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vox_mundi

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Re: Nuclear Power
« Reply #1300 on: October 02, 2019, 11:06:10 PM »
An India-Pakistan Nuclear War Would Kill Millions, Threaten Global Starvation
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-india-pakistan-nuclear-war-millions-threaten.html
... Videos at link

A nuclear war between India and Pakistan could, over the span of less than a week, kill 50-125 million people—more than the death toll during all six years of World War II, according to new research.



A new study conducted by researchers from the University of Colorado Boulder and Rutgers University examines how such a hypothetical future conflict would have consequences that could ripple across the globe. Today, India and Pakistan each have about 150 nuclear warheads at their disposal, and that number is expected to climb to more than 200 by 2025.

Quote
... "An India-Pakistan war could double the normal death rate in the world," ... "This is a war that would have no precedent in human experience."

Based on their analysis, the devastation would come in several stages. In the first week of the conflict, the group reports that India and Pakistan combined could successfully detonate about 250 nuclear warheads over each other's cities.

Most of those people wouldn't die from the blasts themselves, however, but from the out-of-control fires that would follow.

For the rest of the globe, the fires would just be the beginning.

The researchers calculated that an India-Pakistan war could inject as much as 80 billion pounds of thick, black smoke into Earth's atmosphere. That smoke would block sunlight from reaching the ground, driving temperatures around the world down by an average of between 3.5-9 degrees Fahrenheit for several years. Worldwide food shortages would likely come soon after.

"Our experiment, conducted with a state-of-the-art Earth system model, reveals large-scale reductions in the productivity of plants on land and of algae in the ocean, with dangerous consequences for organisms higher on the food chain, including humans" ...

Open Access: O.B. Toon el al., "Rapidly Expanding Nuclear Arsenals in Pakistan and India Portend Regional and Global Catastrophe," Science Advances (2019)






Smoke spreads globally and to high altitude in a few weeks after a nuclear war between India and Pakistan 


Temperatures drop rapidly as smoke from cities set on fire by a nuclear conflict between India and Pakistan blocks sunlight from reaching the surface. 
« Last Edit: October 03, 2019, 12:44:36 AM by vox_mundi »
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

vox_mundi

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Re: Nuclear Power
« Reply #1301 on: October 04, 2019, 10:44:48 PM »
Falling Space Reactors: Assessing the Risk
https://fas.org/blogs/secrecy/2019/10/falling-space-reactors/

A new NASA report examines various scenarios in which nuclear reactors that are used to power spacecraft could accidentally reenter the Earth’s atmosphere.

“There are a number of types of reentry events that can potentially occur with missions containing fission reactors. Each type of reentry event can produce a variety of possible adverse environments for the fission reactor,” the report said.

The postulated scenarios include accidental reentry upon launch, reentry from orbit, and reentry during Earth flyby.

See Fission Reactor Inadvertent Reentry: A Report to the Nuclear Power & Propulsion Technical Discipline Team, by Allen Camp et al, NASA/CR−2019-220397, August 2019.

A conference on “Nuclear Energy in Space: Nonproliferation Risks and Solutions” will be held in Washington DC on October 17 that will focus on the anticipated use of highly enriched uranium in space nuclear reactors, and the feasibility of using low enriched uranium instead. The conference is sponsored by the Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Project (NPPP) at the University of Texas at Austin.

Several previous technical analyses have concluded that use of low enriched uranium in space reactors is in fact feasible, but that it would probably require a reactor of significantly larger mass.

https://www.eventbrite.com/e/nuclear-energy-in-space-nonproliferation-risks-and-solutions-tickets-71315555747

See “White Paper – Use of LEU for a Space Reactor,” August 2017 and “Consideration of Low Enriched Uranium Space Reactors”, by David Lee Black, July 2018.

-----------------------------

http://anstd.ans.org/NETS-2019-Papers/Track-4--Space-Reactors/Track-4--Space-Reactors.html
http://anstd.ans.org/NETS-2019-Papers/Track-2--Mission-Concepts-and-Logistics/Track-2--Mission-Concepts-and-Logistics.html

Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is capable of high specific impulse as well as high thrust and is the leading candidate propulsion technology for a crewed Mars mission.

... Human exploration of entire solar system can be enabled if the gas core nuclear rocket concept is made feasible. The Gas-Core Nuclear Rocket has the potential to greatly reduce the trip time for a given mission as compared to chemical or electric propulsion systems.

... The development of NTP systems presents unique fuel material challenges due to requirements for high operating temperatures, exceeding 2500 K, and chemical compatibility with a hydrogen propellant (coolant) during operation.

... Tested nuclear fuel samples were evaluated for mass loss and their microstructure was characterized. ... Intense damage was observed in the ceramic particles in specific regions for the 2000 K tests that had higher frequency under thermal cycling.

... The current NASA GCD NTP design requires insight into this issue. This heat flow is more complex than simple conduction.

... Decay heating occurs within an Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system after reactor shutdown due to fission products decaying and producing heat within the reactor. The decay heat is large enough during this period to cause the NTP system components to heat up past their temperature limits without sufficient cooling. If the temperature limits are surpassed, the NTP system could be damaged including the reactor core components.

... Hanford's role in space reactor development and testing ... for the Multi-MW reactor, and the proposed Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) reactor.

... Collaborations are being pursued with both NASA and external experts to ensure that the results of the qualification testing of radiation effects on materials and electronics are appropriate and relevant to nuclear fission power flight systems.

AN ARCHITECTURE FOR A NUCLEAR POWERED CRYOBOT TO ACCESS THE OCEANS OF ICY WORLDS
http://anstd.ans.org/NETS-2019-Papers/Track-2--Mission-Concepts-and-Logistics/abstract-122-0.pdf

--------------------

If one of these pops, expect the U.S.to be as forthcoming as the Russians.
« Last Edit: October 05, 2019, 12:01:31 AM by vox_mundi »
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

vox_mundi

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Re: Nuclear Power
« Reply #1302 on: October 08, 2019, 05:57:03 PM »
US Official: Research Finds Uranium in Navajo Women, Babies
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-uranium-navajo-women-babies.html

About a quarter of Navajo women and some infants who were part of a federally funded study on uranium exposure had high levels of the radioactive metal in their systems, decades after mining for Cold War weaponry ended on their reservation, a U.S. health official Monday.

The early findings from the University of New Mexico study were shared during a congressional field hearing in Albuquerque. Dr. Loretta Christensen—the chief medical officer on the Navajo Nation for Indian Health Service, a partner in the research—said 781 women were screened during an initial phase of the study that ended last year.

Among them, 26% had concentrations of uranium that exceeded levels found in the highest 5% of the U.S. population, and newborns with equally high concentrations continued to be exposed to uranium during their first year, she said.

The hearing held in Albuquerque by U.S. Sen. Tom Udall, Haaland and U.S. Rep. Ben Ray Lujan, all Democrats from New Mexico, sought to underscore the atomic age's impact on Native American communities.

At Laguna Pueblo, home to Haaland's tribe, the Jackpile-Paguate Mine was once among the world's largest open-pit uranium mines. It closed several decades ago, but cleanup has yet to be completed.

In her testimony, Christensen described how Navajo residents in the past had used milling waste in home construction, resulting in contaminated walls and floors.

While no large-scale studies have connected cancer to radiation exposure from uranium waste, many have been blamed it for cancer and other illnesses.

By the late 1970s, when the mines began closing around the reservation, miners were dying of lung cancer, emphysema or other radiation-related ailments.
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

Ken Feldman

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Re: Nuclear Power
« Reply #1303 on: October 08, 2019, 06:06:35 PM »
US Official: Research Finds Uranium in Navajo Women, Babies
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-uranium-navajo-women-babies.html

About a quarter of Navajo women and some infants who were part of a federally funded study on uranium exposure had high levels of the radioactive metal in their systems, decades after mining for Cold War weaponry ended on their reservation, a U.S. health official Monday.

The early findings from the University of New Mexico study were shared during a congressional field hearing in Albuquerque. Dr. Loretta Christensen—the chief medical officer on the Navajo Nation for Indian Health Service, a partner in the research—said 781 women were screened during an initial phase of the study that ended last year.

Among them, 26% had concentrations of uranium that exceeded levels found in the highest 5% of the U.S. population, and newborns with equally high concentrations continued to be exposed to uranium during their first year, she said.

The hearing held in Albuquerque by U.S. Sen. Tom Udall, Haaland and U.S. Rep. Ben Ray Lujan, all Democrats from New Mexico, sought to underscore the atomic age's impact on Native American communities.

At Laguna Pueblo, home to Haaland's tribe, the Jackpile-Paguate Mine was once among the world's largest open-pit uranium mines. It closed several decades ago, but cleanup has yet to be completed.

In her testimony, Christensen described how Navajo residents in the past had used milling waste in home construction, resulting in contaminated walls and floors.

While no large-scale studies have connected cancer to radiation exposure from uranium waste, many have been blamed it for cancer and other illnesses.

By the late 1970s, when the mines began closing around the reservation, miners were dying of lung cancer, emphysema or other radiation-related ailments.

Thanks Vox.

Nuclear advocates often overlook the radiation exposure to surrounding communities from mining operations.  It's good to remind them of the dangers that nuclear power poses, even if the reactors are run safely (which they often aren't).

vox_mundi

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Re: Nuclear Power
« Reply #1304 on: October 14, 2019, 10:50:06 PM »
U.S. Reviewing Options For Pulling Nuclear Bombs Out Of Turkey, Here's How They Might Do It
https://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/30417/u-s-reviewing-options-for-pulling-nuclear-bombs-out-of-turkey-heres-how-they-might-do-it



The U.S. government is reportedly examining multiple plans for how it might remove approximately 50 B61 nuclear gravity bombs it keeps in ready storage at the American-operated portion of Turkey's Incirlik Air Base.

... The New York Times was the first to report that officials from the U.S. State Department and the U.S. Department of Energy, the latter of which oversees the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile, were reviewing what to do about the B61s at Incirlik. These bombs have been a particularly serious security concern, as the War Zone has highlighted in the past, after U.S.-Turkish relations began to chill following an attempted coup against Turkey's Recep Tayyip Erdogan in 2016.

Since the civil war in Syria erupted in 2011, there have been limited movements of bombs in and out of Turkey in order to return them to the United States for maintenance and upgrades, according to our trust sources.

Concerns about the B61s are undoubtedly higher now given the current situation in neighboring Syria. On Oct. 11, 2019, Turkish artillery "bracketed" a U.S. military position in the Syrian city of Kobane, firing shells within just hundreds of feet of the outpost edges of the outpost. ...

Quote
... I think this is a first — a country with US nuclear weapons stationed in it literally firing artillery at US forces.

https://mobile.twitter.com/ArmsControlWonk/status/1182846604245495808 

... While we don't know what courses of action might be under consideration, any option would be a major logistical undertaking, even under the best of circumstances. The most likely plan would be to fly the bombs out as part of what is known as a Prime Nuclear Airlift Force (PNAF) operation using specifically designated U.S. Air Force C-17 Globemaster IIIs and crews trained in the movement of nuclear weapons and who are vetted under the Nuclear Weapons Personnel Reliability Assurance Program, though properly configured and crewed C-130 Hercules and C-5 Galaxy airlifters are also options, if necessary.

... "Select the safest, most reliable aircraft available for PNAF missions," according to one Air Force manual titled Safety Rules for Nuclear Logistics Transport By The Prime Nuclear Airlift Force. "Fuel PNAF aircraft with the best low-volatility fuel available which is compatible with aircraft engine operation."

Quote
... "Those weapons, one senior official said, are now essentially Erdogan’s hostages, given the current geopolitical situation"

- The Times

... "To fly them out of Incirlik would be to mark the de facto end of the Turkish-American alliance," the story explained. "To keep them there, though, is to perpetuate a nuclear vulnerability that should have been eliminated years ago."

It might also prompt new calls within Turkey, which is presently a member of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), to consider developing its own nuclear arsenal. "Some countries have missiles with nuclear warheads, not one or two. But [they tell us] we can’t have them," Ergodan had said at a gathering of his members from his Justice and Development Party, also known by the Turkish acronym AK, in September 2019.

"This, I cannot accept," the Turkish President continued. “There is no developed nation in the world that doesn’t have them,” he added. ...

------------------------

The B61 nuclear bomb is of the variable yield ("dial-a-yield" in informal military jargon) design with a yield of 0.3 to 340 kilotons in its various mods.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/B61_nuclear_bomb
“There are three classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see.” ― Leonardo da Vinci

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late