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Author Topic: What's new in Antarctica ?  (Read 147146 times)

vox_mundi

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #500 on: July 30, 2019, 04:25:24 PM »
Glaciologists Unveil Most Precise Map Ever of Antarctic Ice Velocity
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-glaciologists-unveil-precise-antarctic-ice.html

Constructed from a quarter century's worth of satellite data, a new map of Antarctic ice velocity by glaciologists from the University of California, Irvine and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the most precise ever created.

Published today in a paper in the American Geophysical Union journal Geophysical Research Letters, the map is 10 times more accurate than previous renditions, covering more than 80 percent of the continent.

To chart the movement of ice sheets across the surface of the enormous land mass, the researchers combined input from six satellite missions: the Canadian Space Agency's Radarsat-1 and Radarsat-2; the European Space Agency's Earth remote sensing satellites 1 and 2 and Envisat ASAR; and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's ALOS PALSAR-1.

The new Antarctic ice velocity map and related datasets are available for download at the NASA Distributed Active Archive Center at the National Snow & Ice Data Center.



J. Mouginot et al. Continent‐wide, interferometric SAR phase, mapping of Antarctic ice velocity, Geophysical Research Letters (2019)
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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gerontocrat

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #501 on: July 30, 2019, 06:54:28 PM »
Pine Island and Thwaites.
I thought so.
E-mailed NASA-IceSat for clarification.

Will they answer? At least it was to a person not a corporate blah-blah address.
Last night e-mailed POTSDAM as well, asking about how could Ice-Sat and GRACE-FO data be combined with different basin definitions. Also said what a shame as combining the two sets of data would be such a powerful tool.

This morning did another internet search, and what did I find - they-ve done it already.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330380007_High-Resolution_Mass_Trends_of_the_Antarctic_Ice_Sheet_through_a_Spectral_Combination_of_Satellite_Gravimetry_and_Radar_Altimetry_Observations
High-Resolution Mass Trends of the Antarctic Ice Sheet through a Spectral Combination of Satellite Gravimetry and Radar Altimetry Observations - January 2019.

Yes, they combined GRACE & IceSat data.

Only goes to June 2017, but I assume the data will keep on coming.

So the first attachment is the 25 drainage basins used.

Then maps and a table.
"Para a Causa do Povo a Luta Continua!"
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Rich

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #502 on: July 30, 2019, 07:25:33 PM »
Wowzers!

This is one of the data trends more likely to be correlated with Armageddon.

Is there any sense of the frequency that data will be updated?

I'm a customer for sure. Thanks Gerontocrat.

gerontocrat

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #503 on: July 30, 2019, 07:44:23 PM »
In theory, GRACE-FO data every month.

But the combination with IceSat-2 stuff? The whole science world will want data from both places.
"Para a Causa do Povo a Luta Continua!"
"And that's all I'm going to say about that". Forrest Gump
"Damn, I wanted to see what happened next" (Epitaph)

Rich

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #504 on: July 30, 2019, 07:59:42 PM »
Thanks G.

This is an exciting development. Mysterious parts of the world becoming less mysterious.

NASA released SLR figures for the 12 months ending 3/31/19 recently. 7.3mm. The hockey stick is emerging and it seems the day of reckoning is speeding up.

Data like this is going to reverberate in financial markets pretty fast.

With all due respect, I definitely appreciate the daily sea ice data, but it won't move markets the way land ice data will.

gerontocrat

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #505 on: July 31, 2019, 11:28:35 AM »
The GRACE-FO is a German / NASA joint project.

NASA have never answered a query yet.

Germany comes up with the goods every time.

Monthly Antarctic Ice Sheet data should be available in a Level 3 (i.e. simple ASCII format) in 2-3 weeks and every month after that, including by drainage basin. (Also for Greenland)

Level 2 stuff (not usable by me) is already there.

see attached...



"Para a Causa do Povo a Luta Continua!"
"And that's all I'm going to say about that". Forrest Gump
"Damn, I wanted to see what happened next" (Epitaph)

DrTskoul

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #506 on: July 31, 2019, 12:36:13 PM »
Glaciologists unveil most precise map ever of Antarctic ice velocity

More information: J. Mouginot et al. Continent‐wide, interferometric SAR phase, mapping of Antarctic ice velocity, Geophysical Research Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1029/2019GL083826

kassy

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #507 on: July 31, 2019, 06:14:54 PM »
So what is level 2? Data for specific programs or the visual output which can be manipulated like A-Team, Uniquorn and others do to some other satellites output?
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

DrTskoul

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #508 on: July 31, 2019, 06:15:45 PM »
Yeah...

Renerpho

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #509 on: July 31, 2019, 07:45:12 PM »
So what is level 2? Data for specific programs or the visual output which can be manipulated like A-Team, Uniquorn and others do to some other satellites output?

It is raw gravity data, in a txt file. See ftp://isdcftp.gfz-potsdam.de/grace-fo/DOCUMENTS/Level-2/GRACE-FO_JPL_L2_Processing_Standards_Document_for_RL06.pdf for a description of the content, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a906/232145ab2a7a48d87461abd48a3170ee0dae.pdf for an introduction to spherical harmonic analysis. You get the coefficients C_ml and S_ml, up to order 180. Putting it into a formula will give you a latitude/longitude map of the gravity field, which then needs to be interpreted.
The data itself can be found here, sorted by time interval: ftp://isdcftp.gfz-potsdam.de/grace-fo/Level-2/JPL/RL06/ I guess the logic behind the file names is YYYY"day of year"-YYYY"day of year"_"some stuff".gz, but I didn't bother to read the manual. It should all be in there.

Ah, by the way: Hello ASIF! This is my first post. I have been reading here for a while. I hope I'm not interrupting, and you find the explanation useful.

-- Daniel
Before I came here I was confused about this subject. Having listened to your lecture I am still confused. But on a higher level.

SteveMDFP

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #510 on: July 31, 2019, 07:58:18 PM »
The GRACE-FO is a German / NASA joint project.

NASA have never answered a query yet.

Germany comes up with the goods every time.
 

Increasingly, Federal employees have to go through layers of approval before sending any communications to members of the general public.  This seems to be especially true for agencies involved with climate and the environment. 

nanning

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #511 on: August 01, 2019, 04:28:26 AM »
<snippage>
Ah, by the way: Hello ASIF! This is my first post. I have been reading here for a while. I hope I'm not interrupting, and you find the explanation useful.

-- Daniel
Welcome to the forum Daniel and thanks for your informative contribution.
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vox_mundi

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #512 on: August 03, 2019, 05:35:06 PM »
US Eyeing Militarization of Antarctic as Well as Arctic
https://www.commondreams.org/news/2019/07/31/us-eyeing-militarization-antarctic-well-arctic

A top U.S. military general said Tuesday that the country will be looking at militarizing the Antarctic just as it has the Arctic.

Air Force general Charles Brown, commander of Pacific Air Force, made the remarks in an address at The Mitchell Institute for Aerospace Studies in Arlington, Virginia.




... At several points, Brown mentioned 2048, which is set to be a key moment for the Antarctic—a region "within increasingly convenient reach"—because it's when the Antarctic Treaty can go under review.

He added that icebreakers were a lacking capability—"Russia has much more than we do." And, because the U.S. military will still need the few it has to operate in the Arctic, "we may need more" to bring them to Antarctica. (... ya think)

As geopolitics professor Klaus Dodds wrote at The Conversation last year, the looming review plunges "the future of the continent into uncertainty."

Quote
... For six decades, the treaty has been the cornerstone of governance for our most southerly, harshest and most pristine continent. It has fostered scientific research, promoted international cooperation, ensured non-militarization, suspended territorial claims and strengthened environmental protections. Its guardians are the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCPs)—chief among them the U.S., U.K., Australia, New Zealand, Russia, Norway, Germany, Chile, and Argentina. [...]

At present ACTPs are focusing on improving cold weather technology and gaining confidence in Antarctic conditions, but it might not be long until they have the capability and incentive to do more. China is already using underwater vehicles to search for gas hydrates and metallic nodules in the South China Sea. Ominously, underwater mining and deep-sea energy prospecting seem set to be growth industries over the coming decades. [...]

After 2048, Antarctica could be carved up between nations like every other land mass and surrounding ocean, and slowly relieved of its resources.
« Last Edit: August 03, 2019, 11:56:03 PM by vox_mundi »
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

zxy

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #513 on: August 05, 2019, 01:18:30 AM »
Interesting documentary on current state:

The State of Sea Level Rise (2019)

nanning

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #514 on: August 05, 2019, 07:57:36 PM »
"It is preoccupation with possessions, more than anything else, that prevents us from living freely and nobly"

vox_mundi

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #515 on: August 06, 2019, 05:51:28 PM »
Saildrone Completes First Autonomous Scientific Trip Around Antarctica
https://futurefive.co.nz/story/saildrone-completes-first-unmanned-trip-around-antarctica
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-08-05/saildrone-s-journey-around-antarctica-uncovers-new-climate-clues 

Saildrone’s wind-powered surface vehicle (called SD 20) is seven metres long and is now the world’s first unmanned vehicle to circumnavigate Antarctica.



... This mission wasn’t just to prove that you could sail an unmanned vehicle around Antarctica – it also had a lot of scientific equipment and partners.

SD 20 was equipped with a suite of climate-grade sensors and collected data in previously unchartered waters, enabling new key insights into ocean and climate processes.

The Saildrone also carried an instrument developed by National Atmospheric and Oceanographic Administration (NOAA) to measure carbon fluxes.

Quote
... The saildrone recorded evidence that the Southern Ocean released significant carbon dioxide during the winter months a fact that could have major implications on global climate models.

Thus the Southern Ocean might not be storing nearly as much carbon as previously thought .... Scientists have long viewed the Southern Ocean as a major carbon sink, meaning it pulls carbon dioxide out of the air and pushes it deep underwater.



https://www.saildrone.com/

-----------------------------

Related from 2018: Diving Robots Find Antarctic Winter Seas Exhale Surprising Amounts of Carbon Dioxide
https://phys.org/news/2018-08-robots-antarctic-winter-seas-exhale.html

A new study from the University of Washington, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Princeton University and several other oceanographic institutions uses data gathered by the floating drones over past winters to learn how much carbon dioxide is transferred by the surrounding seas. Results show that in winter the open water nearest the sea ice surrounding Antarctica releases significantly more carbon dioxide than previously believed.
Quote
... "These results came as a really big surprise, because previous studies found that the Southern Ocean was absorbing a lot of carbon dioxide," said . "If that's not true, as these data suggest, then it means we need to rethink the Southern Ocean's role in the carbon cycle and in the climate."

- lead author Alison Gray - UW Assistant Professor of Oceanography
The paper is published Aug. 14 in Geophysical Research Letters.

Looking at circles of increasing distance from the South Pole, the authors find that in winter the open water next to the sea-ice covered waters around Antarctica is releasing significantly more carbon dioxide than expected to the atmosphere.

"It's not surprising that the water in this region is outgassing, because the deep water is exceptionally rich in carbon," Gray said. "But we underestimated the magnitude of the outgassing because we had so little data from the winter months. That means the Southern Ocean isn't absorbing as much carbon as we thought."

https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2018GL078013
« Last Edit: August 07, 2019, 06:05:51 PM by vox_mundi »
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

petm

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #516 on: August 08, 2019, 04:25:03 AM »
Quote
Stunning drone footage captures Chasm 1, a huge crack on the Brunt Ice Shelf. When it inevitably intersects with the nearby Halloween Crack, an iceberg the size of Houston, Texas will break off into the ocean.


gerontocrat

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #517 on: August 10, 2019, 09:25:07 AM »
Not that new but I had completely forgotten to follow a link to.........

https://www.pnas.org/content/116/4/1095
Four decades of Antarctic Ice Sheet mass balance from 1979–2017


Open access,  with downloadable
- pdf,
- excel spreadsheet,
- figures (attached),
- tables (summary one attached)

A stunning piece of work.

Quote
Results
Antarctica.

The total mass loss from Antarctica increased from 40 ± 9 Gt/y in the 11-y time period 1979–1990 to 50 ± 14 Gt/y in 1989–2000, 166 ± 18 Gt/y in 1999–2009, and 252 ± 26 Gt/y in 2009–2017, that is, by a factor 6 (Fig. 2, Table 1, and SI Appendix, Fig. S1). This change in mass loss reflects an acceleration of 94 Gt/y per decade in 1979–2017, increasing from 48 Gt/y per decade in 1979–2001 to 134 Gt/y per decade in 2001–2017, or 280%. Most of the 1979–2017 acceleration is from West Antarctica (48 Gt/y per decade), followed by East Antarctica (29 Gt/y per decade) and the Antarctic Peninsula (16 Gt/y per decade) (Fig. 3). In 2009–2017, West Antarctica contributed 63% of the total loss (159 ± 8 Gt/y), East Antarctica 20% (51 ± 13 Gt/y), and the Peninsula 17% (42 ± 5 Gt/y) (Table 2). The mass loss from West Antarctica is three to four times larger than that from East Antarctica and the Peninsula, respectively. We find that the Antarctic Ice Sheet has been out of balance with snowfall accumulation the entire period of study, including in East Antarctica.
"Para a Causa do Povo a Luta Continua!"
"And that's all I'm going to say about that". Forrest Gump
"Damn, I wanted to see what happened next" (Epitaph)

vox_mundi

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #518 on: August 12, 2019, 06:37:51 PM »
Icebergs Delay Southern Hemisphere Future Warming
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-icebergs-southern-hemisphere-future.html


Future iceberg discharges from the disintegrating West Antarctic ice-sheet (lower right inlay figure) can lead to a substantial reduction of human-induced warming in the Southern Hemisphere. Anthropogenic warming averaged over the pink shaded region without iceberg effect (black) and for weak (cyan), medium (blue) and strong (dark blue) iceberg discharge scenarios. The other two inlay figures depict the iceberg effect on human-induced warming for the model grid points closest to Buenos Aires (Argentina, orange) and Cape Town (South Africa, green).

New research, published today in the journal Nature Climate Change, has found that Antarctic icebergs can weaken and delay the effect of Global Warming in the Southern Hemisphere.

Recent observations reveal a rapid thinning of the Pine Island and Thwaites glacier regions in Antarctica, which can be attributed partly to warming oceans. These findings have raised concerns of an accelerated ice loss of the West Antarctic ice sheet and potential contributions to global sea level rise. Ice loss can occur in the form of melt-induced (liquid) freshwater discharge into the ocean, or through (solid) iceberg calving.

With a projected future retreat of the Antarctic ice sheet, scientists expect an intensification of iceberg discharge. Icebergs can persist for years and are carried by winds and currents through the Southern Ocean until they reach warmer waters and ultimately melt. The melting process cools ocean waters like ice cubes in a cocktail glass. Furthermore, freshwater discharge from icebergs impacts currents by lowering ocean salinity. Whether this "iceberg effect'' can slow down or alter future climate change in the Southern Hemisphere has remained an open question.

Climate researchers from the University of Hawaii (USA), the IBS Center for Climate Physics (South Korea), Penn State University (USA) and University of Massachusetts (USA) have now quantified for the first time this effect of Antarctic iceberg calving on future Southern Hemisphere climate. The team ran a series of Global Warming computer simulations, which include the combined freshwater and cooling effects of icebergs on the ocean. The size and number of icebergs released in their model mimics the gradual retreat of the Antarctic ice sheet over a period of several hundred years. By turning on an off the "iceberg effect" in their climate model, the researchers discovered that icebergs can significantly slow down human-induced warming in the Southern Hemisphere, impacting global winds and rainfall patterns.

Dr. Tobias Friedrich, coauthor of the study, adds: "To melt the icebergs released over the 21st century in one of our extreme Antarctic ice-sheet retreat scenarios would require 400 times the current annual world energy consumption. Global sea level would rise by about 80 cm, impacting many coastal regions and communities worldwide."

"Our research highlights the role of icebergs in global climate change and sea level rise. Depending on how quickly the West Antarctic ice sheet disintegrates, the iceberg effect can delay future warming in cities such as Buenos Aires and Cape Town by 10-50 years." says Prof. Axel Timmermann, corresponding author of the study and Director of the IBS Center for Climate Physics.

Antarctic iceberg impacts on future Southern Hemisphere climate, Nature Climate Change (2019)
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

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petm

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #519 on: August 12, 2019, 06:43:15 PM »
Business opportunity: Tow giant icebergs up to northern coastal cities and moor them near shore.

philopek

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #520 on: August 12, 2019, 06:58:27 PM »
Business opportunity: Tow giant icebergs up to northern coastal cities and moor them near shore.

But use a wind-powered or battery driven vessel for the purpose please  8)

Tom_Mazanec

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #521 on: August 13, 2019, 03:03:04 AM »
Global Warming is changing the winds off Antarctica, which is accelerating ice loss of WAIC
(pushes warmer water under the ice):
https://insideclimatenews.org/news/12082019/antarctica-climate-change-ocean-wind-ice-melting-glaciers-global-warming
SHARKS (CROSSED OUT) MONGEESE (SIC) WITH FRICKIN LASER BEAMS ATTACHED TO THEIR HEADS

Tor Bejnar

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #522 on: August 13, 2019, 06:50:29 PM »
Business opportunity: Tow giant icebergs up to northern coastal cities and moor them near shore.
You could have referenced
Towing an Iceberg: One Captain’s Plan to Bring Drinking Water to 4 Million People or similar articles.
Arctic ice is healthy for children and other living things.

Stephen

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #523 on: August 14, 2019, 05:07:02 AM »
Towing Icebergs?  it's been done...
https://struckbyenlightning.wordpress.com/2009/11/30/sydney-iceberg-89-hoax/

But seriously, the thing that all of these schemes underestimate is the cost of the energy used to construct or implement the idea.  There was a kid in my high school science classes who was forever coming up with perpetual motion machines.  He never considered or understood entropy or friction.  I put damming the Bering Straits and towing icebergs in the same category as perpetual motion machines.

Just use solar & wind to generate the power to desalinate sea-water.  Quicker, cheaper, more permanent solution using currently available technologies.
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KiwiGriff

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Re: What's new in Antarctica ?
« Reply #524 on: August 14, 2019, 11:13:34 PM »
More on the paper mentioned by Tom_Mazanec above.

The Antarctic ice sheet is melting and, yeah, it’s probably our fault.
Filed under: Climate Science — eric @ 14 August 2019
Glaciers in West Antarctica have thinned and accelerated in the last few decades.  A new paper provides some of the first evidence that this is due to human activities.
http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2019/08/the-antarctic-ice-sheet-is-melting-and-yeah-its-probably-our-fault/
I will not try to condense what is a complex topic. Please read Eric's explanation.