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On 1 July 1993, after five years of drilling, the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two (GISP2,) penetrated through the ice sheet and 1.55 meters into bedrock recovering an ice core 3053.44 meters in depth, the deepest ice core recovered in the world at the time.

An analysis of the ice core got  temperature reconstruction was in past.

Arctic background / The oldest records of lake ice
« on: February 05, 2017, 07:21:06 PM »
In 1442, Shinto priests in Japan began keeping records of the freeze dates of a nearby lake. Together they create the oldest inland water ice records in human history and mark the first inklings of climate change, says a new report published today out of York University and the University of Wisconsin. In recent years, says Magnuson, both waters have also exhibited more extreme ice dates corresponding with increased warming. For Lake Suwa, that means more years without full ice cover even occurring. Before the Industrial Revolution, Lake Suwa froze over 99 per cent of the time. More recently, it does so only half the time.

The records from Lake Suwa in the Japanese Alps, says Sharma, were collected by Shinto priests observing a legend about a male god who crossed the frozen lake to visit a female god at her shrine.

For example, the study found that, from 1443 to 1683, Lake Suwa's annual freeze date was moving almost imperceptibly to later in the year -- at a rate of 0.19 days per decade. From the start of the Industrial Revolution, however, that trend in a later freeze date grew 24 times faster, pushing the lake's "ice on" date back 4.6 days per decade.

Extreme weather events have also become more common. In the first 250 years, the Shinto priests recorded, there were only three years when the lake did not freeze. Between 1955 and 2004, there 12 years when the lake didn’t freeze. Between 2005 and 2014, there were five.

Winter seasons without ice on Lake Suwa after 1443:

1546-1547, 1555-1556, 1671-1672, 1701-1702, 1724-1725, 1734-1735, 1737-1738, 1739-1740, 1759-1760, 1770-1771, 1793-1794, 1800-1801, 1804-1805, 1842-1843, 1844-1845, 1853-1854, 1865-1866, 1866-1867, 1867-1868, 1868-1869, 1879-1880, 1889-1890, 1915-1916, 1932-1933, 1948-1949, 1971-1972, 1978-1979, 1986-1987, 1988-1989, 1991-1992, 1992-1993, 1993-1994, 1994-1995, 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2004-2005, 2006-2007, 2008-2009, 2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2013-2014, 2014-2015, 2015-2016.

News about the freezing lake in the current winter yet.

Percentage winters without ice in different centuries:

15th century - no winter without ice among the observed 57 years - <1%
16th century - two winters without ice - 2%
17th century - оnly one winter without ice - 1%
18th century - 8 winters without ice - 8%
19th century - 11 winters without ice - 11%
20th century - 12 winters without ice - 12%
21th century - 9 winters without ice among the observed оnly 16 years - 56% (!!!)

The rate of climate change in the 21st century is amazing.

Arctic sea ice / Annual temperatures in the Arctic
« on: January 03, 2017, 04:44:36 PM »
In this topic, I decided to compile charts of annual temperatures in the Arctic. This is important due to the fact that 2016 was the warmest year, at least for the last thousand years.

Fig. 1.1. Arctic (land stations north of 60° N) and global mean annual land surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies (in °C) for the period 1900-2016 relative to the 1981-2010 mean value. Note that there were few stations in the Arctic, particularly in northern Canada, before 1940. The data are from the CRUTEM4 dataset, which is available at

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