontamination Methods for Reuse of N95 Respirators
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-04-nih-validates-decontamination-methods-reuse.html

The study investigators tested the decontamination of small sections of N95 filter fabric that had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Decontamination methods tested included vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP), 70-degree Celsius dry heat, ultraviolet light, and 70% ethanol spray.

All four methods eliminated detectable viable virus from the N95 fabric test samples. The investigators then treated fully intact, clean respirators with the same decontamination methods to test their reuse durability.

The scientists found that ethanol spray damaged the integrity of the respirator's fit and seal after two decontamination sessions and therefore do not recommend it for decontaminating N95 respirators. UV and heat-treated respirators began showing fit and seal problems after three decontaminations—suggesting these respirators potentially could be re-used twice. The VHP-treated masks experienced no failures, suggesting they potentially could be re-used three times.

The authors concluded that VHP was the most effective decontamination method, because no virus could be detected after only a 10-minute treatment. UV and dry heat were acceptable decontamination procedures as long as the methods are applied for at least 60 minutes. The authors urge anyone decontaminating an N95 respirator to check the fit and seal over the face before each re-use.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.11.20062018

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Archimid

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Re: Masks
« Reply #101 on: April 18, 2020, 03:31:49 PM »
Comparative dynamic aerosol efficiencies of three emergent coronaviruses and the unusual persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosol suspensions

https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.13.20063784v1

Quote
The fact that higher efficiencies trended across independent laboratories strengthens this observation. These data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 generally maintains infectivity when airborne over short distances, in contrast to either comparator betacoronavirus. Results of the aerosol suspension experiments suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is persistent over longer periods of time than would be expected when generated as a highly respirable particle (2 µm MMAD).
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Bruce Steele

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Re: Masks
« Reply #102 on: April 18, 2020, 10:38:59 PM »
Archimid, From your link
“We also quantified the long-term persistence of SARS-CoV-2 and its ability to maintain infectivity when suspended in aerosols for up to 16 hours.”
 
Why I kept my p-95 masks. Because this virus can spread in the air. Those t-shirt masks are an invitation to disaster. Anywhere you go in public areas ,even if nobody is close by, is a risk without a proper mask. Six feet is wishful thinking. Social distancing was scientifically tested where ?
 How about keeping rhesus monkeys in cages six feet apart and infect every other cage ? How long till they all are infected ?

Archimid

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Re: Masks
« Reply #103 on: April 19, 2020, 04:08:30 AM »
Quote
Why I kept my p-95 masks. Because this virus can spread in the air.

I'm glad you did.

That said, getting infected is extremely difficult. Remember that the paper is an experimental set up where aerosolization is idealized. Under normal circumstances, the virus remains viable a heckuva lot less than an ideal lab situation.

Unless you have sneezing, coughing or continuously yelling in a close room for a long time ( or a lot of infected people) the amount of viable virus in the air will be extraordinarily small. Most people do not get infected because they never come in contact with it and even if they do, the viral dose is often too small to cause serious disease. But the chance is there.

The more infected people, the higher the chance that the extremely unlikely event of infection happens.
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Bruce Steele

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Re: Masks
« Reply #104 on: April 20, 2020, 06:29:22 PM »
Archimid, I am watching TV crowds of red hats doing their typical flag waving and yelling. They are outdoors but I would think loud assemblies of people at loud political protests or large loud sporting events are likely to spread coronavirus. I think we agree that large numbers of people aggregating is a potential way to spread corona . I think that applies both indoors and out.  Red hats go to multiple protests , they are just getting started. Where are the Google / Facebook tracking numbers?
 Besides getting nice Covid numbers tracking these protests would also give you a pretty interesting amount of information on right wing political protest organizations. Proud boy movements etc. As an aside we could get some numbers about how risky outdoor aggregations are.
 We need to organize some events where everyone wears masks and chants political slogans . Hard to hear what anyone says while wearing a tight fitting p-95 so your protest would be a quiet riot. If we had the mask protest on one side of the street and the red hats on the other we could generate some really good Covid tracking numbers. .
 I know it is in very bad form to make political points on a pandemic
 but there is some political hay to be made off the “lockdown” protests.
All we need is access to the tracking numbers that are undoubtably being compiled somewhere. This is the perfect place to decide if political protest and the concurrent flaunting of Covid restrictions outweigh  health concerns for the general public . Does the protesters right to privacy outweigh the public’s rights to safety ?  Is any government ready to intervene ? For sure they are tracking GIS information but I suppose without any corona testing you wouldn’t likely know what the contact points were in any group of humans anyhow until they started showing up in hospitals or morgues weeks later.


 

 

blumenkraft

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Re: Masks
« Reply #105 on: April 20, 2020, 07:00:33 PM »
Tight-fitting mask while rioting...

Good luck with that. :P
“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

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vox_mundi

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Re: Masks
« Reply #106 on: April 20, 2020, 07:23:19 PM »
^It worked in Hong Kong

“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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blumenkraft

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Re: Masks
« Reply #107 on: April 20, 2020, 07:26:30 PM »
Well, that's protesting, VM. Rioting is different. ;)
“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

Elijah McClain

Bruce Steele

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Re: Masks
« Reply #108 on: April 20, 2020, 08:21:20 PM »
Blumenkraft, There was plenty of rioting going on in Hong Kong. I was just using colorful language as I don’t expect the left to answer the lockdown/ red hat protests. If they persist they are their own worst enemy anyhow.
 Masks are a real benefit in riots these days but leaving your cell phone at home is necessary also.
If rioters all wore a total PPE outfit including a hazmat suits the cops would crack heads pretty quickly. 
They really NEED to control any organization re. Protest so they know who to haul off to jail.

vox_mundi

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Re: Masks
« Reply #109 on: April 21, 2020, 01:57:04 AM »
Rioting Protesters Wearing Masks Could Face up to 10 Years in Prison Under New Oregon House Bill
https://www.wweek.com/news/courts/2020/01/22/rioting-protesters-wearing-masks-could-face-up-to-10-years-in-prison-under-new-oregon-senate-bill/

The bill proposes to double the number of years a rioter could face in prison and increases potential fines to $250,000.

Leave it to a Republican ...

Oregon state Rep. Sherrie Sprenger (R-Scio) introduced a draft bill on Wednesday which would double the criminal penalties for protesters wearing masks during the commission of "riot crimes."

"As a former Sheriff's Deputy, I know how important it is for law enforcement to be able to accurately and swiftly identify those who are involved in inciting these riots and committing crimes."



In Portland, such protesters are often antifascists, the subject of horrified fascination by conservative media. Portland has become a national target for right-wing groups, who want to fight those masked leftists.

"If you knew you could be easily identified, do you think you would be as inclined to commit that act of violence or commit that crime?"



Only police, politicians, and CEOs can wear masks and commit crimes
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

vox_mundi

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Re: Masks
« Reply #110 on: April 26, 2020, 04:12:26 PM »
Army Research Shows How Do-It-Yourself Facemasks Can Be as Safe as N95s
https://www.defenseone.com/technology/2020/04/army-research-shows-how-do-it-yourself-facemasks-can-be-n95s/164865/

Scientists with the Army Research Lab, working with a Massachusetts hospital, have figured out the best easy-to-find materials for making homemade masks: a layer of absorbent cloth combined with a water-repelling fabric, preferably one treated with Scotchgard.

... “We really calibrated our technique based on masks that had already been certified,” said Lustig. So far, he reports that they’ve found nine designs that are statistically equivalent to N95 masks — and two that are better.

The ideal made-at-home masks need an absorbent layer composed of something like quilted cotton, terrycloth, dense flannel, a heavy T-shirt, etc. You also need at least one layer that’s hydrophobic, meaning that it repels water, such as a polyester fabric like OLY-Fun, preferably treated with Scotchgard. The more layers you add, alternating back and forth, the better you are protected.

... not all fabrics found around the house are good options for a face mask. Some materials, including furnace filters made of Fiberglas, can send fibers into a person's lungs.

-------------------------------

Best Material for Homemade Face Masks May be a Combination of Two Fabrics
https://phys.org/news/2020-04-material-homemade-masks-combination-fabrics.html



Researchers report in ACS Nano that a combination of cotton with natural silk or chiffon can effectively filter out aerosol particles—if the fit is good.

... The researchers used an aerosol mixing chamber to produce particles ranging from 10 nm to 6 μm in diameter. A fan blew the aerosol across various cloth samples at an airflow rate corresponding to a person's respiration at rest, and the team measured the number and size of particles in air before and after passing through the fabric. One layer of a tightly woven cotton sheet combined with two layers of polyester-spandex chiffon—a sheer fabric often used in evening gowns—filtered out the most aerosol particles (80-99%, depending on particle size), with performance close to that of an N95 mask material. Substituting the chiffon with natural silk or flannel, or simply using a cotton quilt with cotton-polyester batting, produced similar results. The researchers point out that tightly woven fabrics, such as cotton, can act as a mechanical barrier to particles, whereas fabrics that hold a static charge, like certain types of chiffon and natural silk, serve as an electrostatic barrier. However, a 1% gap reduced the filtering efficiency of all masks by half or more, emphasizing the importance of a properly fitted mask.

Open Access: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsnano.0c03252

Abstract:

The emergence of a pandemic affecting the respiratory system can result in a significant demand for face masks. This includes the use of cloth masks by large sections of the public, as can be seen during the current global spread of COVID-19. However, there is limited knowledge available on the performance of various commonly available fabrics used in cloth masks. Importantly, there is a need to evaluate filtration efficiencies as a function of aerosol particulate sizes in the 10 nm to 10 μm range, which is particularly relevant for respiratory virus transmission. We have carried out these studies for several common fabrics including cotton, silk, chiffon, flannel, various synthetics, and their combinations. Although the filtration efficiencies for various fabrics when a single layer was used ranged from 5 to 80% and 5 to 95% for particle sizes of <300 nm and >300 nm, respectively, the efficiencies improved when multiple layers were used and when using a specific combination of different fabrics. Filtration efficiencies of the hybrids (such as cotton–silk, cotton–chiffon, cotton–flannel) was >80% (for particles <300 nm) and >90% (for particles >300 nm). We speculate that the enhanced performance of the hybrids is likely due to the combined effect of mechanical and electrostatic-based filtration. Cotton, the most widely used material for cloth masks performs better at higher weave densities (i.e., thread count) and can make a significant difference in filtration efficiencies. Our studies also imply that gaps (as caused by an improper fit of the mask) can result in over a 60% decrease in the filtration efficiency, implying the need for future cloth mask design studies to take into account issues of “fit” and leakage, while allowing the exhaled air to vent efficiently. Overall, we find that combinations of various commonly available fabrics used in cloth masks can potentially provide significant protection against the transmission of aerosol particles.

-------------------------------

Adding A Nylon Stocking Layer Could Boost Protection From Cloth Masks, Study Finds
https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/04/22/840146830/adding-a-nylon-stocking-layer-could-boost-protection-from-cloth-masks-study-find

Researchers at Northeastern University have found that adding an outer layer made from nylon stockings to a homemade face covering can boost its ability to filter out small particles in the air by creating a tighter seal between the mask and the wearer's face. In some cases, that extra nylon layer helped homemade cloth masks match or exceed the filtering capability of medical-grade surgical masks.

Even the 3M surgical mask performed better with stockings in their study: Testing showed that it went from blocking out 75% of small particles to 90% with the addition of a pantyhose overlayer. By comparison, an N95 respirator, which is designed to create a tight seal around the face, blocks out at least 95% of small particles when worn properly.



"Adding a layer that keeps the mask tight to the face is going to improve the function of any of these masks," Fernandez explains, "because how well they protect us is not only a matter of what material we're using to do the filtering but also how well [the mask] seals to the face, so that we're trying to avoid air making it around the mask into our breathing zone." The pantyhose layer, she says, helps creates a tighter seal around the face to reduce how much air leaks around loose edges — similar to the seal on an N95 respirator.

-----------------------


How not to use pantyhose mask
« Last Edit: April 26, 2020, 04:53:49 PM by vox_mundi »
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

blumenkraft

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Re: Masks
« Reply #111 on: April 28, 2020, 07:45:51 AM »
Why, may I ask, are masks in a different thread and talk about them is banned from this thread?

Quite frankly, because you cluttered the main thread with mask-extremism at a time when most experts were (for several good reasons) precarious about them.

Quote
misinformation campaign was carried out to make people not wear them.

There was a lot of evidence that they might be counterproductive. There wasn't misinformation, but the promotion of experts' recommendations.

Quote
Now members bring relevant talk about masks and they are shutdown. Why?

Because there is this dedicated thread now. Here it's on topic.
“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

Elijah McClain

blumenkraft

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Re: Masks
« Reply #112 on: April 28, 2020, 03:01:08 PM »
Coronavirus Lingers in Air of Crowded Spaces, New Study Finds

Quote

The new coronavirus appears to linger in the air in crowded spaces or rooms that lack ventilation, researchers found in a study that buttresses the notion that Covid-19 can spread through tiny airborne particles known as aerosols.

At two hospitals in Wuhan, China, researchers found bits of the virus’s genetic material floating in the air of hospital toilets, an indoor space housing large crowds, and rooms where medical staff take off protective gear. The study, published Monday in the journal Nature Research, didn’t seek to establish whether the airborne particles could cause infections.

The question of how readily the new virus can spread through the air has been a matter of debate. The World Health Organization has said the risk is limited to specific circumstances, pointing to an analysis of more than 75,000 cases in China in which no airborne transmission was reported.

...

Especially high concentrations appeared in the rooms where medical staff doff protective equipment, which may suggest that particles contaminating their gear became airborne again when masks, gloves and gowns are removed

Link >> https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-04-27/coronavirus-lingers-in-air-of-crowded-spaces-new-study-finds
“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

Elijah McClain

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Re: Masks
« Reply #113 on: April 28, 2020, 03:10:33 PM »
Why, may I ask, are masks in a different thread and talk about them is banned from this thread?

Quite frankly, because you cluttered the main thread with mask-extremism at a time when most experts were (for several good reasons) precarious about them.

Quote
misinformation campaign was carried out to make people not wear them.

There was a lot of evidence that they might be counterproductive. There wasn't misinformation, but the promotion of experts' recommendations.

Quote
Now members bring relevant talk about masks and they are shutdown. Why?

Because there is this dedicated thread now. Here it's on topic.
There was also anti-mask extremism.
But yes, in the beginning even the WHO advised against relying on masks.

Meanwhile the picture has changed radically. Masks are an essential mitigation tool. No serious corona thread without masks.
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blumenkraft

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Re: Masks
« Reply #114 on: April 28, 2020, 03:41:08 PM »
Meanwhile the picture has changed radically.

Yes, indeed. But the picture is still very unclear. Lets also not forget that!
“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

Elijah McClain

Bruce Steele

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Re: Masks
« Reply #115 on: April 28, 2020, 05:00:25 PM »
Dear Blumenkraft, It wasn’t just Archimid who “ cluttered “ the Covid-19 thread. You both had carried on long enough in what was at some point an internet fistfight. 
 Most of us here can sort through a certain amount of clutter but really what is the point of making the same point over and over ? So many things in life are not right or wrong they are some grey area in between. 
 There are plenty of things said here on the ASIF that can get under my skin . Individual posters may have views I find extreme . I still enjoy most everyone here because polite political discourse is a general practice around here. Too much rancor detracts . It is important in life to listen to what other people are saying , especially if you decide to moderate a public conversation.

blumenkraft

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Re: Masks
« Reply #116 on: April 28, 2020, 05:53:26 PM »
Bruce, i hear you.

Let me just say, my objection was merely about stating unproven things as facts. IMHO rebutting misinformation should be imperative in a scientific forum like this. I did it too much and too intense though.
“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

Elijah McClain

Bruce Steele

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Re: Masks
« Reply #117 on: April 28, 2020, 06:23:18 PM »
Thanks Blumenkraft, We silly Americans need to have some perspectives outside our
beetlelike opinions. Perspective is hard to get in an internet world where people self isolate within their own preferred circles. Thanks for volunteering to keep ASIF insightful  and mostly peaceful.


Archimid

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Re: Masks
« Reply #118 on: April 29, 2020, 11:17:56 PM »
Quite frankly, because you cluttered the main thread with mask-extremism at a time when most experts were (for several good reasons) precarious about them.

There were ZERO good reasons to not wear masks. ZERO. Not even today, with the benefit of hindsight, can you make the argument that at any moment of this pandemic mask use was not warranted.

You were simply following the propaganda. The evidence for mask use has always been there.


Quote
There was a lot of evidence that they might be counterproductive. There wasn't misinformation, but the promotion of experts' recommendations.

There was zero evidence then and there is zero evidence you can present now that masks are counterproductive to combat epidemics.  Masks have been used to prevent respiratory pathogens for centuries. The physics are simple and obvious. Their use was ubiquitous in every health care setting.

Denying mask use was propaganda induced madness. Really. Cover your face and you reduce the flow of particles. That's it.
 

Quote
Quote
Now members bring relevant talk about masks and they are shutdown. Why?

Because there is this dedicated thread now. Here it's on topic.

This thread is dedicated to the effectiveness of mask use in general. Here we can talk mask materials, masking practices and masking effectiveness.

However, if anyone ever makes the math on how many people or billions would have been saved if mask-wearing was used from day 1, then that belongs in the Covid 19 thread.


Frankly Blumenkraft your poor defense of masking and then making you a mod on top demeans ASIF quite a bit. Not because you were wrong, but because you have not been able to process the evidence in a mature manner.

You were wrong. It happens to all of us. Admit it, learn something, and grow. You might even save a few lives while you are at it, who knows. We expect more of you now that you are a mod.
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vox_mundi

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Re: Masks
« Reply #119 on: April 30, 2020, 03:01:27 AM »
AI Models Suggest That Masks Can ‘Significantly’ Reduce Spread of Coronavirus
https://venturebeat.com/2020/04/29/ai-models-suggest-that-masks-can-significantly-reduce-spread-of-coronavirus/amp/

In a new preprint study published this week on Arxiv.org, researchers at the University of Cambridge, University College London, Ecole de Guerre Economique in Paris, the University of Science and Technology in Hong Kong, and The Family Federation of Finland propose two AI models designed to predict the impact of mask-wearing on the spread of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. The best-performing model suggests that donning masks has a “significant impact” when at least 80% of a population participates, claim the coauthors, versus a “minimal impact” when 50% or fewer people choose to wear face masks. Interactive visualizations of one of the models is available online.

------------------------------

Interactive Agent-Based Model Visualization for COVID-19 Masking
https://www1.icsi.berkeley.edu/~dekai/mirror/masksim/

Watch this tutorial video and then play with this masksim simulator yourself — we're making an interactive version of this agent-based model available here for you to try experimenting with our new individual agent-based model, and see what different masking policies do. You'll see how much small accidents can affect the spread of infections as we've made each run completely randomized. Try many runs if you want to see the statistical tendencies under different masking policies.



Whitepaper: “Universal Masking to Restart Society and Save Lives: COVID-19 Data, Simulations, Policy Recommendations” by De Kai, Guy-Philippe Goldstein, Alexey Morgunov, Vishal Nangalia, and Anna Rotkirch, released 10 Apr 2020 and updated 20 Apr 2020.

https://www1.icsi.berkeley.edu/~dekai/mirror/masks4all/universalmasking.pdf

“Universal Masking is Urgent in the COVID-19 Pandemic: SEIR and Agent Based Models, Empirical Validation, Policy Recommendations” by De Kai, Guy-Philippe Goldstein, Alexey Morgunov, Vishal Nangalia, and Anna Rotkirch, submitted 22 Apr 2020 and released 26 Apr 2020.

https://arxiv.org/abs/2004.13553
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

blumenkraft

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Re: Masks
« Reply #120 on: May 07, 2020, 09:06:27 AM »
Forgot your mask?

No problem. Use this shared mask.

Please put it back after usage.

“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

Elijah McClain

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Re: Masks
« Reply #121 on: May 12, 2020, 11:15:18 PM »
The best mask is to stay at 2m distance? It’s even better to stay at 2m distance and wear a simple cloth or disposable mask.

I like this nyt graph.

Bruce Steele

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Re: Masks
« Reply #122 on: May 14, 2020, 05:55:47 PM »
I tried to look into n95 mask production .
3M   100 million a month  can add another 50 million by 2021
Honeywell.  20 million a month
Medicom     30-50 million a month
Prestige Ameritech.  1 to 7 million a month
And a consortium
Parkdale Mills and Beverly fabrics  10 - 40 million a month
So monthly ~150 million low end currently to ~ 265 million a month by years end potentially
Ballpark 2 billion masks a year currently and maybe close to 3 billion a year by 2021

China n95 not included.

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Re: Masks
« Reply #123 on: May 30, 2020, 07:57:32 PM »
N95 or FFP2 masks also provide a good protection against pollen if you have allergies. But the weak point are the eyes, I guess just like with Covid19, it goes from the eyes down into the nose, but it is much more comftable than just sunglasses. So this year it is possible for people with pollen allergies to do sport outside with a N95/FFP2 mask without having everybody looking at you like if you were an alien.
Just like with Covid19, you have to take a shower when you remove the mask.

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Re: Masks
« Reply #124 on: June 08, 2020, 12:38:12 PM »
Police in New York are defying state and city orders to wear masks

Link >> https://time.com/5849175/police-masks-protests/

Meanwhile in 1918:


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Re: Masks
« Reply #125 on: June 12, 2020, 04:24:19 PM »
Quote
We set out by analyzing the city of Jena. The introduction of face masks on 6 April reduced the number of new infections over the next 20 days by almost 25% relative to the synthetic control group. This corresponds to a reduction in the average daily growth rate of the total number of reported infections by 1.32 percentage points. Comparing the daily growth rate in the synthetic control group with the observed daily growth rate in Jena, the latter shrinks by around 60% due to the introduction of face masks. This is a sizeable effect. Wearing face masks apparently helped considerably in reducing the spread of Covid-19. Looking at single treatment effects for all other regions puts this result in some perspective. The reduction in the growth rate of infections amounts to 20% only. By contrast, when we take the multiple treatment effect for larger cities into account, we find a reduction in the growth rate of infections by around 40%.

What would we reply if we were asked what the effect of introducing face masks would have been if they had been made compulsory all over Germany? The answer depends, first, on which of the three percentage measures we found above is the most convincing and, second, on the point in time when face masks are made compulsory. The second aspect is definitely not only of academic interest but would play a major role in the case of a second wave.

We believe that the reduction in the growth rates of infections by 40% to 60% is our best estimate of the effects of face masks. The most convincing argument stresses that Jena introduced face masks before any other region did so. It announced face masks as the first region in Germany while in our post-treatment period no other public health measures were introduced or eased. Hence, it provides the most clear-cut experiment of its effects. Second, as stated above, Jena is a fairly representative region of Germany in terms of Covid-19 cases. Third, the smaller effects observed in the multiple treatment analysis may also result from the fact that −by the time that other regions followed the example of Jena− behavioral adjustments in Germany’s population had also taken place. Wearing face masks gradually became more common and more and more people started to adopt their usage even when it was not yet required.

We should also stress that 40 to 60% might still be a lower bound. The daily growth rates in the number of infections when face masks were introduced was around 2 to 3%. These are very low growth rates compared to the early days of the epidemic in Germany, where daily growth rates also lay above 50% (Wälde, 2020). One might therefore conjecture that the effects might have been even greater if masks had been introduced earlier.

We simultaneously stress the need for more detailed analyses. First, Germany is only one country. Different norms or climatic conditions might change the picture for other countries. Second, we have ignored spatial dependencies in the epidemic diffusion of Covid-19. This might play a role. Third, there are various types of face masks. We cannot identify differential effects since mask regulations in German regions do not require a certain type. This calls for further systematic causal analyses of the different health measure implemented to fight the spread of Covid-19. Our results provide some initial empirical evidence on this important matter.

Link >> http://ftp.iza.org/dp13319.pdf
“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

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Re: Masks
« Reply #126 on: June 12, 2020, 07:55:52 PM »
  .. I suppose we can say thank goodness you weren't in charge .. :)

 After months of denying their value , little Britain are making masks ( face coverings ) compulsory and introducing fines for the non-conformists . No penalty for the powers that be for their wanton refusal to protect the people sooner .. b.c.
2007 + 5 = 2012 + 4 = 2016 + 3 = 2019 + 2 = 2021 
 (phew)

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Re: Masks
« Reply #127 on: June 18, 2020, 09:43:58 AM »
One Flag. One World.

“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

Elijah McClain

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Re: Masks
« Reply #128 on: June 20, 2020, 06:31:40 PM »
Finally bought myself a packet :) .. the chemist was discreet .. b.c.
2007 + 5 = 2012 + 4 = 2016 + 3 = 2019 + 2 = 2021 
 (phew)

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Re: Masks
« Reply #129 on: June 20, 2020, 06:34:10 PM »
Tina wie viel sind die Masken?  ;)
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

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Re: Masks
« Reply #130 on: June 20, 2020, 06:51:33 PM »
Hahahaha, i know that reference!

“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

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Re: Masks
« Reply #131 on: June 20, 2020, 06:55:37 PM »
Jumped into my head immediately. I actually did not remember the old lady saying they were on offer (possibly because the first part was more relevant).
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

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“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

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Re: Masks
« Reply #133 on: June 23, 2020, 02:16:25 PM »
Crosspost from the Covid thread by El Cid:

Requiring face masks to be worn decreases the growth rate of COVID-19 cases by about 40% in Germany.

Link >> https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,2996.msg270037.html#msg270037
“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

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Re: Masks
« Reply #134 on: June 24, 2020, 03:33:32 PM »
Four potential consequences of wearing face masks we need to be wary of

Link >> https://theconversation.com/four-potential-consequences-of-wearing-face-masks-we-need-to-be-wary-of-140273

(Read this in order to learn how to use a mask correctly, not as counterarguments to mask-wearing)
“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

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Re: Masks
« Reply #135 on: June 26, 2020, 08:29:47 AM »
For those of you that, like me, have a small supply of N-95 masks that they are re-using. Do not trust them blindly!

Correlation Between N95 Extended Use and Reuse and Fit Failure in an Emergency Department


https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2767023

Quote
This study found duckbill N95s had a high failure rate. Failure of dome-shaped masks was associated with increased use. N95 failure may contribute to SARS-CoV-2 transmission despite PPE use and deserves further study. Based on these preliminary data, health systems should closely evaluate N95 fit during extended use or reuse and limit duckbill mask use if alternatives are available.

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Re: Masks
« Reply #136 on: June 29, 2020, 12:29:43 AM »


< fixed link - BK>
« Last Edit: June 29, 2020, 09:51:54 AM by blumenkraft »
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Re: Masks
« Reply #137 on: June 29, 2020, 04:20:16 PM »


« Last Edit: June 29, 2020, 04:25:40 PM by blumenkraft »
“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

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Re: Masks
« Reply #138 on: June 29, 2020, 05:45:28 PM »
‘The New Gold’: Demand for PPE Soars - Again - Amid Shortage as US Cases Rise
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jun/29/demand-ppe-soars-again-amid-shortage-us-cases-rise

Demand and prices for personal protective equipment is soaring again across the US as coronavirus cases continue to rise in more than half of states.

One of the nation’s largest organizations donating personal protective equipment (PPE) said they have received a surge in requests from Covid-19 hotspots, especially in Texas, which has paused it’s reopening plan following record increases in cases and hospitalizations.

... As cases in Texas surged, requests for PPE from health facilities in the state shot up last week from less than 2,000 pieces of equipment requested to more than 220,000.

Fragile supply chains and wary hospital administrators continue to push some workers to wear N95 masks and and gowns for up to a week, even though they are designed to be changed between patients.

... “There is a general and persistent shortage of PPE across the state of Florida,” ... for-profit hospitals in particular, “have some supplies, but they are being too conservative and crass with the way they are distributing and using their PPE”.

.... In Texas, Lubbock Kids Dental CEO Kay Kennel said: “I haven’t been able to buy any [PPE] in nine weeks.” Texas, like most other states, created a supply chain task force to deal with PPE shortages. But Kennel said she watches daily in disbelief as the governor updates the state on new PPE shipments, and yet she cannot obtain the supplies she needs. As of Thursday, she had nine days worth of PPE left for her staff.

In Washington, Governor Jay Inslee said his state tried to buy $400m worth of PPE “domestically and internationally” but less than 10% of orders have been filled.

... The Federal Emergency Management Agency (Fema), which is in charge of distributing medical supplies such as masks, appeared to struggle to distribute supplies in the spring. In June, the agency said it distributed millions of surgical masks, gloves and gowns nationally, but some nursing homes which received them said the products were defective and unusable. As of June, one in five nursing homes in Florida told the federal government they still have almost no masks or gowns, according to the Miami Herald.
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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Re: Masks
« Reply #139 on: June 29, 2020, 07:47:37 PM »
Got masks I ordered weeks late, and the straps keep pulling out.
Tried to give them one star but the vendor is gone from Amazon. Amazon refunded my purchase.
I gave the masks to my Priest to give out to any he knows who needs them.
My guardian got me a couple washable ones instead.
SHARKS (CROSSED OUT) MONGEESE (SIC) WITH FRICKIN LASER BEAMS ATTACHED TO THEIR HEADS

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Re: Masks
« Reply #140 on: June 30, 2020, 04:23:04 PM »
Goldman Sachs says a national mask mandate could slash infections and save economy from a 5% hit

Link >> https://www.cnbc.com/2020/06/30/goldman-sachs-says-a-national-mask-mandate-could-slash-infections-and-save-economy-from-a-5percent-hit.html

Wait for the GOP to follow suit. They may not listen to the experts, but this is the investment quacks speaking.
“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

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Re: Masks
« Reply #141 on: July 01, 2020, 01:25:39 PM »
I wish they had more images:

Visualizing the effectiveness of face masks in obstructing respiratory jets


https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0016018

Quote
We use qualitative visualizations of emulated coughs and sneezes to examine how material- and design-choices impact the extent to which droplet-laden respiratory jets are blocked. Loosely folded face masks and bandana-style coverings provide minimal stopping-capability for the smallest aerosolized respiratory droplets. Well-fitted homemade masks with multiple layers of quilting fabric, and off-the-shelf cone style masks, proved to be the most effective in reducing droplet dispersal. These masks were able to curtail the speed and range of the respiratory jets significantly, albeit with some leakage through the mask material and from small gaps along the edges. Importantly, uncovered emulated coughs were able to travel notably farther than the currently recommended 6-ft distancing guideline.
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Re: Masks
« Reply #142 on: July 01, 2020, 02:46:18 PM »
Quote from: Archimid
... I wish they had more images

Like this? ...

------------------------------------

Face mask construction, materials matter for containing coughing, sneezing droplets
http://www.fau.edu/newsdesk/articles/efficacy-facemasks-coronavirus.php

https://phys.org/news/2020-06-mask-materials-droplets.html


With the stitched quilted cotton mask, droplets traveled 2.5 inches.


With a folded cotton handkerchief, droplets traveled 1 foot, 3 inches.


With the cone-style mask, droplets traveled about 8 inches.

... When the mannequin was not fitted with a mask, they projected droplets much farther than the 6-foot distancing guidelines currently recommended by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The researchers observed droplets traveling up to 12 feet within approximately 50 seconds. Moreover, the tracer droplets remained suspended midair for up to three minutes in the quiescent environment. These observations, in combination with other recent studies, suggest that current social-distancing guidelines may need to be updated to account for aerosol-based transmission of pathogens.



Visualizing the effectiveness of face masks in obstructing respiratory jets," Physics of Fluids (2020)
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0016018
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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Re: Masks
« Reply #143 on: July 02, 2020, 09:36:52 AM »
Or a picture of the effects of masks on bacteria:

https://twitter.com/richdavisphd/status/1276629360212979712

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Re: Masks
« Reply #144 on: July 02, 2020, 11:29:32 AM »
Like that. Thanks.
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Re: Masks
« Reply #145 on: July 02, 2020, 11:40:38 AM »
https://youtu.be/evATiHUejxg?t=98


This video is a time stamp of Vox's wonderful post in case someone from the C19 thread wants to talk ceiling fans.
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Re: Masks
« Reply #146 on: July 02, 2020, 05:49:11 PM »
Quote from: oren  in COVID 19 on Today at 10:21:22 AM

Quote
IMHO in a room with masked people, I would personally prefer no forced mixing of the air. IMHO a ceiling fan will increase risk rather than decrease it.
I would also suggest if this is to be developed further it should go into a different thread.

I fully agree. Even creating an airflow could be dangerous if some people are at the end of it. I heard that UV lights could help destroy the virus, this might be a better option, but it probably isn't to healthy. Maybe using the fan to pull the air to the ceiling and illuminating the ceiling with UV light.

Increasing the deposit of the virus is a good idea, but there is a need to control where it goes. If the particles go on the ceiling :
1)  there is nobody on it, or in the way to it
2) you could easily put on it some material that increase the surface in order to increase the deposition possibilities and illuminate it with UV lights to kill the viruses.

It seems complicated, but could easily be done for example in a movie theater.

The problem that remains is that you create air flows on the floor, and that you could transmit the virus with that air flow. If you are sitting at the center of the room where the air goes up, you'll have a 100% probability to be infected.

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Re: Masks
« Reply #147 on: July 03, 2020, 10:57:24 AM »
Quote
Even creating an airflow could be dangerous if some people are at the end of it.

Then we try to create airflows that end away from people. In places where a safe end for the airflow can't be arranged, this solution will not work.

Quote
It seems complicated, but could easily be done for example in a movie theater.

I'm thinking of schools.  Think of a round table, children seated around the table coloring at greater than arm's length but less than 6 feet apart.

If you place a wind source that creates a downwards flow over them strong enough that all exhaled particles descend below the breathing range of the occupants of the table then you have significant protection for the occupants of the table.

Even if the source of air is the room itself, the downwards flow should be more diluted than freshly exhaled, still air.  Something like strong UV pointing above the fan might marginally help, but I'll be surprised if it is significant in most cases.

Quote
The problem that remains is that you create air flows on the floor, and that you could transmit the virus with that air flow. If you are sitting at the center of the room where the air goes up, you'll have a 100% probability to be infected.

Not 100% probability by a very long shot, but certainly higher than under the flow. The quick solution for that one is for no one to be in the turbulent locations.
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Re: Masks
« Reply #148 on: July 04, 2020, 12:36:19 PM »
“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

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Re: Masks
« Reply #149 on: July 04, 2020, 08:15:56 PM »
Hey, MAGA people, this is for you!

Own the libs and get your MAGA mask today.

Link >> https://www.masks4maga.com
“I’m an introvert. I’m just different that’s all. I’m so sorry. I don’t have a gun. I don’t do that stuff... All I was trying to do was to become better. I’ll do it... You all are phenomenal. You are beautiful. And I love you. Try to forgive me. I’m sorry.”

Elijah McClain