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Author Topic: Greening the Desert - Reforestation - Afforestation  (Read 1387 times)

Freegrass

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Greening the Desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« on: May 27, 2024, 05:01:57 PM »
So weird that there isn't a reforestation thread on this forum, since it's one of the best things we can do to fight climate change. So here it is.

I've been watching loads of video's lately on reforestation in China and Africa. It's amazing actually how much China has reforested. They even have one desert less now.

It was the size of the Netherlands, and now is barely visible. What happened to this Chinese desert?

https://www.euronews.com/green/2020/05/17/sand-dunes-turned-into-oasis-in-china

The Maowusu Desert, in northern China's Inner Mongolia Region, was one of four major deserts in the country, until it vanished from the map. Thanks to decades of work, 93.24 per cent of the land has turned green.

In the 1950s the area was entirely barren, made up of nothing more than sand and stones - which ended up being a problem for nearby communities. The city of Yulin, for example, was forced to move further away from the desert three times, after experiencing relentless sandstorms.

This is why local villagers decided to try to repopulate the region with trees, launching a project which has continued for decades. In parallel, the government began ecological restoration work in the area, which is roughly the size of the Netherlands.

The UN is currently trying to combat desertification as part of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. "The latest scientific data shows that the massive effort is painfully overdue. A quarter of our greenhouse emissions come from land degradation", explains UN Deputy Secretary-General Amina Mohammed.


This video is from 2009, but still a good one.




And this woman is a hero. She's up there with all those people that were named here for dong the most against climate change.

« Last Edit: May 29, 2024, 12:39:57 AM by Freegrass »
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Freegrass

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Re: Greening the desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #1 on: May 27, 2024, 06:04:41 PM »
Greening the African desert with the UN. (12 million views)

When factual science is in conflict with our beliefs or traditions, we cuddle up in our own delusional fantasy where everything starts making sense again.

kassy

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Re: Greening the desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #2 on: May 27, 2024, 07:08:17 PM »
Actually there is:
https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,111.msg4502.html#msg4502

We can only green deserts in areas where there is enough precipitation to work with so that is the edges. Over time these will come under pressure as world warms.

I think you are missing some stories. I have seen some cool efforts in both India and Africa both more in the Sudan area.

Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

Freegrass

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Re: Greening the desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #3 on: May 27, 2024, 07:40:04 PM »
Actually there is:
https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,111.msg4502.html#msg4502

We can only green deserts in areas where there is enough precipitation to work with so that is the edges. Over time these will come under pressure as world warms.

I think you are missing some stories. I have seen some cool efforts in both India and Africa both more in the Sudan area.
Ah, ok. I couldn't find it. If you want, you can merge them.

And yes, there are many stories. I'm actually surprised how much desert has turned green again. And it's hardly talked about.
When factual science is in conflict with our beliefs or traditions, we cuddle up in our own delusional fantasy where everything starts making sense again.

The Walrus

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Re: Greening the desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #4 on: May 28, 2024, 03:43:18 AM »
Actually there is:
https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,111.msg4502.html#msg4502

We can only green deserts in areas where there is enough precipitation to work with so that is the edges. Over time these will come under pressure as world warms.

I think you are missing some stories. I have seen some cool efforts in both India and Africa both more in the Sudan area.

Over time, a warming world will lead to a decrease in deserts (provided we do not destroys natures work).  During previous warm periods, the Sahara was flush with vegetation.

El Cid

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Re: Greening the desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #5 on: May 28, 2024, 08:13:07 AM »
What's more: if we create forest-like/savanna environments in marginal, semi arid areas we can actually help increase the rain. So, in a warming world, we should create huge green areas (like in the video) in marginal places (Sahel most eminently) and when/if the amount of rain increases due to AGW and the biotic pump we should create more and more of these green structures further and further North in areas that become marginal from pure desert. This is a huge and long work (decades or even centuries)  but not impossible.

kassy

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Re: Greening the desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #6 on: May 28, 2024, 05:46:47 PM »
Over time, a warming world will lead to a decrease in deserts (provided we do not destroys natures work).  During previous warm periods, the Sahara was flush with vegetation.

Several arguments:
In general a warming world will not lead to a decrease in deserts. This does not make sense.

If we look at more specific examples we probably best look at climatology from the resent past (last 20 or 30 million years).

The greening of the Sahara is related to the Milankovitch cycles. On that clock we have about 14000 years before it comes again.

Now if the temperature component of AGW accidentally moved the rainfall up into the Sahara there would be less rain in the areas where the rain falls now.

And this happens with increased evaporation so all places get drier.
The Arctic desert will turn into a more moderate climate but it´s not a prime place for afforestation.

The big problem is the speed of change. Forests moving up or down in relation to climate change is something that always happens but if we look a North America the forests die both in the south and the north by for different reasons.

The changes related to FF pulses are different then the changes due to orbital forcing.

PS: provided we do not destroys natures work

So what odds would you score that?
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kassy

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Re: Greening the desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #7 on: May 28, 2024, 05:57:49 PM »
What's more: if we create forest-like/savanna environments in marginal, semi arid areas we can actually help increase the rain. .

I think the more important point is that it keeps the soils more moist. Many of these techniques will breakdown at some point. It´s more true in a steady climate but it will fail if you overshoot the temperature the trees can handle.

For rainfall the problem is that the saturation point moves with temperature.

Non of this should stop the efforts because every little bit helps.
Actually the best targets for reforesting are areas which are not deserts but which have been degraded.

I will see if i can find the examples i mentioned above.
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The Walrus

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Re: Greening the desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #8 on: May 28, 2024, 09:13:03 PM »
Over time, a warming world will lead to a decrease in deserts (provided we do not destroys natures work).  During previous warm periods, the Sahara was flush with vegetation.

Several arguments:
In general a warming world will not lead to a decrease in deserts. This does not make sense.

If we look at more specific examples we probably best look at climatology from the resent past (last 20 or 30 million years).

The greening of the Sahara is related to the Milankovitch cycles. On that clock we have about 14000 years before it comes again.

Now if the temperature component of AGW accidentally moved the rainfall up into the Sahara there would be less rain in the areas where the rain falls now.

And this happens with increased evaporation so all places get drier.
The Arctic desert will turn into a more moderate climate but it´s not a prime place for afforestation.

The big problem is the speed of change. Forests moving up or down in relation to climate change is something that always happens but if we look a North America the forests die both in the south and the north by for different reasons.

The changes related to FF pulses are different then the changes due to orbital forcing.

PS: provided we do not destroys natures work

So what odds would you score that?

"As climate models generally simulate more abundant Sahel precipitation in the future and as atmospheric CO2 concentrations further increase, additional vegetation growth is likely to continue in the region. Rising atmospheric CO2 stimulates photosynthesis and induces partial closure of plant stomata, which is particularly significant in the context of arid lands. Reduced stomatal aperture decreases transpiration, allowing greater productivity for a given supply of water. Furthermore, future elevated CO2 concentrations would also increase woody flora relative to grassland flora. This could result in a switch in the dominant vegetation cover from open-grass-dominated formations to closed-canopy forest or xeric shrub formations depending upon rainfall."

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590332220301007

El Cid

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Re: Greening the desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #9 on: May 28, 2024, 10:39:53 PM »
Several arguments:
In general a warming world will not lead to a decrease in deserts. This does not make sense.

But it does. All paleoclimate evidence points to a spreading of deserts during colder periods and shrinking of deserts during warmer periods. It was true for glacail/interglacial cycles and during the period before that as well! Many papers attest to this

kassy

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Re: Greening the desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #10 on: May 29, 2024, 08:59:29 PM »
Several arguments:
In general a warming world will not lead to a decrease in deserts. This does not make sense.

But it does. All paleoclimate evidence points to a spreading of deserts during colder periods and shrinking of deserts during warmer periods. It was true for glacail/interglacial cycles and during the period before that as well! Many papers attest to this

The forcings in the glacial cycles are relate to changes in the long term orbital cycles. They change where the sun has most effects. If the sun maximises Arctic summer you can have a partially ice free Arctic ocean at CO2 levels we had in 2011 or something like that. It probably took some centuries but those processes are slow.

What we are doing now is not like glacial cycle. It´s more like these extreme carbon excursions.

The Milankovitch cycle changes the distribution of temperatures over the planet. The carbon excursions heat up everything which is different. There is a lot of ocean that gets warmed up.

If you look at the bigger carbon excursions everything does get a lot drier. Or to put it in another way the fact that you find plants and creatures in the Arctic which usually live thousands of kilometres nearer to the equator does not mean that they are thriving and living happily in that whole range.
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Re: Greening the desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #11 on: May 29, 2024, 09:43:50 PM »
Over time, a warming world will lead to a decrease in deserts (provided we do not destroys natures work).  During previous warm periods, the Sahara was flush with vegetation.

Several arguments:
In general a warming world will not lead to a decrease in deserts. This does not make sense.

The greening of the Sahara is related to the Milankovitch cycles. On that clock we have about 14000 years before it comes again.


There appears to be more affecting the climate than simply the Milankovitch cycles.  The Sahel experienced a wetter than normal period during the 1950s and 60s, which was followed by a severe drought in the 70s and 80s.  This corresponded to a cooler period in the 20th century, which may have been associated with increased aerosol activity (see previous reference).  The last three and half decades have seen the rains return closer to the prior period.  All told, I agree with El Cid on this.

kassy

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Re: Greening the Desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #12 on: May 29, 2024, 11:08:24 PM »
But that is just current inputs. Last century is special because we have much more detailed info but the aerosol masking is just masking. It is hiding the natural response. As the masking is removed the actual changes are becoming clearer.

You both seem to underestimate the power of the extra water vapour in the atmosphere. It does not make the planet wetter because what goes up must come down. The rain events do get much more extreme but that is related to the distribution. It´s not like water vapour is distributed equally.

If more water can go into the atmosphere that means evaporation is up. The results are different if you look at ocean vs land. Land tends to run out of water to rain on itself quickly. So where does the water vapor go? If you just crank up the temps it needs to rise higher to condense. In reality it´s more complicated because it moves about but the big difference between Milankovitch forcings and extreme FF excursions is the cloud response.

It does not matter if posters agree but your projections should agree with the responses of the Earth system. This is complicated but one start is trying to work out the differences between glacial responces and FF excursions.
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Re: Greening the Desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #13 on: May 30, 2024, 03:57:59 AM »
But that is just current inputs. Last century is special because we have much more detailed info but the aerosol masking is just masking. It is hiding the natural response. As the masking is removed the actual changes are becoming clearer.

You both seem to underestimate the power of the extra water vapour in the atmosphere. It does not make the planet wetter because what goes up must come down. The rain events do get much more extreme but that is related to the distribution. It´s not like water vapour is distributed equally.

If more water can go into the atmosphere that means evaporation is up. The results are different if you look at ocean vs land. Land tends to run out of water to rain on itself quickly. So where does the water vapor go? If you just crank up the temps it needs to rise higher to condense. In reality it´s more complicated because it moves about but the big difference between Milankovitch forcings and extreme FF excursions is the cloud response.

It does not matter if posters agree but your projections should agree with the responses of the Earth system. This is complicated but one start is trying to work out the differences between glacial responces and FF excursions.

I agree that the aerosol effect masked the greening of the Sahel.  Once removed, the greening effect resumed.  Yes, the system is complicated.  However, the results are trending towards a greener North Africa.
« Last Edit: May 30, 2024, 05:06:35 AM by The Walrus »

kassy

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Re: Greening the Desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #14 on: May 30, 2024, 11:13:54 PM »
You are agreeing with something no one stated. The aerosol masking is a recent thing and it was not there the last time there was a green Sahara.

The system is complicated but you make no real effort to even think about the simple concepts.
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Re: Greening the Desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #15 on: May 30, 2024, 11:39:24 PM »
You are agreeing with something no one stated. The aerosol masking is a recent thing and it was not there the last time there was a green Sahara.

The system is complicated but you make no real effort to even think about the simple concepts.

Quite contrary.  Aerosols masked the greening which began in the 1950s.  The trend reversed during  the 70s and 80s, and has re-emerged in recent decades.  That is the aerosol masking to which I thought you were referring.  I am not aware of any aerosol masking thousands of years ago.

kassy

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Re: Greening the Desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #16 on: June 02, 2024, 04:51:04 PM »
Creating forests around streams to preserve them over the year:



And doing the same in landscapes where they have been lost and not replaces:

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Freegrass

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Re: Greening the Desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #17 on: June 06, 2024, 05:03:26 PM »
As I've said before, we won't save the climate by planting trees, but we still need to do it, wherever we can. The positive consequences have been documented plenty. Therefore, I agree with Sabine's new video.

When factual science is in conflict with our beliefs or traditions, we cuddle up in our own delusional fantasy where everything starts making sense again.

Freegrass

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Re: Greening the Desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #18 on: June 12, 2024, 03:35:15 PM »
I love this guy. His videos are excellent lessons in land restoration, for the whole world to see.


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Freegrass

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Re: Greening the Desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #19 on: June 13, 2024, 09:30:54 PM »
The desert Soilization Technology for Ecological Recovery by Chongqing Jiaotong University

https://www.cqjtu.edu.cn/en/Research/Research_Programs.htm

“Desert soilization”, as a new technology based on mechanics for ecological recovery, was developed by a research team from Chongqing Jiaotong University led by Professor Yi Zhijian. The desert soilization technology integrates the functions of sand prevention, sand fixing and ecological recovery.

I. The theoretical basis

   The principle of desert soilization is based on mechanics. Soil possesses two mechanical properties: it is in a solid state when dry and in a rheological state when wet, and the two states can steadily, constantly transform between each other. The unique mechanical properties of soil endow it with two important eco-mechanical attributes: self-repair and self-regulation, which is the reason why soil can support plant life in an endless ecological cycle.

   The prerequisite for desert soilization is to soilize sand, i.e., to make the desert sand acquire the mechanical properties of soil by means of mechanical manipulation. The key to sand soilization is to impose ODI constraint (omni-directional integrative constraint) among the sand granules so as to change the mechanical properties of sand: to let it become rheological when wet (wet soil) and solid when dry (dry soil), and the two states can steadily, constantly transform between each other. The soilized sand possesses the mechanical properties of natural soil, including the eco-mechanical attributes of self-repair and self-regulation as well as the capacities to retain water, nutrients and air and to grow microorganism, so it can serve as an ideal habitat for plants.


Fig.1 The mechanical principle of sand soilization 


II. The research history

   In 2009, after collecting and analyzing the data obtained by a series of indoor and outdoor experiments, the research team formed the basic theoretical framework and the method of sand soilization. In 2013, the research team carried out a successful planting experiment in the soilized sand by simulating the desert landform conditions after developing an ODI constraint material extracted from plants. Through inspection by the relevant certified authorities, the results show that the ODI constraint material is nontoxic and is without any side effect.

   In 2016, the research team conducted a verification experiment in Ulan Buh Desert on 1.67 hectares by planting in the soilized sand. The thriving plants over 70 kinds showed that the experiment was as desired and had won good acclaim.

   In 2017, the research team adopted the mode of “technology + industry” and established a research & development base over 650 hectares in Ulan Buh Desert. The first phase of the project was to plant in 260 hectares of the soilized sand. Various plants grew prosperously in the field, which not only showed evident sand control effect, but also significantly improved the local ecological environment.

   In 2018, desert soilization was carried out in Ulan Buh Desert in Inner Mongolia, Taklimakan Desert in Xinjiang and the desertified land in Zoige, Sichuan, with the total area over 650 hectares.

   In 2019, desert soilization was further expanded in Ulan Buh Desert in Inner Mongolia and in Taklimakan Desert in Xinjiang. Meanwhile, successful experiments were carried out in the deserts in Sahara and the Middle East, in the desertified land in Tibet and the beach sand in Xisha Islands and Xiamen, with an area over 1,300 hectares.

III. The technological features 

   In comparison with the conventional sand control methods such as the engineering, chemical and vegetational methods, the desert soilization technology controls sand by enabling the sand to acquire the soil properties, characterized by the following:
   1. The soilized sand is water saving. The experiment in Ulan Buh Desert has shown that the amount of irrigation for different plants is far less than the water-saving irrigation quota required by the local authorities. The psammophytes such as artemisia, astragalus adsurgens, caragana can grow well with limited and even no irrigation. The desertified land in Zoige is fully covered by vegetation without any artificial irrigation.
   2. The plants are thriving in the soilized sand and the biomass is generally higher than those grown in the nearby natural soil. The pilot project in Ulan Buh Desert in 2017 has shown that the biomass for various plants in the soilzed sand is generally higher than those grown in the neighboring natural soil; the roots are denser and longer and the biomass is three times over those from the natural soil.
   3. The quantities and types of microorganisms increase rapidly. After soilization and planting, the microorganisms in the soilized sand grow rapidly, and just after one year the quantities and types of microorganisms exceed those in the neighboring natural soil.
   4. The ODI constraint material and the soilized sand are environmental-friendly. Testing of the hazardous substances in the ODI constraint material, such as heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, free formaldehyde and benzene compounds, has shown that there is little or even no harmful substances in the material. The soilized sand has also passed the soil test on harmful substances.
   5. The desert soilization is cost effective and has potential economic prospect. Once the ODI constraint material is added and mixed with sand, the sand is soilized permanently (the pilot project has shown that the soilized sand has increasingly better soil properties in the second and third year after soilization and planting).
   6. The sand is soilized rapidly in a physical way and can be applied on a large scale. Sand is converted into soil within a few seconds after mixing the ODI constraint material with sand. The whole soilization process is simple and fast, applicable for large-scale soilization.
   7. The soilized desert has significant effect in biodiversity and ecological recovery. A local biodiverse ecological environment has formed in the soilized desert. In addition to the kinds of plants growing exuberantly there, it also became home to different kinds of birds, mice, wild rabbits, frogs and worms.

IV. The prospect

   The discovery of the eco-mechanical attributes of soil and the subsequent invention of desert soilization, offer a new approach for desertification control at home and abroad. With adequate evaluation on the environmental impact and water resources, the deserts and desertified land with access to water can recover its ecology by desert soilization in order to improve the local climate, environment and land use.

   The desert soilizaiton technology has the potential for the following applications:
   1) For desertification control: to soilize the desertified land to resolve a series of ecological, environmental problems and to provide more space for the survival and development of mankind.
   2) For agricultural development: to use the soilized sand for the development of agriculture and animal husbandry, poverty alleviation and vitalization of the rural areas based on adequate evaluation of the ecological and water resources.
   3) For landscaping on the islands and along the highway or railway in the desertified areas.
   4) For serving the “The Belt and Road Initiative”: to serve by technology output the countries along the Belt and Road for desertification control, ecological recovery, agriculture and animal husbandry development through inter-governmental win-win cooperation.

When factual science is in conflict with our beliefs or traditions, we cuddle up in our own delusional fantasy where everything starts making sense again.

Freegrass

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Re: Greening the Desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #20 on: June 13, 2024, 09:31:45 PM »
China is fighting desertification by adding cellulose to sand

https://resoilfoundation.org/en/environment/sand-cellulose-china-desert/

Chinese researchers offer a solution to soil degradation: a plant paste that can turn the desert into a grassland. The new technology might help 500 million people just in Central Asia
by Matteo Cavallito

Turning desert into fertile soil. That’ s the mission of Chinese researchers, who have been working for over a decade to open a new frontier in the conversion of the most arid lands. The latest update has come in recent months when Zhao Chaohua, deputy dean of the Institute of Desert Ecology, Chongqing Jiaotong University, in central China, said he’s ready to cooperate with Pakistani authorities to further develop the project. The goal is still the same: to tackle a problem driven by climate change that currently affects 167 nations worldwide.



Cellulose is the key element

The secret weapon is a paste made from plant cellulose that scientists say can improve sand’s ability to retain those elements essential to life’s development. “After the evaporation of the water content in the paste”, according to the research, “the sand will transform into a solid state (dry “soil”). ‘Soilized’ sand possesses the eco-mechanical attributes of natural soil”. Including “a strong capacity to retain water, nutrients, and air”

Desert has turned into grassland

The substance, called sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and prepared in a 2% solution with the addition of 5% fertilizer, was initially applied at a few experimental sites before being used in the Ulan Buh desert in Mongolia, where the first large-scale trial took place. Five years later, the results look very promising. “In 2017, we planted some hardy plants,” said Zhao to Pakistani APP news agency. “After these sprouted, we stopped irrigation. Now the desert has become a grassland, which can not only prevent sandstorms, but also be a reservoir of cultivated land.”

New circular solutions

The technology has also found positive feedback elsewhere. Chinese researchers, in particular, have successfully applied the cellulose-based paste in other areas of the country such as the provinces of Xinjiang and Sichuan and also in Africa and the Middle East. If long-term results will confirm the efficacy of the procedure, scientists will have one more tool to fight desertification. Which, according to estimates, threatens the safety of half a billion people in Central Asia.

Researchers also hope to offer new solutions in the future by further developing the technique. The idea is to apply a circular approach to waste management in the construction sector. “Other particulate matter can also have the soil’s function through using our technology” Zhao said. “One of our projects is to transform crushed construction waste into soil”.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Every $1 invested in soil restoration creates up to $30 in economic benefits, UN says

https://resoilfoundation.org/en/environment/un-soil-restoration-benefits/

Soil restoration must be implemented on 2 billion hectares. Half of the area needs to recover by 2030 according to FAO and UNEP
by Matteo Cavallito

The survival of the Planet requires the restoration of degraded soil. The goal? “Restore at least one billion degraded hectares of land in the next decade”. In other words, guaranteeing the rebirth of an area as large as China while protecting its health. That’ s the message launched by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and FAO in a joint statement. The call, which is part of the UN Decade of Ecosystem Restoration 2021-2030, comes with the release of the report Becoming #GenerationRestoration, launched in early June. Whose findings seem definitely alarming.

Land degradation affects 3.2 billion people

Restoration planned for this decade aims to solve half the problem. According to estimates, researchers say, the Planet’s degraded areas cover nearly two billion hectares and are home to some of the world’s poorest people. To date, the report says, “around one third of the world’s farmland is degraded, about 87 per cent of inland wetlands worldwide have disappeared since 1700, and one third of commercial fish species are overexploited. Degradation is already affecting the well-being of an estimated 3.2 billion people – that is 40 per cent of the world’s population.”

Finally, every year, “we lose ecosystem services worth more than 10 per cent of our global economic output.”  Reversing this trend, however, delivers excellent results. “Reviving ecosystems and other natural solutions could contribute over one third of the total climate mitigation needed by 2030. Restoration can also curb the risk of mass species extinctions and future pandemics.”

Best practices for restoration

Humanity is using about 1.6 times the amount of services that nature can sustainably provide,” the researchers argue. “That means conservation efforts alone are insufficient to prevent large-scale ecosystem collapse and biodiversity loss.” There is a need to rely on restoration, therefore, through best practices.

Restoring ecosystems, means stopping degradation. But also, in detail, ensuring “extreme weather mitigation, better human health, and recovered biodiversity.” Most useful practices include “improved pollination of plants” as well as “reforestation and re-wetting peatlands.” The list of places to save includes “farmlands, forests, grasslands and savannahs, mountains, peatlands, urban areas, freshwaters, and oceans.”

The benefits are worth 30 times investments

The planned effort, in any case, will not be cheap. Its costs – excluding the recovery of marine ecosystems – would amount to “at least 200 billion dollars per year by 2030″. But the expected economic benefits are enormous: according to the report, “every 1 USD invested in restoration creates up to USD 30 in economic benefits.”

Some examples: agroforestry alone “could increase food security for 1.3 billion people”. Forest restoration also has a positive impact on other sectors of the economy. “Having doubled its forest cover since the 1980s, Costa Rica has seen ecotourism grow to account for 6 per cent of GDP.”

Less than 20% of recovery plans are truly green

Finally, “reliable monitoring of restoration efforts is essential, both to track progress and to attract private and public investments,” according to FAO and UNEP. The goal, which is being supported also through the launch of a dedicated Digital Hub, calls for the involvement of all stakeholders. Including individuals, businesses, associations and governments. As well as indigenous people and local communities who can provide an important contribution in terms of knowledge, experience and skills. Governments, must ensure “that their post-COVID-19 recovery plans include significant allocations for ecosystem restoration.” Today, “only about 18 per cent of recovery stimulus plans can be characterized as ‘green’,” Unep and FAO say.
When factual science is in conflict with our beliefs or traditions, we cuddle up in our own delusional fantasy where everything starts making sense again.

Freegrass

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Re: Greening the Desert - Reforestation - Afforestation
« Reply #21 on: June 14, 2024, 08:49:49 PM »
I had no idea that so many trees were dying in Germany too. ??? I thought this beetle was a problem of North America, that apparently stole our ancient European forests.  >:(

But it looks like they've learned their lesson, and restoration is happening.

When factual science is in conflict with our beliefs or traditions, we cuddle up in our own delusional fantasy where everything starts making sense again.