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Ned W

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1900 on: October 28, 2018, 03:52:43 PM »
Another point is that as CO2 increases the forcing equation will change to greater sensitivity (Curve of growth), ultimately it would be expected to change from log to square root.  Methane is already at the square root stage.

I don't think that will happen any time soon.  Per the SI to this paper, the forcing from CO2 remains proportional to the log at least up to 2000 ppmv (the highest value they report in Table S1).

Shared Humanity

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1901 on: October 28, 2018, 06:50:21 PM »
I have no doubt that global warming is accelerating and just as certain that you cannot reliably tease this acceleration out of our current data. I am as certain of this as I am that we are seeing an acceleration of all manner of processes as a result of climate change.

Sea Level Rise
Greenland Melt
Glacier Melt
Antarctic Melt
Ocean Heat Content at depth

...and on and on and on.

Shared Humanity

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1902 on: October 28, 2018, 06:54:22 PM »
By 2050, cities across the planet will be investing in massive cooling centers to deal with deadly heat waves. Most of these will be underground. Any existing underground infrastructure, subways etc. will be pressed into use before then.

For individuals, those who have them will retreat to their basements for extended periods of time. Just as corporations have snow days where employees are not considered absent when 2 feet of snow blankets a region, we will have heat wave days.

Anyone building a home that does not include a basement is seriously misguided.
« Last Edit: October 28, 2018, 07:21:27 PM by Shared Humanity »

Archimid

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1903 on: October 29, 2018, 02:35:19 AM »

It was unreliable when they did it, and it's similarly unreliable when you do it. See the many posts from Tamino  about why all the claims of a "pause" or "hiatus" were not statistically defensible.

We need to wait longer before we can diagnose acceleration in the global temperature record. 


You had great answers last time so I'm going to risk more questions. What is your acceptable level of statistical certainty for the acceleration of warming, and if you don't mind, can you elaborate on why is that the appropriate level?

It worries me that if science underestimates the level of "safe warming" then by the time statistics become strong math will be useless. It will be too late to do anything with it.

We must use other sources of knowledge (geophysics, chemistry, ... , thermodynamics) along with relatively weak statistics to try to devine what will happen.
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aperson

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1904 on: October 29, 2018, 02:52:09 AM »
In my naive opinion, the most dominant short term feedback effect is the negative one from our sulfate aerosol emissions. While not continuously accelerating, we do essentially have a debt that comes due right as we lower aerosol emissions. The size of that debt is up for debate though, as is the question of what other dominoes it may hit.

miki

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1905 on: November 01, 2018, 03:49:25 AM »
Maybe not on topic on this thread. But here, anyway:
Oceans 'soaking up more heat than estimated'

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-46046067

Quote
Researchers say that the world has seriously underestimated the amount of heat soaked up by our oceans over the past 25 years.

Their study suggests that the seas have absorbed 60% more than previously thought.

They say it means the Earth is more sensitive to fossil fuel emissions than estimated.

crandles

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1906 on: November 01, 2018, 01:08:51 PM »
Maybe not on topic on this thread. But here, anyway:
Oceans 'soaking up more heat than estimated'

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-46046067

Quote
Researchers say that the world has seriously underestimated the amount of heat soaked up by our oceans over the past 25 years.

Their study suggests that the seas have absorbed 60% more than previously thought.

They say it means the Earth is more sensitive to fossil fuel emissions than estimated.

Being discussed at
https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,2434.msg179047.html#new

AbruptSLR

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1907 on: November 02, 2018, 05:34:40 PM »
Per the attached image from Stokes, October's average GISS GMSTA was the highest since April 2018:
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Tor Bejnar

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1908 on: November 02, 2018, 06:17:54 PM »
I wondered what GISS meant, and didn't find out from these threads.  Via an internet search, I learn from here:
Quote
The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP) is an estimate of global surface temperature change.

Graphs and tables are updated around the middle of every month using current data files from NOAA GHCN v3 (meteorological stations), ERSST v5 (ocean areas), and SCAR (Antarctic stations), combined as described in our December 2010 publication (Hansen et al. 2010).

These updated files incorporate reports for the previous month and also late reports and corrections for earlier months.
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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1909 on: November 02, 2018, 08:46:49 PM »
This thread is old Tor, but that info was actually provided by deep octopus in the first reply to this thread. He also provided info a long time ago on how he calculated daily anomalies from NCEP/NCAR as well:
Right, I should probably explain that since I keep going on about it. It's a bit laborious, but in case anyone wishes to try it, here's the method I use.

Within the Daily Mean Composite page: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/composites/day/

I set the variables to Air Temperature at the Surface level. For each day, or combination of days, run a plot for the entire world ("All" region). I use the "Anomaly" value. I'm sure you could get basically the same trend lines using the "Mean" values.

After plotting, I save the .txt file under "Get a copy of the text data file...", at the bottom left of the screen. You'll notice, the rows are latitudes and the columns are longitudes, in 2.5 degree grids; starting with 90N up top and 90S at the bottom. After opening the .txt file (space delimited in Excel), average the anomaly values of each row, then weigh the latitudes by area. Since the cosine of 90 is 0, for those polar values, I try to "interpolate" the area-weighted value by using a latitude value of 88.75 (average of 90 and 87.5.) Not perfect, but a good approximation. So for May 13th, 2014, I got a global air surface temperature anomaly of +0.497 over 1981-2010.

I was able to test this method by running the monthly values for each year against the plots on the timeseries page: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/cgi-bin/data/timeseries/timeseries1.pl

It seems to work well enough for purposes of keeping a daily track of the global temperature trends.

And in case someone should wonder who Stokes is (also referred to by ASLR above):
Yes, it will be warm. I've been following this guy as well for a while, Nick Stokes and his area-weighted average. 0.303 so far (Mar 29).
http://www.moyhu.blogspot.com.au/p/latest-ice-and-temperature-data.html#NCAR
Note that Stokes use 1994-2013 as base period.
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What is the problem

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1910 on: November 02, 2018, 10:18:08 PM »
I keep it with the more reliable satellite data. :)

<snip, no links to climate risk denier websites, thank you; N.>

« Last Edit: November 03, 2018, 03:37:25 PM by Neven »

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1911 on: November 03, 2018, 06:50:45 AM »
Stokes has a GISS adjustment at the bottom of the page.  The last 4 months (June-September) had averaged an error of only 0.02°C.  His October GISS adjustment came in at 0.906°C. 
http://www.moyhu.org.s3.amazonaws.com/data/freq/ncep.html

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1912 on: November 03, 2018, 07:45:52 AM »
It's nice page to follow. Stokes actually registered here in summer 2015, but not active.
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jai mitchell

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1913 on: November 06, 2018, 02:34:10 PM »
How is Tamino's work affected by a hypothetical change in the geographic pattern of aerosols? 

Tamino's work makes it easier to identify "real" changes in the temperature trend, because it reduces the noise in the data.

Tamino's work assumes that the increased prevalence of La Nina and increased global cooling from the shift of aerosol emissions to SE Asia see: https://twitter.com/kencaldeira/status/1030484968353361920 is 'noise'.

that is your error as well.

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mitch

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1914 on: November 06, 2018, 05:09:32 PM »
La Niña doesn't cool the earth but preferentially stores heat in the ocean.  The east Pacific cold tongue gets colder and collects sensible heat from solar insolation, but because it is cold does not have much evaporation (latent heat loss from the ocean). In the west Pacific evaporation from 30 degree water causes significant heat loss, and rainfall, and hurricanes.  during el Niño, 30 degree water sloshes back to the east, producing a much larger area where evaporation occurs and movement of heat to the atmosphere.

The aerosols over China may affect the El Niño cycle and thus how heat moves around the surface ocean, but only indirectly. However, they also block incoming solar radiation and help to hide some of the greenhouse gas effects.   

jai mitchell

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1915 on: November 06, 2018, 09:30:00 PM »

The aerosols over China may affect the El Niño cycle and thus how heat moves around the surface ocean, but only indirectly. However, they also block incoming solar radiation and help to hide some of the greenhouse gas effects.

yes, as well as other impacts on clouds and meridional atmospheric circulation patterns and massive impacts on Arctic surface temperatures and sea ice (with great albedo impacts there during the summer months)

https://www.nature.com/articles/nclimate3058

Quote
Our results suggest that a slowdown in GMST trends could have been predicted in advance, and that future reduction of anthropogenic aerosol emissions, particularly from China, would promote a positive PDO and increased GMST trends over the coming years.
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Niall Dollard

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1916 on: November 08, 2018, 07:06:24 PM »
Copernicus EU global stats are out for October.

The fourth warmest October in the series (since 1979) with an anomaly of over 0.5 C.

Still a warm month over much of Europe but it seems the eastern NA cold anomaly has spread out east over the Atlantic and western fringes of Europe.

wolfpack513

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1917 on: November 15, 2018, 08:12:50 PM »
GISS-LOTI came in at +0.99 C for October.  This would have been the warmest anomaly on record for any month prior to October 2015.  I remember when +0.80°C month was a big deal. 

Hautbois

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1918 on: November 21, 2018, 10:18:44 AM »
I written the next installment in my account of global warming bets, at https://ohbwaa.blogspot.com/2018/11/climate-bets-evans-vs-schmidt.html

This one is about the David Evans vs Brian Schmidt bet made in 2007. The latter (on the warming side) is winning.

I've invited both to comment - we'll see.

oren

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1919 on: November 21, 2018, 11:50:35 AM »
Interesting, thank you Hautbois. I must say the coolist actually had a chance of a tie on the first bet, had it been a La nina instead (I guess for all the years 2015-2019...). As it stands, he got his head handed to him on a platter.

bbr2314

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1920 on: November 24, 2018, 04:40:12 AM »
Whatever could go wrong...?

https://www.cnn.com/2018/11/23/health/sun-dimming-aerosols-global-warming-intl-scli/index.html

Also the Greenland anomaly ^ is fairly absurd. We have historical precedents for this kind of rapid cooling and the following results are not beneficial to maintaining human civilization anywhere above 40N in the Americas, or a few degrees above that in Eurasia.

Ned W

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1921 on: November 26, 2018, 07:25:30 PM »
How is Tamino's work affected by a hypothetical change in the geographic pattern of aerosols? 

Tamino's work makes it easier to identify "real" changes in the temperature trend, because it reduces the noise in the data.

Tamino's work assumes that the increased prevalence of La Nina and increased global cooling from the shift of aerosol emissions to SE Asia see: https://twitter.com/kencaldeira/status/1030484968353361920 is 'noise'.

that is your error as well.

No, actually.  Tamino's method makes no assumptions about the cause of ENSO.

And it does successfully reduce the level of noise in the temperature record, thus allowing the trend to be estimated with a given level of precision at shorter timescales than in the raw data.  As I pointed out earlier, a 10-year trend in Tamino's series has about the same level of uncertainty as a 14.5-year trend in the raw data.


Hautbois

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1922 on: December 04, 2018, 11:38:23 PM »
I've had comments from both David Evans and Brian Schmidt following my posting about the climate bet at http://ohbwaa.blogspot.com/2018/11/climate-bets-evans-vs-schmidt.html

All in all, decent of them to add their thoughts. I've also added a short rejoinder to a couple of things David Evans said. Feel free to join in.


Next up will be James Annan vs David Whitehouse - the only Coolist win so far.

b_lumenkraft

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1923 on: January 11, 2019, 12:45:38 PM »
Great visualisation i found on Reddit today in r/dataisbeautiful.

Global Temperature Ten Year Linear Trends >> https://www.reddit.com/r/dataisbeautiful/comments/aepcb7/global_temperature_ten_year_linear_trends_oc/

oren

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1924 on: January 12, 2019, 12:54:01 AM »
So, is the 2018 data out? How did it finish?

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1925 on: January 12, 2019, 12:01:37 PM »
So, is the 2018 data out? How did it finish?

4th warmest according to the JMA at least
https://ds.data.jma.go.jp/tcc/tcc/products/gwp/temp/ann_wld.html


oren

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1926 on: January 12, 2019, 04:33:49 PM »
Thanks BFTV.

Shared Humanity

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1927 on: January 12, 2019, 06:11:35 PM »
2 more years with average temps below 2015/2016 and we'll have to listen to the "why is there a stall in warming" BS.

b_lumenkraft

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1928 on: January 12, 2019, 06:14:44 PM »
2 more years with average temps below 2015/2016 and we'll have to listen to the "why is there a stall in warming" BS.

Needs to slip below the red line for this. I don't think this is going to happen though.

James Lovejoy

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1929 on: January 13, 2019, 04:03:07 AM »
\
Quote
Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1928 on: January 12, 2019, 06:14:44 PM »
LikeQuote
Quote from: Shared Humanity on January 12, 2019, 06:11:35 PM
2 more years with average temps below 2015/2016 and we'll have to listen to the "why is there a stall in warming" BS.

Needs to slip below the red line for this. I don't think this is going to happen though.

You are assuming at least minimal integrity from the 'contrarians'.  Bad assumption.

b_lumenkraft

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1930 on: January 13, 2019, 07:06:09 AM »
\
Quote

You are assuming at least minimal integrity from the 'contrarians'.  Bad assumption.


Point taken sir. :)

Shared Humanity

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1931 on: January 13, 2019, 04:40:35 PM »
2 more years with average temps below 2015/2016 and we'll have to listen to the "why is there a stall in warming" BS.

Needs to slip below the red line for this. I don't think this is going to happen though.

Not true. We had to listen to this for more than a decade after 1998 as deniers were forever pointing out that 1998 was warmer than the years that followed.

jai mitchell

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1932 on: January 13, 2019, 05:00:23 PM »
2019 predictions?  Some discussion that the currently growing El Nino will lead to another record high temperature year.

I believe that this may be the case but not because of the El Nino alone which will contribute to it of course, but rather that the current China economic data indicates a slowdown of Chinese aerosol emissions going forward. 

see:  https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/18/14095/2018/acp-18-14095-2018.pdf
First image below SO2 began a steep decline in 2010

Compare to the JPA temp series posted by BornfromtheVoid below
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Rodius

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1933 on: January 15, 2019, 04:02:04 AM »
Silly question concerning aerosols and China.
Given China is reducing SO2 a lot, what are the odds it is enough to spark a local increase in air temps in the coming years?
I havent looked at the temps in China yet, but if SO2 reduction increases temps, a basic prediction would be that China will already have increased temps.

Also, is it correct to say that reduced aerosols done rapidly (within 10 years) will increase global temps rapidly as well?

b_lumenkraft

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1934 on: January 15, 2019, 08:52:07 AM »
While i'm positive too China will reduce aerosols dramatically in upcoming years, i don't think this can be said about India. There we see rising emissions still and i can't see how this would change any time soon.

oren

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1935 on: January 15, 2019, 09:04:58 AM »
Silly question concerning aerosols and China.
Given China is reducing SO2 a lot, what are the odds it is enough to spark a local increase in air temps in the coming years?
I havent looked at the temps in China yet, but if SO2 reduction increases temps, a basic prediction would be that China will already have increased temps.

Also, is it correct to say that reduced aerosols done rapidly (within 10 years) will increase global temps rapidly as well?
Not a silly question.
I don't think though that aerosol cleanup effect will be local. I've read somewhere on this forum a comment that China's aerosol plume is spread across the Pacific - I have no clue if that's true. But I do think this stuff is quite mixed in the upper atmosphere.
Yes, It is correct IMHO that rapid aerosol cleanup will increase global temps rapidly, I think this is what happened in the 1970s.

Gray-Wolf

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1936 on: January 15, 2019, 09:39:41 AM »
I'd say we use common sense in imagining the 'plume' that China produces?

When we see an eruption we can track the 'plume' so we should all be able to imagine the scale of 'plume' that China was producing and so the areas that will see this drop off from SO2/Particulates.

We saw a period that had both the tropical Atlantic and Pacific out of balance with one another. to sort out that imbalance we saw record high shear in the upper trop over the Caribbean as air rushed toward the Pacific tropical basin . this also drove the record high trades we saw in the noughties and the overturning of the ocean there leading to heat being buried in the upper ocean.

Since 2014 this has flipped around and we have seen the shear drop off over the Caribbean ( and the hurricanes that were able to form without their head knocked off by the shear) and the trades fell light so allowing the super Nino to form.

Just the loss of that overturning of the Pacific must put more heat into our atmosphere as it is no longer locked into the upper ocean but allowed back into the atmosphere.

What we could do with is a look at the pan evaporation rates from the Tropical Pacific off China ,from the mid noughties and from post 2015, to see just how big a change in the solar reaching the surface is?

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jai mitchell

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1938 on: January 16, 2019, 02:39:17 AM »
I've read somewhere on this forum a comment that China's aerosol plume is spread across the Pacific - I have no clue if that's true.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-05838-6
Divergent global-scale temperature effects from identical aerosols emitted in different regions

Abstract
The distribution of anthropogenic aerosols’ climate effects depends on the geographic distribution of the aerosols themselves. Yet many scientific and policy discussions ignore the role of emission location when evaluating aerosols’ climate impacts. Here, we present new climate model results demonstrating divergent climate responses to a fixed amount and composition of aerosol—emulating China’s present-day emissions—emitted from 8 key geopolitical regions. The aerosols’ global-mean cooling effect is fourteen times greater when emitted from the highest impact emitting region (Western Europe) than from the lowest (India). Further, radiative forcing, a widely used climate response proxy, fails as an effective predictor of global-mean cooling for national-scale aerosol emissions in our simulations; global-mean forcing-to-cooling efficacy differs fivefold depending on emitting region. This suggests that climate accounting should differentiate between aerosols emitted from different countries and that aerosol emissions’ evolving geographic distribution will impact the global-scale magnitude and spatial distribution of climate change.

(china is close to united states, about 3 times more local than global total effect)

see video abstract:  https://twitter.com/kencaldeira/status/1030484968353361920?lang=en
« Last Edit: January 16, 2019, 05:22:40 PM by jai mitchell »
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oren

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1939 on: January 16, 2019, 03:35:01 AM »
Thanks jai, very interesting.

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1940 on: January 16, 2019, 11:24:28 AM »
There are a lot of pollutants that can be tracked with CAMS if you want to see where the plumes are going.

https://atmosphere.copernicus.eu/

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1941 on: January 21, 2019, 02:00:11 PM »
Global warming at different latitudes. The x-axis is the range of temperatures compared to 1961-1990 between years shown at that latitude [found on Reddit in r/dataisbeautiful]

Shared Humanity

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1942 on: January 21, 2019, 04:27:39 PM »
I would question anything posted here that was found on reddit and will ignore completely items posted that do not include a link to nor source for the data. The standards for this site should preclude such postings.

Feel free to amend the comment to provide a link that includes the source for the data.


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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1943 on: January 21, 2019, 04:44:42 PM »
Feel free to amend the comment to provide a link that includes the source for the data.

Oh, of course.

Original post >> https://www.reddit.com/r/dataisbeautiful/comments/ai94ek/global_warming_at_different_latitudes_x_axis_is/
Poster >> https://www.reddit.com/user/neilrkaye/posts/

Quote
Range of global temperatures at different latitudes in 11 year windows starting in 1948-1958 ending in 2008-2018.
To left of thick black line is cooler than 1961-1990 average at that latitude, to the right is warmer.
This was created using HADCRUT4 data https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/hadcrut4/
ggplot in R was used to create the map, it was animated using ffmpeg

Link to quote >> https://www.reddit.com/r/dataisbeautiful/comments/ai94ek/global_warming_at_different_latitudes_x_axis_is/eelz2c3/

I know u/neilrkaye's content. Dude is good with creating data visualisation. He is a climate data scientist at Met Office (according to his Twitter here >> https://twitter.com/neilrkaye).

Archimid

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1944 on: January 22, 2019, 11:57:10 AM »
Ancient wisdom says "Test all things. Hold fast to what is good". Examine everything, keep the good. Reddit, wikipedia, a library, books, even very strict academic journals must be questioned. In all of them good can be found. They will all have bad. The ratio of good to bad is the metric to watch out for.

I love this visualization. The temperatures and distribution over time and Earth jives correct to me. The way the usually useless background gives context is novel to me. The way the animation adds multiple layers of information is always very nice to see.
I am an energy reservoir seemingly intent on lowering entropy for self preservation.

b_lumenkraft

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1945 on: January 22, 2019, 12:40:07 PM »
Completely agree, Archimid.

With the internet, information is now open. What this really means and what the implications are, how society deals with it, has not yet played out in full. What we as individuals can do is to develop a so-called 'media competence' (i call it my bullshitometer). Look at information objectively, mind the context, check for biases in both the sender and yourself, learn how to read stats, and last but not least stay calm.

I'm struggling with the last-mentioned ... ;)

Shared Humanity

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1946 on: January 22, 2019, 06:59:32 PM »
Thanks for link. It has just been my experience that much of reddit is a cesspool.

b_lumenkraft

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1947 on: January 22, 2019, 07:21:11 PM »
Thanks for link. It has just been my experience that much of reddit is a cesspool.

You are welcome.

Reddit is home of the weirdest milieus out there, no question. But it has it's nice corners (subreddits) as well.

Rodius

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1948 on: January 24, 2019, 03:17:06 AM »
There are two ways to keep the masses ignorant.

Hide the information
OR
Give them so much they dont bother reading it.

b_lumenkraft

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Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« Reply #1949 on: February 04, 2019, 07:58:57 PM »
So far 2019 has set 35 records for heat and 2 for cold

Quote
Kulgera (Australia) max. 47
Griffith (Australia) max. 46.4
Albury (Australia) max. 45.3
Woolbrook (Australia) max. 38.7
Cooma (Australia) max. 39.5
Cootamundra (Australia) max. 43.6
Eucla (Australia) max. 48.6
Christmas Island Aero (Australia) max. 31.6
Tarcoola (Australia) max. 49.1
Ceduna (Australia) max. 48.6
Cleve (Australia) max. 46.7
Adelaide (Australia) max. 47.7
Adelaide Airport (Australia) max. 45.8
Port Lincoln Airport (Australia) max. 48.3
Port Augusta (Australia) max. 49.5
Clare (Australia) max. 44.9
Snowtown (Australia) max. 47.3
Parafield (Australia) max. 47.7
Edinburgh (Australia) max. 47.5
Roseworthy (Australia) max. 48.3
Nuriootpa (Australia) max. 46
Kuitpo (Australia) max. 44
Strathalbyn (Australia) max. 46.7
Deniliquin (Australia) max. 47.2
Swan Hill (Australia) max. 47.5
Kerang (Australia) max. 47
Kyabram (Australia) max. 47.1
Sale (Australia) max. 45.5
Young (Australia) max. 43.5
Pointe des Trois-Bassins (Reunion Islands, France) max. 37
Cilaos (Reunion Islands, France) max. 31.2
Gobabis (Namibia) max. 41.7
Santiago (Chile) max. 38.3
Santiago Airport (Chile) max. 39.3
Tobalaba (Chile) max. 37.4

Record low temperatures in 2019

Rockford (Illinois, US) min. -35
Moline (Illinois, US) min. -36.1
Link >> https://www.newscientist.com/article/2192369-so-far-2019-has-set-35-records-for-heat-and-2-for-cold/