Arctic Sea Ice : Forum

AGW in general => Consequences => Topic started by: Sigmetnow on October 11, 2015, 07:40:25 PM

Title: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on October 11, 2015, 07:40:25 PM
Forests
Climate change is increasing the vulnerability of many U.S. forests through fire, insect infestations, drought, and disease outbreaks. Forests play an important role in absorbing and storing carbon dioxide, but the rate of uptake is projected to decline.

Explore interactions between climate change and forests. 

From:  the National Climate Assessment
http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/sectors/forests (http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/sectors/forests)

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on October 13, 2015, 04:15:43 PM
The Rapid and Startling Decline Of World’s Vast Boreal Forests

Scientists are becoming increasingly concerned about the fate of the huge boreal forest that spans from Scandinavia to northern Canada. Unprecedented warming in the region is jeopardizing the future of a critical ecosystem that makes up nearly a third of the earth’s forest cover.

http://e360.yale.edu/feature/the_rapid_and_startling_decline_of_worlds_vast_boreal_forests/2919/ (http://e360.yale.edu/feature/the_rapid_and_startling_decline_of_worlds_vast_boreal_forests/2919/)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on December 10, 2015, 03:00:50 PM
Quote
In a surprising new study, scientists say they’ve pinned down the climate factor most strongly tied to variations in terrestrial carbon storage — that is, the ability of plants and other features of the Earth’s surface to take up carbon, thus preventing it from going into the atmosphere. They’re arguing that the biggest driver is tropical nighttime temperatures, which are expected to warm at a faster rate than average temperatures otherwise will.
...
“The idea here is that on warm nights, plants — and other parts of the ecosystem as well, potentially — are consuming and using up more of their sugars and losing that carbon to the atmosphere more than they do on cooler nights,” Anderegg said.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2015/12/09/the-surprising-factor-affecting-carbon-storage-in-the-worlds-forests/ (https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2015/12/09/the-surprising-factor-affecting-carbon-storage-in-the-worlds-forests/)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on December 31, 2015, 02:15:31 PM
California Drought Puts Tens of Millions of Big Trees at Risk: Study
Quote
As many as 58 million of California's large trees are at risk due to the ongoing drought, according to a new study — and researchers say that means big changes may be ahead for the state's forests even if El Nino does drive increased rainfall in the coming year.

Using imaging tools on board the Carnegie Airborne Observatory, ecologist Greg Asner and a team from the Carnegie Institution for Science surveyed forests affected by the drought that's been ongoing since 2012. Their research, which shows how California's forest canopies have lost water over time, was published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/california-drought/california-drought-puts-tens-millions-big-trees-risk-study-n486861 (http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/california-drought/california-drought-puts-tens-millions-big-trees-risk-study-n486861)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on January 27, 2016, 02:04:22 PM
Nine-year-old boy plants seed that yields 3 trillion trees
Quote
Felix challenged his classmates—and ultimately, children throughout the world—to plant a million trees in each country, an idea that grew into an international youth organization called “Plant-for-the-Planet.” In 2011, the UNEP turned its Billion Tree Campaign over to the organization Felix had started. By that time, the UN program had celebrated the planting of 12 billion trees.
Quote
The team also found that on average, some 15 billion trees are lost each year while only 5 billion new trees are gained, a net loss of 10 billion trees per year. So if we want to maintain the current total of 3 trillion, we need to achieve some combination of planting a lot more trees and reducing the number that are lost.
http://climate.nasa.gov/news/2393/ (http://climate.nasa.gov/news/2393/)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on January 29, 2016, 01:53:34 PM
Forest Loss Pushes Far Beyond Plantation Boundaries in South America, Africa
Quote
Which of the world’s forests are natural, and which have been planted by humans?

It seems like a simple question, but researchers have been struggling to answer it for years. Satellites can’t easily distinguish between primary and secondary forests, which occur naturally, and planted forests, which are created and managed by people to supply timber, rubber and other commodities. And few countries provide accurate maps of plantation locations.

But we’re getting closer. Researchers from Global Forest Watch and Transparent World recently mapped tree plantations in seven heavily forested nations, and found that in most of the countries, more than 90 percent of tree cover loss is occurring within natural forests. That’s a problem since natural forests, especially those in the tropics, provide much greater climate, water and biodiversity benefits over planted landscapes.
http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/01/forest-loss-pushes-far-beyond-plantation-boundaries-south-america-africa (http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/01/forest-loss-pushes-far-beyond-plantation-boundaries-south-america-africa)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on January 29, 2016, 04:41:01 PM
World heritage forests burn as global tragedy unfolds in Tasmania
‘Devastating’ long-term prognosis for ancient Gondwana ecosystem as bushfires turn trees more than 1,000 years old to tinder
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/jan/27/world-heritage-forests-burn-as-global-tragedy-unfolds-in-tasmania (http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/jan/27/world-heritage-forests-burn-as-global-tragedy-unfolds-in-tasmania)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on January 31, 2016, 12:48:42 AM
Chinese Oil Companies to Buy One-Third of Ecuador's Rainforests
Quote
In a move that has angered local tribes and environmental activists, Ecuador plans to sell more than a third of its rainforests to Chinese oil companies.

The country's Amazonian rainforest measures 8.1 million hectares (20 million acres) in size – slightly larger than the total area of South Carolina – according to a 2008 study published in PLOS ONE. The reason for this sale is twofold: Ecuador owes China billions of dollars in debt, and the country's rainforests are rich in oil reserves, the report added.

As of last summer, Ecuador was at least $7 billion in debt to China, Reuters said. That's more than 10 percent of the country's GDP, and it gave Chinese oil companies the ability to bargain their way into those useful rainforests.
https://weather.com/science/environment/news/ecuador-rainforests-sold-to-china
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on March 07, 2016, 03:57:18 AM
Risk level rises for North American forests
Quote
“Our analysis shows virtually all US forests are now experiencing change and are vulnerable to future declines. Given the uncertainty in our understanding of how forest species and stands adapt to rapid change, it’s going to be difficult to anticipate the type of forests that will be here in 20 to 40 years.”
Quote
“When you chop down trees, you create hotspots in the landscape that are just scorched by the sun. These hotspots can change the way that heat moves through a landscape,” says the report’s lead author, Kika Tuff, a PhD student at the university’s department of ecology and evolutionary biology.

Low air pressure in the cleared spots pulls the cool moist air from the shade of the trees, to be replaced by hot, dry air. The cleared areas then get the rainfall, while the nearby forest dries.

The warming effect is most pronounced within between 20 and 100 metres of the forest’s edge, where temperatures can be as much as 8°C higher than deep in the forest interior.

Since 20% of the world’s remaining forests lie within 100 metres of an edge, and more than 70% lie within a kilometre of an edge, the discovery suggests that the warming effect could be happening anywhere, or everywhere.
http://climatenewsnetwork.net/risk-level-rises-for-north-american-forests/ (http://climatenewsnetwork.net/risk-level-rises-for-north-american-forests/)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on March 10, 2016, 01:42:37 PM
Forest restoration: from Stone Age to drone age
Forest restoration still relies on back-breaking manual labor with basic tools like spades, machetes, and hoes. But now researchers are developing techniques for automated forest restoration — or AFR — using drones to survey forests, gather and disperse seeds, and control weeds, among other possibilities.
http://news.mongabay.com/2016/03/forest-restoration-from-stone-age-to-drone-age/ (http://news.mongabay.com/2016/03/forest-restoration-from-stone-age-to-drone-age/)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on March 14, 2016, 12:29:49 AM
World’s largest sovereign wealth fund just dropped 11 companies over deforestation
Quote
Norway’s Government Pension Fund Global (GPFG), the world’s largest sovereign wealth fund, dropped 11 companies in 2015 over their connections to forest destruction.

The GPFG, which manages $828 billion worth of funds, released its annual report for 2015 today, revealing that six palm oil companies, four pulp and paper companies, and one coal company were dropped from its investment portfolio.
http://news.mongabay.com/2016/03/worlds-largest-sovereign-wealth-fund-just-dropped-11-companies-over-deforestation/ (http://news.mongabay.com/2016/03/worlds-largest-sovereign-wealth-fund-just-dropped-11-companies-over-deforestation/)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on March 20, 2016, 03:56:10 PM
China's forest conservation programs show a decade of improvement in tree cover. 
Quote
But that didn't mean China's thriving manufacturing industry was just going without timber. The nation now sees significant timber imports from places like Vietnam, Madagascar, and Russia, Dr. Viña says. "We think that success in reducing deforestation in China is basically being transferred into deforestation in other regions," he says.
Globally, deforestation continues, but at a slowing pace.
Quote
Although global deforestation has yet to reverse course, reports do suggest it is slowing. In fact, global deforestation rates have been cut in half since 1990, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization’s Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA). In the 1990s, an average of 0.18 percent of the world's forests were lost each year, but from 2010 to 2015, that average loss dropped to 0.08 percent.

"It is encouraging to see that net deforestation is decreasing and that some countries in all regions are showing impressive progress. Among others, they include Brazil, Chile, China, Cape Verde, Costa Rica, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Turkey, Uruguay, and Viet Nam," FAO Director-General Jose Graziano da Silva said in a press release in 2015.

And with decreasing deforestation, that means more carbon storage. The FAO also reported that carbon emissions from forests decreased by 25 percent from 2001 to 2015.
http://m.csmonitor.com/Science/2016/0319/China-s-forest-conservation-program-shows-proof-of-success (http://m.csmonitor.com/Science/2016/0319/China-s-forest-conservation-program-shows-proof-of-success)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on March 23, 2016, 04:03:14 PM
Ash dieback and beetle attack likely to 'wipe out' ash trees in UK and Europe
Quote
Almost all the ash trees in the UK and across Europe are likely to be wiped out by a “double whammy” of a bright green borer beetle and the fungus that causes ash dieback, according to a comprehensive new academic analysis.

The loss of the ash, one of the most abundant tree species in the UK, would mean losing even more trees than the 15 million elms killed by Dutch elm disease in the 1970s. Ash is the most common hedgerow tree, with 60,000 miles of tree lines. It is the second most common tree in woodland, after the oak, and there are many ash trees in towns and cities.
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/mar/23/ash-dieback-and-beetle-attack-likely-to-wipe-out-all-ash-trees-in-uk-and-europe (http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/mar/23/ash-dieback-and-beetle-attack-likely-to-wipe-out-all-ash-trees-in-uk-and-europe)

Image:   Dead branches in the crown of an ash tree (Fraxinus excelsior) in Frankfurt Oder, Germany. Photograph: Patrick Pleul/dpa/Corbis
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on March 27, 2016, 01:25:36 AM
Poland approves large-scale logging in Europe's last primeval forest
Greenpeace accuses government of ignoring scientists over fate of Białowieża woodland, home to 20,000 animal species and Europe’s tallest trees
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/mar/26/poland-approves-large-scale-logging-in-europes-last-primeval-forest (http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/mar/26/poland-approves-large-scale-logging-in-europes-last-primeval-forest)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: sidd on March 27, 2016, 05:12:31 AM
Re: Poland old forest logging

Amazing. Market value of 180K cu. m of wood even discounted and amortized over a decade is worth all that old forest.

There is a quote from Aldo Leopold to the effect that a trade presented as getting something for giving nothing turns into getting nothing for losing everything. You can't bargain with Nature in terms of human values, She sets the terms, and exacts a hard bargain.

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: wili on March 27, 2016, 05:50:38 PM
Are you thinking of Wendell Berry's:

“We thought we were getting something for nothing,

But we were getting nothing

for everything.”
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: sidd on March 27, 2016, 06:31:50 PM
Yes, of course it was Berry ...
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on May 11, 2016, 06:46:47 PM
Invasive insects are ravaging U.S. forests, and it’s costing us billions
Quote
Last week, a group of researchers published saddening news about “sudden oak death,” spread by an invasive water mold, that has killed over a million trees in coastal California. The pathogen, they found, simply cannot be stopped — though it can still be contained, and the harm mitigated. But it is too extensively established now in California to eradicate.

Unfortunately, it’s a familiar story. The U.S. is subject to the introduction of 2.5 new invasive insects into its forests ever year, according to a comprehensive new analysis of this problem, in the journal Ecological Applications, by Gary Lovett of the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies and a group of 15 colleagues from Harvard, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and numerous other institutions. And that number is just for insects — it doesn’t count diseases, like sudden oak death.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/05/10/the-slow-motion-crisis-thats-facing-u-s-forests/ (https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/05/10/the-slow-motion-crisis-thats-facing-u-s-forests/)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on May 15, 2016, 03:26:11 PM
Even without replanting efforts!

Young Forests Can Store ‘Enormous’ Amounts of Carbon
Quote
Woodland areas that regrow after forest fires, logging operations or other disturbances can sequester huge amounts of carbon dioxide and they play an unexpectedly valuable role in mitigating climate change, according to a study by 60 scientists from across the globe.

The research, published Friday in the journal Science Advances, is the first to quantify how much carbon these so-called second-growth forests can sequester, and it turns out it’s huge. The scientists found that over the span of 40 years, Latin American second-growth forests can stash away the equivalent of 21 years worth of the region’s human carbon dioxide emissions.
http://www.climatecentral.org/news/young-forests-store-enormous-amounts-carbon-20348 (http://www.climatecentral.org/news/young-forests-store-enormous-amounts-carbon-20348)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on June 22, 2016, 09:52:32 PM
Officials announce over 66 million trees dead in California
Coordinated effort continues to remove dead trees
Quote
Sacramento - As wildfires burn across California, new estimates on the number of dead trees in California were announced, prompting continued concern for California’s forest health and wildfire danger. Today the US Forest Service released the outcome of its latest aerial surveys over California forestland, finding that over 66 million trees have now died due to drought and bark beetles since 2010. That number is up from 29 million dead trees in 2015 and 3.3 million in 2014.
http://calfire.ca.gov/communications/downloads/newsreleases/2016/2016_TreeMortality.pdf (http://calfire.ca.gov/communications/downloads/newsreleases/2016/2016_TreeMortality.pdf)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: DoomInTheUK on June 23, 2016, 11:00:43 AM
...over 66 million trees have now died due to drought and bark beetles since 2010. That number is up from 29 million dead trees in 2015 and 3.3 million in 2014.

A 2000% increase in just a couple of years. If that's not a sign that it's out of control, then I don't know what its!
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: AbruptSLR on June 30, 2016, 05:25:51 PM
Addressing deforestation alone will be insufficient to maintain biodiversity in the future:

http://phys.org/news/2016-06-deforestation-tropical-biodiversity.html (http://phys.org/news/2016-06-deforestation-tropical-biodiversity.html)

See also:

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-36656443 (http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-36656443)

Extract: "Human disturbances are making the Amazon rainforest more flammable, according to researchers."
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Paladiea on July 11, 2016, 03:10:56 AM
http://abcnews.go.com/US/california-drought-causing-trees-die-millions-scientist/story?id=40317017 (http://abcnews.go.com/US/california-drought-causing-trees-die-millions-scientist/story?id=40317017)

Interesting analysis on the recent spike in tree deaths.

Accompanying NASA article:
http://climate.nasa.gov/news/2457/nasa-maps-california-drought-effects-on-sierra-trees/ (http://climate.nasa.gov/news/2457/nasa-maps-california-drought-effects-on-sierra-trees/)

LA Times gif attached (click to animate).

Oh and an article on mass mangrove death:
http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-07-10/unprecedented-10000-hectares-of-mangroves-die/7552968 (http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-07-10/unprecedented-10000-hectares-of-mangroves-die/7552968)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Paladiea on July 11, 2016, 09:29:31 PM
Amazon no longer a carbon sink thanks to drought. Should I also crosspost this in the drought section?

https://www.exeter.ac.uk/news/research/title_527669_en.html (https://www.exeter.ac.uk/news/research/title_527669_en.html)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: AbruptSLR on July 17, 2016, 12:20:04 PM
Bad news about Australian mangroves from Queensland to the Northern Territory:

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-07-10/unprecedented-10000-hectares-of-mangroves-die/7552968 (http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-07-10/unprecedented-10000-hectares-of-mangroves-die/7552968)

Extract: "Close to 10,000 hectares of mangroves have died across a stretch of coastline reaching from Queensland to the Northern Territory.

International mangroves expert Dr Norm Duke said he had no doubt the "dieback" was related to climate change.

"It's a world-first in terms of the scale of mangrove that have died," he told the ABC."
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on July 19, 2016, 09:41:19 PM
Quote
Eric Holthaus:  What a tree looks like ~10 years after being hit by a EF-5 tornado. Huge trunk, tiny branches. #greensburg
https://mobile.twitter.com/EricHolthaus/status/755195895956766720
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on July 20, 2016, 09:33:50 PM
Cattle Grazing Is Now Causing Massive Deforestation Hotspots In The Peruvian Amazon
Quote
Deforestation in the Amazon has been a growing problem over the past five decades, with ranchers leading the way in clearing rainforest for cattle and cultivation. But while Brazil, the largest country in South America, seems on track to reduce deforestation, other major Amazonian countries like Peru are increasingly struggling to protect their share of the world’s largest rainforest.

In fact, a new wave of deforestation is underway in the Huanuco region of central Peru, which now has the highest concentration of the deforestation in the country, according to an Amazon Conservation Association (ACA) report published this month. The report is based on algorithms of satellite data from 2013 through 2015 and points to cattle grazing as the main culprit, Matt Finer, senior research specialist at the ACA told ThinkProgress. “We just hadn’t really dealt with that driver before. You hear that more in the context of Brazil.”
http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2016/07/19/3796321/peruvian-amazon-shows-new-deforestation-hotspots/ (http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2016/07/19/3796321/peruvian-amazon-shows-new-deforestation-hotspots/)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on August 01, 2016, 06:04:11 PM
From the TV show, "House."
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on November 19, 2016, 11:05:38 PM
102 million dead California trees 'unprecedented in our modern history,' officials say
Quote
The number of dead trees in California’s drought-stricken forests has risen dramatically to more than 102 million in what officials described as an unparalleled ecological disaster that heightens the danger of massive wildfires and damaging erosion.

Officials said they were alarmed by the increase in dead trees, which they estimated to have risen by 36 million since the government’s last survey in May. The U.S. Forest Service, which performs such surveys of forest land, said Friday that 62 million trees have died this year alone.

“The scale of die-off in California is unprecedented in our modern history,” said Randy Moore, the forester for the region of the U.S. Forest Service that includes California. Trees are dying “at a rate much quicker than we thought.”

Scientists say five years of drought are to blame for much of the destruction. The lack of rain has put California’s trees under considerable stress, making them more susceptible to the organisms, such as beetles, that can kill them.  Unusually high temperatures have added to the trees’ demand for water, exacerbating an already grim situation.
http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-dead-trees-20161118-story.html (http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-dead-trees-20161118-story.html)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Shared Humanity on November 20, 2016, 05:10:39 PM
This story is playing out all over the planet and is almost always related to AGW.

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/whats-killing-the-aspen-93130832/ (http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/whats-killing-the-aspen-93130832/)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on December 10, 2016, 04:57:10 PM
Unhealthy forests affect distant ecosystems
Quote
Ecologists have demonstrated, once again, the global importance of healthy forests. Fell enough woodland in North America, and the consequences make themselves felt in the forests of Siberia.

And clear the tropical rainforest in the Amazon, and the Siberian conifers experience even greater cold and drought. This “teleconnection” confirms that activities in one region can disturb the climate equilibrium in another.
http://climatenewsnetwork.net/unhealthy-forests-affect-distant-ecosystems/ (http://climatenewsnetwork.net/unhealthy-forests-affect-distant-ecosystems/)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on December 27, 2016, 04:18:30 AM
California Forests Failing to Regrow After Intense Wildfires
Huge, destructive fires are more common with climate change, and the loss of regeneration threatens to exacerbate global warming.
Quote
There are warning signs that some forests in the western U.S. may have a hard time recovering from the large and intense wildfires that have become more common as the climate warms.

After studying 14 burned areas across 10 national forests in California, scientists from UC Davis and the U.S. Forest Service said recent fires have killed so many mature, seed-producing trees across such large areas that the forests can't re-seed themselves. And because of increasingly warm temperatures, burned areas are quickly overgrown by shrubs, which can prevent trees from taking root.

"With high-severity fires, the seed source drops off," said study co-author Kevin Lynch, a forest researcher at UC Davis. "We aren't seeing the conditions that are likely to promote natural regeneration."

Historically, severe fires were uncommon in the forests covered by the study, largely made up of yellow pines and mixed conifers, but extended drought and heatwaves have exacerbated fire conditions across the West. The changing climate is also seen as a factor in recent wildfires in the Southeast, which is also mired in drought.

For the study, published Wednesday in the journal Ecosphere, the researchers surveyed 1,500 plots in burned areas at different elevations in the Sierra Nevadas, Klamath Mountains, and North Coast regions. There was no natural conifer regeneration at all in 43 percent of the plots, they reported.
https://insideclimatenews.org/news/21122016/california-forests-wildfires-climate-change
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on February 18, 2017, 05:57:22 PM
It’s not your imagination. More trees than ever are standing dead in Colorado forests
Annual survey estimates there are 834 million standing-dead trees, threatening watersheds and worsening risk of ruinous fires
http://www.denverpost.com/2017/02/15/dead-trees-colorado-forests/ (http://www.denverpost.com/2017/02/15/dead-trees-colorado-forests/)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on April 08, 2017, 05:10:11 PM
Brazil halves environment budget amid rising Amazon deforestation
Quote
In a bid to contain a growing budget deficit, the government has slashed the funding to enforce forest protection laws

The Brazilian government is cutting its environment ministry budget by 51% as part of a bid to limit the country’s spiralling deficit.

The cuts come as deforestation rates are rising, driven by demand for timber, soy and beef. The Amazon region saw a 29% increase in forest clearance last year, according to preliminary data from Brazil’s National Space Research Institute.

It is an even steeper drop in spending than the 31% Donald Trump’s administration is proposing for the US Environmental Protection Agency.

The environment ministry oversees Ibama, the agency responsible for enforcing laws to protect the forest. Sharp spending cuts risk weakening its capacity to carry out inspections, warned NGO Observatorio do Clima.
...
http://www.climatechangenews.com/2017/04/03/brazil-halves-environment-budget-amid-rising-amazon-deforestation/ (http://www.climatechangenews.com/2017/04/03/brazil-halves-environment-budget-amid-rising-amazon-deforestation/)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: AbruptSLR on April 18, 2017, 08:26:04 PM
The linked article is entitled: "Business as Usual: A Resurgence of Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon", and it details the continuing sad story for tropical forest deforestation:

http://e360.yale.edu/features/business-as-usual-a-resurgence-of-deforestation-in-the-brazilian-amazon (http://e360.yale.edu/features/business-as-usual-a-resurgence-of-deforestation-in-the-brazilian-amazon)

Extract: "After years of positive signs, deforestation in Brazil’s Amazon is on the rise, with a sharp increase in 2016. As powerful economic forces push for development …"
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: sidd on June 30, 2017, 07:36:01 AM
Pine bark beetle is killing east yellowstone and spreading, huge swaths dying. Looks like fall, except pine don't change color in fall and it ain't fall. I hear the wood gets color too, but of course, no logging in yellowstone ... West yellowstone is better, but i saw it occasionally as far west as Gallatin. And as far north as three forks, montana where the jefferson, madison and galltin come together to make the missouri.  Nothing is replacing as a succession species that i saw. That whole area is monoculture pine, too much for the beetle to eat, and winters not cold enuf to kill them. One of the people i talked to is trying to plant spruce, but it's hard. Pheromone packets help a little. Saw it as far east as nebraska, but more varied trees there.

NatGeo article here:

http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2015/04/pine-beetles/rosner-text (http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2015/04/pine-beetles/rosner-text)

Incidentally, the trout fishing is superlative this year on the madison and the shoshone.

sidd
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: sidd on August 24, 2017, 09:53:31 PM
Another 50K sq. km. of the Amazon opened to mining. Temer and his corrupt gang busy at work. Read and weep.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/aug/24/brazil-abolishes-huge-amazon-reserve-in-biggest-attack-in-50-years (https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/aug/24/brazil-abolishes-huge-amazon-reserve-in-biggest-attack-in-50-years)

sidd
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: sidd on February 27, 2018, 12:12:16 AM
Hre is paper about carbon sequestration potential of forest topsoils in the USA. The authors estimate 2 Petagram C by 2100 .

DOI: 10.1126/science.aal4369

discussion at

https://phys.org/news/2018-02-reforesting-topsoils-massive-amounts-carbon.html

sidd
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on July 11, 2018, 04:20:59 PM
TOP CLIMATE SCIENTIST JOINS COALITION IN CALLING FOR AN END TO CLEARCUTS AND TIMBER PLANTATIONS
July 10, 2018
Quote
One of the world’s leading climate scientists joined a coalition of 18 conservation, scientific, and community organizations calling on Oregon’s new Carbon Policy Office (CPO) and the Department of Forestry (ODF) to do an about-face on the state’s evolving forest carbon policy and to immediately implement measures to curb the harmful climate impacts of clearcutting and tree plantations. In a thirteen-page letter sent to CPO Director Kristen Sheeran and State Forester Peter Daugherty, the coalition urges the state to abandon the timber industry’s preferred ‘hands off’ approach to forests and climate change in favor of a forest carbon policy based on science and principles of environmental justice. The letter was also sent to forest policy makers in Washington state since that state is on a similar track with respect to forests and climate. ...
https://sustainable-economy.org/top-climate-scientist-joins-coalition-in-calling-for-an-end-to-clearcuts-and-timber-plantations/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Csnavywx on July 12, 2018, 03:30:09 PM
Pine bark beetle is killing east yellowstone and spreading, huge swaths dying. Looks like fall, except pine don't change color in fall and it ain't fall. I hear the wood gets color too, but of course, no logging in yellowstone ... West yellowstone is better, but i saw it occasionally as far west as Gallatin. And as far north as three forks, montana where the jefferson, madison and galltin come together to make the missouri.  Nothing is replacing as a succession species that i saw. That whole area is monoculture pine, too much for the beetle to eat, and winters not cold enuf to kill them. One of the people i talked to is trying to plant spruce, but it's hard. Pheromone packets help a little. Saw it as far east as nebraska, but more varied trees there.

NatGeo article here:

http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2015/04/pine-beetles/rosner-text (http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2015/04/pine-beetles/rosner-text)

Incidentally, the trout fishing is superlative this year on the madison and the shoshone.

sidd

I was up in Shoshone and Yellowstone back in 2016 and was shocked at how bad it was. I have photographs from the 80s and early 90s when I used to go up there as a kid and it had totally changed. The snow patches and ice had visibly retreated way up and in some spots beetle kill went all the way up to the tree line.

I thought I had seen the worst, but that came when we trekked up to the Yoho National Forest in Canada. Huge swaths of that forest were dead or dying when we went through. It hadn't yet gotten to Banff, but it was knocking on the door. I feel fortunate I got to see Banff before it hit. What a beautiful place.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Csnavywx on July 12, 2018, 03:44:07 PM
Recent articles on bark beetle activity:

Alaska:

https://brookvilletimes.com/voracious-spruce-bark-beetles-are-back-in-force-in-southcentral-alaska/

Rhode Island/Northeast US

No big attack yet, but the beetles have infiltrated:

http://www.providencejournal.com/news/20180617/ri-prepares-for-pine-beetle-attack


Florida:

https://www.clickorlando.com/news/officials-park-closes-to-remove-trees-infested-with-bark-beetles


New study:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/06/180620094908.htm


Colorado:

Some enclaves have been relatively spared:

http://crestedbuttenews.com/2018/07/pine-beetles-are-at-normal-levels-in-cb/


Others, not so much:

California:

https://www.nbcsandiego.com/news/local/Tiny-Beetle-Killing-San-Diego-Trees-Increasing-Wildfire-Risk--487355431.html


Yale Env. 360 article:

https://e360.yale.edu/features/small-pests-big-problems-the-global-spread-of-bark-beetles
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: sidd on July 12, 2018, 10:06:16 PM
This year i am seeing bark beetle damage in PA. Been a hard winter, so mebbe it will abate a little.

sidd
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on July 14, 2018, 09:37:52 PM
Nine of the 13 oldest baobabs, aged between 1,000 and 2,500 years, have died over the past dozen years.  The sudden collapse is "an event of unprecedented magnitude."

Africa's oldest baobab trees are dying from a mysterious threat
Rising temperatures, increasing drought due to climate change is a suspected factor
https://www.cbc.ca/amp/1.4745548
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Alexander555 on July 14, 2018, 09:55:17 PM
I have seen several of them, in Zimbabwe and in the Kruger National Park in South-Africa. And the most Southern Baobab is half way the Kruger Park. So they prefer hotter and drier regions.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: jacksmith4tx on July 17, 2018, 09:34:07 PM
Wildfires In The U.S. Are Getting Bigger
https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/wildfires-in-the-u-s-are-getting-bigger/
"That dichotomy — fewer fires, more land ablaze — is in keeping with long-standing trends. Since 1985, the trend in the number of wildfires hasn’t changed much, but the trend for total acreage burned has gone up and up and up. So what gives? Experts say there’s no single cause in the midst of all that smoke. Instead, the trend is probably related to the interaction of changing climate, short-term weather patterns and a philosophical shift in how we manage both forests and fires."
...
"Fire managers began to change their philosophy and allow some fires to burn in a more natural way in the 1970s.... Over the last 15 or 20 years, that’s become more of the norm. In the past, every little fire that started got put out before it burned much land. Today, one fire might be allowed to eat up much more built-up kindling... It’s better to let the fire burn more acreage than risk lives unnecessarily.

But transitioning to a more natural sort of fire management isn’t necessarily going to return the forests to a past state of balance with the blaze, Collins warned. Decades of extreme fire prevention have altered forest adaptation. Areas that burn severely today might never grow back the same way. “You can’t just turn the switch back on,” he said. “We might be turning [some forests] into shrublands.”
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: sidd on August 15, 2018, 07:15:43 PM
Trees growing less dense

https://phys.org/news/2018-08-wood-density-european-trees-decreasing.html

sidd
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Alexander555 on August 15, 2018, 09:28:48 PM
To scale up European forests there has to be water in the top soil. This year some trees started to drop their leaves in July. If they stop growing in July because of a lack of water. And they stop growing when the winter arrives. There is not much time left to grow.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: vox_mundi on December 02, 2018, 04:37:48 PM
Hot Weather Killed 'Up to Half' of Young Christmas Trees
https://www.bbc.com/news/amp/uk-wales-46301490

Quote
The British Christmas Tree Growers Association (BCTGA) said some of its members had lost up to half of what they had planted in the spring.

It could hit supplies in eight to 10 years' time, while availability of smaller trees could be lower this year.
Quote
... "The fierce sun of the summer baked the roots, and they dried out. It's cost me around £7,000," said Mr Morgan, who supplied the tree for 10 Downing Street last year.   
Concerned that climate change will cause ongoing issues, he is now considering changing the types of trees he plants. 
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on March 19, 2019, 05:38:19 PM
Iconic Forests Reaching Climate Tipping Points in American West, Study Finds
Quote
Climate change in the American West may be crossing an ominous threshold, making parts of the region inhospitable for some native pine and fir forests to regrow after wildfires, new research suggests.

As temperatures rise, the hotter, drier air and drier soil conditions are increasingly unsuitable for young Douglas firs and ponderosa pines to take root and thrive in some of the region's low-elevation forests, scientists write in a study published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Wildfires in these areas could lead to abrupt ecosystem changes, from forest to non-forest, that would otherwise take decades to centuries, the study says.

"Once a certain threshold was crossed, then the probability of tree establishment decreased rapidly," said Kimberley Davis, a researcher at the University of Montana and lead author of the study. "The climate conditions are just a lot less suitable for regeneration." ...
https://insideclimatenews.org/news/11032019/forest-wildfire-climate-change-tipping-point-study-douglas-fir-ponderosa-pines-west
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on March 26, 2019, 05:00:36 PM
Hurricane Maria Devastated Puerto Rico’s Forests at an Unprecedented Rate
The tropical storm snapped and uprooted trees long thought to be the hardiest—and some of the most important for keeping carbon out of the atmosphere.
Quote
As Hurricane Maria raged across the island with rampaging rains and winds gusting at up to 155 miles per hour, it inflicted serious damage on 20 to 40 million trees. Some species were hit harder than others, and in the aftermath of the onslaught, the makeup of Puerto Rico’s lush ecosystems has likely been permanently altered. And Maria’s destructive powers might well be a harbinger of far worse times to come: With global temperatures on the rise, the researchers forecast that similar storms will follow.

“These hurricanes are going to kill more trees...the factors that protected many trees in the past will no longer apply,” study author María Uriarte, an environmental biologist at Columbia University’s Earth Institute, said in a statement.
...
But not all species were affected in the same way. “There were winners and losers,” Uriarte told Mark Tutton at CNN. Uriarte was surprised to find that large, old hardwoods like tabonucos (candlewoods) and ausubos (bulletwoods)—thick, dense, slow-growing breeds that have traditionally showed resilience in the face of natural disasters—were among the fallen. The loss of these staple species further endangers the birds and other wildlife that typically make their homes in their branches, trunks, and leaves. Others, like the common sierra palm, which have the flexibility to sway and buckle in the gales and easily resprout after damage, fared far better.

Ultimately, these long-term shifts in composition could make for “lower saturated and less diverse forests,” Uriarte said in a statement. And that could have some serious long-term consequences.

With their lower density, palms can’t store as much carbon as hardwoods. If these forests morph into glens of short, skinny, light-bodied trees, they might not do as good a job keeping carbon out of the atmosphere. Additionally, every bout of forest destruction takes trees out of commission, compromising the ability of Earth’s ecosystems to stave off climatic changes, Yadvinder Malhi, an ecosystem scientist at the University of Oxford who was not involved in the study, told Tutton at CNN.

Emissions from the decay of felled trees could even begin to outweigh the carbon taken in by replacements, turning these forests into net carbon emitters. In other words, the landscapes of the future might end up feeding the very changes that put them at risk. ...
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/hurricane-maria-devastated-puerto-ricos-forests-at-an-unprecedented-rate/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: morganism on April 06, 2019, 12:06:03 AM
American Trees Are Moving West, and No One Knows Why

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/05/go-west-my-sap/526899/

“Different species are responding to climate change differently. Most of the broad-leaf species—deciduous trees—are following moisture moving westward. The evergreen trees—the needle species—are primarily moving northward,”
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Susan Anderson on April 06, 2019, 10:01:16 AM
The secret deal to destroy paradise: The story behind the single biggest threat to the rainforests of Indonesia.
https://news.mongabay.com/2018/11/the-secret-deal-to-destroy-paradise/ (https://news.mongabay.com/2018/11/the-secret-deal-to-destroy-paradise/)

This is only a small extract, please go to the link:

Quote
The threat to the rainforests of Indonesia was very real. Since the turn of the century, only Brazil has lost more rainforest than Indonesia. One of the leading causes of this deforestation was a boom in industrial-scale plantations that began in the early 2000s. Those plantations enabled Indonesia to become the leading producer of palm oil, an edible oil used in an endless array of consumer products. But it also sparked an environmental crisis, as the carbon locked up in rainforests was released into the atmosphere.

The volume of greenhouse gas emissions from Indonesian rainforests has made it a matter of international concern. Norway has pledged $1 billion in an attempt to incentivize reforms to curb them. Since 2015, the administration of President Joko Widodo has sought to rein in the plantation industry, most recently by enacting a temporary ban on any new permits for palm plantations. Though just a small proportion of the Tanah Merah project has been developed, the permits were issued before the ban came into force, and the forest remains slated for destruction.

Today, an area larger than Manhattan has been cleared within the Tanah Merah project. This is only a fraction of the total project area. If the rest is bulldozed as planned, it will release as much emissions as Virginia produces by burning fossil fuels each year. If the giant sawmill that is today being constructed on the land is completed, it will suck in timber for years to come, settling the fate of swathes of rainforest in southern Papua.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on April 07, 2019, 04:45:17 PM
Logging Is the Leading Driver of Carbon Emissions From US Forests

...

Many people are aware of the importance of protecting rainforests in Brazil to help mitigate climate change, but few realize that more logging occurs in the US, and more wood is consumed here, than in any other nation globally. The rate and scale of logging in the Southeastern US alone is four times that in South American rainforests.

...

Carbon emissions from logging in the US are ten times higher than the combined emissions from wildland fire and tree mortality from native bark beetles. Fire only consumes a minor percentage of forest carbon, while improving availability of key nutrients and stimulating rapid forest regeneration. Within a decade after fire, more carbon has been pulled out of the atmosphere than was emitted. When trees die from drought and native bark beetles, no carbon is consumed or emitted initially, and carbon emissions from decay are extremely small, and slow, while decaying wood helps keeps soils productive, which enhances carbon sequestration capacity over time.

On the other hand, industrial logging — even when conducted under the euphemism of “thinning” — results in a large net loss of forest carbon storage, and a substantial overall increase in carbon emissions that can take decades, if not a century, to recapture with regrowth. Logging also tends to make fires burn faster and more intensely while degrading a forest ecosystem’s ability to provide natural protections against extreme weather events.

Consider this: About 28 percent of tree carbon is contained in branches, and this is emitted when they are burned after logging operations. An additional 53 percent of the carbon in trees removed from forests is emitted as waste in the manufacturing and milling process. Overall, about two-thirds of the carbon in trees that are logged for lumber quickly become greenhouse gas emissions.

When trees are cut down and burned to generate “biomass” electricity under the guise of “renewable energy,” 100 percent of the carbon is emitted. Incinerating wood for energy emits evenmore CO2 than burning coal, for equal energy produced. Yet, the expansion of US production of wood pellets to fuel power stations in Europe has been spreading like wildfire across the Southeast, accelerating the destruction of some of our nation’s most ecologically-important forests and putting the health of some of the nation’s most vulnerable communities at increased risk.

...

https://truthout.org/articles/logging-is-the-leading-driver-of-carbon-emissions-from-us-forests/

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: gerontocrat on April 25, 2019, 11:21:48 AM
And so it goes on

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/apr/25/death-by-a-thousand-cuts-vast-expanse-rainforest-lost-in-2018

‘Death by a thousand cuts’: vast expanse of rainforest lost in 2018
Quote
“We are nowhere near winning this battle,” said Frances Seymour from the World Resources Institute, part of the Global Forest Watch (GFW) network, which produced the analysis. “It is really tempting to celebrate a second year of decline since peak tree cover loss in 2016 but, if you look back over the last 18 years, it is clear that the overall trend is still upwards.”

I worked occasionally at creating regulations - e.g.s environmental, financial. On bad days it felt like I was simply expanding the Corruption & Bribery Opportunity Programme for politicians and Government officials.

Forestry protection is one of the worst and most dangerous. I can say that from personal experience. My guess is that in recent years Brazil has had a continuous bad day.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on May 16, 2019, 01:28:23 PM
Wood wide web: Trees' social networks are mapped

Research has shown that beneath every forest and wood there is a complex underground web of roots, fungi and bacteria helping to connect trees and plants to one another.

This subterranean social network, nearly 500 million years old, has become known as the "wood wide web".

Now, an international study has produced the first global map of the "mycorrhizal fungi networks" dominating this secretive world.

Details appear in Nature journal.

...
Using millions of direct observations of trees and their symbiotic associations on the ground, the researchers could build models from the bottom up to visualise these fungal networks for the first time.

...

The research reveals how important mycorrhizal networks are to limiting climate change - and how vulnerable they are to the effects of it.

...

Mycorrhizal fungi are those that form a symbiotic relationship with plants.

There are two main groups of mycorrhizal fungi: arbuscular fungi (AM) that penetrate the hosts's roots, and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) which surround the tree's roots without penetrating them.

EM fungi, mostly present in temperate and boreal systems, help lock up more carbon from the atmosphere. They are more vulnerable to climate change.

AM fungi, more dominant in the tropics, promote fast carbon cycling.

According to the research, 60% of trees are connected to EM fungi, but, as temperatures rise, these fungi - and their associated tree species - will decline and be replaced by AM fungi.

"The types of fungi that support huge carbon stores in the soil are being lost and are being replaced by the ones that spew out carbon in to the atmosphere."

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-48257315
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: vox_mundi on May 16, 2019, 03:34:05 PM
Interesting! Reminds me of the movie 'Avatar'.

(https://cdn3.movieweb.com/i/article/hazSSpjPaBwmEaeWapBvg4K0xmJNZj/798:50/Avatar-2-Release-Date-Delay-2018-Sigourney-Weaver.jpg)

Do Trees Talk to Each Other?
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-whispering-trees-180968084/

Paul Stamets: Mycillium Running
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycelium_Running
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on June 10, 2019, 03:55:27 PM
Argentine fossils take oak and beech family history far into Southern Hemisphere

Summary:
One of the world's most important plant families has a history extending much farther south than any live or fossil specimen previously recorded, as shown by chinquapin fruit and leaf fossils unearthed in Patagonia, Argentina, according to researchers.

....

Today, Castanopsis plays an important role in intercepting year-round mountain precipitation that delivers clean water for drinking, fishing and agriculture to more than half a billion people and sustains diverse freshwater and coastal ecosystems. However, humans are clearing these rainforests for timber, development and crop cultivation, and modern climate change is increasing droughts and fire frequency.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190606150310.htm

The science story is pretty cool but i left it out since it is not really topical.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on June 11, 2019, 07:52:57 PM
UK sized forest area destroyed in decade:
https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2019/jun/11/forest-destroyed-big-consumer-brands-greenpeace-report
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on June 12, 2019, 08:03:23 AM
Forests are not a resource. They are habitat and alive.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on June 19, 2019, 04:49:52 PM
A New Study Finds That Cutting Down One Forest Can Make Neighboring Forests Hotter



Areas cleared of forests bleed heat to neighboring forests, and this fuels increases in temperatures there, new research has found. Average temperatures in forests around the world are already rising because of climate change; this leaked heat exacerbates the problem and accelerates local extinctions of forest-dwelling species.



What struck Sinervo was the unusually high rate of extinction in Madagascar, one of the most biodiverse countries in the world. "I was intrigued why Madagascar had a much higher observed extinction rate  (of lizards) than any other [country] and I saw that Madagascar had warmed faster than mainland Africa," Sinervo says.
In Madagascar, two forest reserves analyzed in the 2010 paper reported an increase in maximum temperatures of two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) and also a 75 percent rate of deforestation in adjacent areas. However, there was insufficient data at the time to investigate whether the rising forest temperatures were related to the nearby deforestation.



In tropical forests, the study found, loss of half of the forest cover leads to an increase of about 1.08 degrees Celsius (1.94 degrees Fahrenheit) in the land surface temperature of the adjacent forest. Based on the model, the team predicted that, in Brazil, current rates of deforestation could lead to as much as 1.45 degrees Celsius (2.61 degrees Fahrenheit) of additional warming by 2050

https://psmag.com/environment/deforestations-impacts-is-wider-than-it-appears

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on June 25, 2019, 04:46:43 PM
Disrupting Tropical Soil Could Be Releasing Previously Unaccounted Ancient Carbon Dioxide


Researchers investigated 19 sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo for dissolved organic carbon that had been drained into streams and rivers. As thousand-year-old soil is upturned and disrupted, they found that older dissolved organics from areas that had seen higher rates of deforestation were richer in energy and more chemically diverse.

“We estimate that while deforestation reduces the overall flux of dissolved organic carbon by approximately 56%, it does not significantly change the yield of biolabile dissolved organic carbon,” wrote the authors. “Ultimately, the exposure of deeper soil horizons through deforestation and agricultural expansion releases old, previously stable, and biolabile soil organic carbon into the modern carbon cycle via the aquatic pathway.”

Areas that have been heavily deforested were more likely to have leached organic carbon older and more biodegradable than organic carbon put off. Older, more unstable organic carbon released when the soil is upturned or disrupted. Microscopic organisms that consume released CO2 then pump it back into the atmosphere, potentially worsening impacts of the greenhouse effect.

"In many ways, this is similar to what happened in the Mississippi River Basin 100 years ago, and in the Amazon more recently," said study author Rob Spencer in a statement. "The Congo is now facing conversion of pristine lands for agriculture. We want to know what that could mean for the carbon cycle."

https://www.iflscience.com/environment/disrupting-tropical-soil-could-be-releasing-previously-unaccounted-ancient-carbon-dioxide/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: gerontocrat on July 03, 2019, 08:52:20 PM
There are days when it all seems rather pointless. Bolsonaro delivering the death knell to the Amazon?

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-48827490
'Football pitch' of Amazon forest lost every minute
Quote
An area of Amazon rainforest roughly the size of a football pitch is now being cleared every single minute, according to satellite data. The rate of losses has accelerated as Brazil's new right-wing president favours development over conservation.

Satellite images show a sharp increase in clearances of trees over the first half of this year, since Jair Bolsonaro became president of Brazil, the country that owns most of the Amazon region. The most recent analysis suggests a staggering scale of losses over the past two months in particular, with about a hectare being cleared every minute on average.

The single biggest reason to fell trees, according to official figures, is to create new pastures for cattle, and during our visit we saw countless herds grazing on land that used to be rainforest.

What does Brazil's new policy mean?
According to a senior Brazilian environment official, the impact is so "huge" that he took the risk of giving us an unauthorised interview to bring it to the attention of the world.

We had to meet in secret and disguise his face and voice because Mr Bolsonaro has banned his environment staff from talking to the media. Over the course of three hours, a startling inside picture emerged of small, under-resourced teams of government experts passionate about saving the forest but seriously undermined by their own political masters.

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: bligh8 on July 04, 2019, 05:34:30 PM
Multi-year drought caused massive forest die-off in Sierra Nevada
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-multi-year-drought-massive-forest-die-off.html

The researchers warn that matters are expected to get worse as global mean temperatures increase.

“Parts of the Sierra Nevada reached a ‘tipping point’ in 2015, where annual precipitation plus stored subsurface water were not enough to meet the water demand of the forest,” Bales said.
The trees in California’s mixed-conifer mountain forests have roots that can draw water from as deep as 5 to 15 meters down, which has historically protected the trees against even the worst multiyear droughts.
But the severity of California’s 2012-2015 dry-spell “exceeded this safety margin,” the researchers said. When forest stands exhausted the subsurface moisture, they became vulnerable to attack by pests, leading to widespread tree death.

more within the article

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: b_lumenkraft on July 04, 2019, 06:53:03 PM
Dying forests, another positive feedback the IPCC isn't considering...
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on July 05, 2019, 02:58:31 PM
We have to replant billions of trees...but what tree would you replant there that stands a chance?
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: vox_mundi on July 05, 2019, 06:49:10 PM
We have to replant billions of trees...but what tree would you replant there that stands a chance?

(https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fmyscienceschool.org%2Fuploads%2F152.serendipityThumb.jpg&hash=157058cfa36fcea9765bc7002a7670b3)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on July 20, 2019, 11:56:22 PM
Germany′s forests on the verge of collapse, experts report | 20.07.2019
Germany’s parched forests are nearing ecological collapse, foresters and researchers warn. More than 1 million established trees have died since 2018 as a result of drought, winter storms and bark beetle plagues.
Quote
Germany's forests are undoubtedly suffering as a result of climate change, with millions of seedlings planted in the hope of diversifying and restoring forests dying, warns Ulrich Dohle, chairman of the 10,000-member Bunds Deutscher Forstleute (BDF) forestry trade union.

"It's a catastrophe. German forests are close to collapsing," Dohle added in an interview with t-online, a online news portal of Germany's Ströer media group.

Low rainfall last summer saw Germany's rivers reach extreme lows, with some waterways still struggling and forests prone to fire.

"These are no longer single unusual weather events. That is climate change," said Dohle.
...
https://www.dw.comhttp//www.dw.com/en/germanys-forests-on-the-verge-of-collapse-experts-report/a-49659810
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on July 22, 2019, 05:42:17 PM
Fighting deforestation:
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/07/new-initiative-aims-to-jump-start-stalled-drive-toward-zero-deforestation/ and
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/07/cocoa-and-gunshots-the-struggle-to-save-a-threatened-forest-in-nigeria/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on July 26, 2019, 12:45:20 AM
New roads in Papau New Guinea endanger forests:
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/07/new-roads-in-papua-new-guinea-may-cause-quantum-leap-in-forest-loss/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: vox_mundi on July 26, 2019, 12:54:57 AM
Amazon Deforestation Accelerating Towards Unrecoverable 'Tipping Point'
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/25/amazonian-rainforest-near-unrecoverable-tipping-point

Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon has surged above three football fields a minute, according to the latest government data, pushing the world’s biggest rainforest closer to a tipping point beyond which it cannot recover.

The sharp rise – following year-on-year increases in May and June – confirms fears that president Jair Bolsonaro has given a green light to illegal land invasion, logging and burning.

The steady erosion of tree cover weakens the role of the rainforest in stabilising the global climate. Scientists warn that the forest is in growing danger of degrading into a savannah, after which its capacity to absorb carbon will be severely diminished, with consequences for the rest of the planet.

...There are a number of tipping points which are not far away,” said Philip Fearnside, a professor at Brazil’s National Institute of Amazonian Research. “We can’t see exactly where they are, but we know they are very close. It means we have to do things right away. Unfortunately that is not what is happening. There are people denying we even have a problem.”
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on July 29, 2019, 09:58:51 PM
Canadian rainforest deforestation:
https://thenarwhal.ca/canadas-forgotten-rainforest/
and charred forests are not growing back in the hotter weather:
https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/charred-forests-not-growing-back-as-expected-in-pacific-northwest-researchers-say-1.5225825
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on July 30, 2019, 04:51:11 AM
<snippage>
https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/charred-forests-not-growing-back-as-expected-in-pacific-northwest-researchers-say-1.5225825

From the article:
Quote
Right now, upwards of 300 million trees are being planted in B.C. annually, a significant portion of it designated for areas that have previously burned. But Aitken says the fertility of landscape is inconsistent, as dry heat in some areas has stripped the soil of its ability to support trees.

"Some areas will likely convert from being forests to being more like grasslands at those very dry margins at the extent of the forest," she said.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on August 02, 2019, 01:11:43 AM
Tree planting needs to happen fast:
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-47541491
Northern tree demographics changing from AGW:
https://www.miragenews.com/climate-change-alters-tree-demography-in-northern-forests/
AGW causing "ghost forests";
https://www.coastalreview.org/2019/07/visible-change-alligator-river-ghost-forests/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on August 09, 2019, 01:54:42 AM
California proposes punishing companies which damage planet's forests:
https://www.propublica.org/article/proposed-california-law-would-punish-companies-for-failing-to-limit-harm-to-the-planets-forests
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: vox_mundi on August 09, 2019, 07:09:40 PM
Future of Amazon Deforestation Data in Doubt as Research Head Sacked
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/08/future-of-amazon-deforestation-data-in-doubt-as-research-head-sacked/

The Brazilian government and the world have relied on the INPE (Brazilian National Institute of Space Research) satellite monitoring system to track deforestation since 1988, without controversy. INPE’s data gathering program has been hailed as one of the best such operations in the tropics.

However, after INPE reported a major uptick in the rate of Brazilian Amazon deforestation in June and July 2019, as compared with the same months in 2018, the Bolsonaro administration responded angrily by accusing the agency of manipulating data, of lying, and of being in conspiracy with international NGOs.

On August 2, the president fired Ricardo Magnus Osório Galvão, the head of INPE, leaving officials inside the institution concerned for the future of the satellite monitoring program. The government has repeatedly said it plans to develop a costly, privatized deforestation tracking system which would replace INPE.

Galvão’s removal triggered an outcry from scientists, NGOs and Brazilian federal prosecutors who are concerned over the threat to the future accuracy of Amazon deforestation monitoring. The Bolsonaro administration plans to announce a replacement shortly.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on August 10, 2019, 03:55:53 AM
Everywhere the evil lackeys pop up. Champions of hell.
To them it's "Forests: Nothing more than a resource".
This over-indulging is sickening.

A real leader would say "Hey, there's not that much left and we still need to go a long way. Let's be cautious and restrain ourselves".
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: TerryM on August 10, 2019, 08:28:07 AM
Everywhere the evil lackeys pop up. Champions of hell.
To them it's "Forests: Nothing more than a resource".
This over-indulging is sickening.

A real leader would say "Hey, there's not that much left and we still need to go a long way. Let's be cautious and restrain ourselves".


We could pelletize the old growth rainforests, ship the pellets to Ireland to be mixed with peat, then sell our green product in Southern Australia as an alternative to Methane - which we'd demand that the oil companies flare off on site!


Jose O-learys Leprechaun Kissed Peat Pellets.
The cleanest fuel this side of a Rainforest's Rainbow!
Sold in a fully biodegradable 1 kilo pack made from a genuine faux kangaroo pouch.


We'll be rich nanning. Rich on subsidies from all over the World!
We'd could even paint our jets green.
Terry

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: gerontocrat on August 10, 2019, 09:53:08 AM
Mass destruction of the Amazon now underway, and this is just the beginning.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/aug/07/bolsonaro-amazon-deforestation-exploded-july-data

Bolsonaro rejects 'Captain Chainsaw' label as data shows deforestation 'exploded'
Data says 2,254 sq km cleared in July as president says Macron and Merkel ‘haven’t realized Brazil’s under new management’

Quote
According to a report in the Estado de São Paulo newspaper, Amazon destruction “exploded” in July with an estimated 2,254 sq km (870 sq miles) of forest cleared, according to preliminary data gathered by Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research, the government agency that monitors deforestation.

That is an area about half the size of Philadelphia and reportedly represents a 278% rise on the 596.6 sq km destroyed in July last year.

“It’s almost as if a licence to deforest illegally and with impunity has been given, now that you have the [environmental] inspection and control teams being attacked by no less than the president of the republic and the environment minister,”

In recent weeks the globally respected National Institute for Space Research has found itself at the eye of a political storm as a result of the inconvenient truths revealed by its data.

Earlier this month, with alarm growing about the consequences of the intensifying assault on the Amazon, its director, Ricardo Galvão, was sacked after contesting Bolsonaro’s “pusillanimous” claims he was peddling lies about the state of the Amazon.

Galvão’s successor, the air force colonel Darcton Policarpo Damião, looks set to follow a more Bolsonarian line. In an interview this week Damião said he was not convinced global heating was a manmade phenomenon and called such matters “not my cup of tea”.

Pope Francis – who is preparing to host a special synod on the Amazon in October – has also incurred Bolsonaro’s wrath on the environment.

In June the Argentinian leader of the Catholic church questioned “the blind and destructive mentality” of those seeking to profit from the world’s biggest rainforest. “What is happening in Amazonia will have repercussions at a global level,” he warned.

Asked about those comments, Bolsonaro offered a characteristically unvarnished response, suggesting they reflected an international conspiracy to commandeer the Amazon.

“Brazil is the virgin that every foreign pervert wants to get their hands on,” Bolsonaro said.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: El Cid on August 10, 2019, 10:15:09 AM
And now - as a forest owner and tree-planter - let me add some good news:

"Between 1990 and 2015, the area covered by forests and woodlands increased by 90,000 square kilometres - an area roughly the size of Portugal in the EU". The EU has strong policies to increase the size of its forests and it's working.

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/07/forest-europe-environment/
https://www.economist.com/europe/2019/07/18/why-frances-forests-are-getting-bigger?fsrc=scn/li/te/bl/ed/whyfrancesforestsaregettingbiggergallicshrubs
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on August 10, 2019, 12:25:17 PM
We'll be rich nanning. Rich on subsidies from all over the World!
We'd could even paint our jets green.
Terry
Had to L.O.L. there
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on August 10, 2019, 08:12:15 PM
UN says deforestation must stop. 15 billion trees a year are cut down. Of all the land-use-related carbon dioxide emissions between 2007 and 2016—between 2.6 and 7.8 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide yearly—most of it comes from deforestation:
https://www.motherjones.com/environment/2019/08/planting-trees-is-good-eliminating-deforestation-is-better/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: TerryM on August 10, 2019, 11:34:27 PM
We'll be rich nanning. Rich on subsidies from all over the World!
We'd could even paint our jets green.
Terry
Had to L.O.L. there


Is this a "NO"?


Will you willingly pass on this offer to save Australia from the desertification that burning ff's inflicts?
Will you pass on this opportunity to ennoble generations of Impoverished Irish Peat cutters?
Are you denying Brazilian Bulldozer Braceros their final chance at "greening up" their image?


Alas Laddie, I'll miss your companionship as I doff my Paddy Green Top-Hat to supplicants lining the streets of Brasilia, Dublin and  Sydney.


Your name will never be writ large on that Shale/Slate containing the names of the wondrous wordsmiths who changed the venial into the virtuous, simply by the alchemy of re-branding our overlords as Glorious Greentocratic Governors.


Terry
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on August 11, 2019, 07:15:32 AM

Is this a "NO"?
<snip>
I'm sorry, great ideas but yes.

I have another idea:

You could paint pellets, bullets and bombs green and start a green war. Terry's certified green pellets. "Shoot, kill and save the planet".
Wars make a lot of money I've heard.
Throw in some gimmicks for PR/marketing. A flamethrower with green flames? Radiumbombs?
There's more money to be made.

You'll get a statue I'm sure.

Best of luck with your endeavours Terry and sorry you have to go it alone. I'm very bad at lying :P
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: TerryM on August 11, 2019, 02:20:19 PM
<snipp-ed>
Best of luck with your endeavours Terry and sorry you have to go it alone. I'm very bad at lying  dissembling in the face of disturbing data that, if unchallenged, could have negated the very crux of our carefully constructed narrative. :P


Fixed it ;D
Terry
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: vox_mundi on August 12, 2019, 06:53:22 PM
New Study Shows Impact of Large Scale Tree Death on Carbon Storage
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-impact-largescale-tree-death-carbon.html

Largescale 'disturbances', including fires, harvesting, windstorms and insect outbreaks, which kill large patches of forest, are responsible for more than a tenth of tree death worldwide, according to new research at the University of Birmingham

Researchers in the Institute for Forest Research (BIFoR) at the University of Birmingham studied satellite-based observations of forest lost between 2000 and 2014, and assessed the typical time interval between large disturbance events across the world's forests.

The team then used a computational model to calculate the impact of these events on tree deaths—measured as the amount of carbon stored in the wood of dead trees—and found that they accounted for 12 per cent of tree death overall. Their simulations showed how even small changes to the frequency of large-scale disturbances can have a significant effect on forest carbon stocks in 44 per cent of the world's dense forests.

(https://media.springernature.com/lw685/springer-static/image/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41561-019-0427-2/MediaObjects/41561_2019_427_Fig2_HTML.png)

Important role of forest disturbances in the global biomass turnover and carbon sinks (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41561-019-0427-2), Nature Geoscience (2019).
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: TerryM on August 12, 2019, 10:26:55 PM
^^
We must Save our Forests to Pelletize our Future!


Without Pellets & Peat we'll never be able to monetize our mission of Providing Power without Penitence.


Power to the People through Pellets and Peat!!


Sales districts now available IN YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD for little or no low upfront costs.


"Ask not what your Forest can do to you, Ask what you can do to your Forest!"


operators now standing by for your call at Pedro O-Leary's Greenery.
call now to receive a genuine faux kangaroo Pellet Pouch!


Corporations that Lay together hunt Prey together - we still have openings for novice postulants between the ages of 16 and 20 - Buxom Scandinavian Beauties are given preference, but you too may share a night at our very well appointed Cloistery.


Thanks for your Pennys and your Prey
Pedro de Pedo
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on August 13, 2019, 02:16:22 AM
Bolsonaro: No need for German money to combat deforestation
Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (INPE) said on Tuesday that roughly 2,254 square kilometres (870 square miles) of the Amazon were cleared in July, a spike of 278 percent from a year earlier.
https://www.france24.com/en/20190811-no-need-german-amazon-subsidy-brazils-bolsonaro
Tree damaging pests pose devastating damage to 40% of US forests (450 of them imported):
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/aug/12/us-forests-pests-risk-climate-crisis-resource

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on August 13, 2019, 10:44:46 AM
Tree-damaging pests pose ‘devastating’ threat to 40% of US forests

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/aug/12/us-forests-pests-risk-climate-crisis-resource (https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/aug/12/us-forests-pests-risk-climate-crisis-resource)

Some excerpts:

Tree-damaging pests have already destroyed swathes of US woodland, with the American chestnut virtually wiped out by a fungal disease and elms blighted by Dutch elm disease. About 450 overseas pests that damage or feed on trees have been introduced to US forests due to the growth in international trade and travel.

A PNAS-published study of the 15 most damaging non-native forest pests has found that they destroy so many trees that about 6m tons of carbon are expelled each year from the dying plants. This is the equivalent, researchers say, of adding an extra 4.6m cars to the roads every year in terms of the release of planet-warming gases.

Together, these maladies pose a growing threat to US forests that are coming under increasing strain from rising temperatures and altered rainfall and wildfire patterns, particularly in the west of the country, due to global heating.

There are an estimated 6bn dead trees standing in the US west, with more trees now dying due to disease, insects and wildfire than are being felled for wood products.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on August 14, 2019, 11:48:44 PM
Satellite data show the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve lost more than 10 percent of its tree cover between 2001 and 2017, more than a third of which happened within the last three years of that time period. Preliminary data for 2019 indicate Río Plátano is experiencing another heavy round of forest loss this year, with UMD recording around 160,000 deforestation alerts in the reserve between January and August, which appears to be an uptick from the same period in 2018.
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/08/rainforest-destruction-accelerates-in-honduras-unesco-site/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: vox_mundi on August 15, 2019, 03:17:00 PM
If you understand the science of this - this is VERY BAD!

--------------

Research: Link Between Increased Atmospheric Vapor Deficit and Worldwide Loss of Vegetation
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-link-atmospheric-vapor-deficit-worldwide.html

Scientists have been studying the possible repercussions of global warming for several years, and suggest it is likely to lead not only to warmer temperatures, but also changes to weather patterns. One such weather change not often mentioned is VPD, which is the difference in air pressure due to water vapor during fully saturated times versus times when it unsaturated. When VPD is increasing, there is less water in the air. VPD is important because of its impact on plants. When VPD rises a certain amount, plants react by closing their stomata, the pores in their leaves, to prevent water loss. But this also shuts down the release of oxygen and the absorption of carbon dioxide—partially shutting down photosynthesis and slowing growth. In this new effort, the researchers wondered if there might be a connection between observed losses of vegetation worldwide and changes to VPD in some parts of the world.

To find out, the researchers obtained datasets that included observation information from across the globe going all the way back to the 1950s. When focusing on VPD, they found that prior to the 1990s, VPD increased only slightly. But after 1998, the VPD grew quite dramatically—by up to 17 times over the next several years in some places, and it remained at those levels. They also found that over half of all vegetated land on the planet experienced a rise in VPD. The researchers also found that the upswing in VPD occurred in lockstep with the rise in global temperatures and the decrease in worldwide vegetative cover. They suggest that global warming is pushing VPD ever higher, resulting in more loss of vegetation—and because the planet is growing hotter, they predict that VPD will continue to increase, as well, resulting in diminishing vegetative cover.

(https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/advances/5/8/eaax1396/F1.large.jpg?width=800&height=600&carousel=1)
Fig. 1 Global mean vapor pressure deficit (VPD) anomalies of vegetated area over the growing season

Open Access: Wenping Yuan et al. Increased atmospheric vapor pressure deficit reduces global vegetation growth (https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/8/eaax1396), Science Advances (2019).
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: TerryM on August 15, 2019, 07:51:50 PM
Satellite data show the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve lost more than 10 percent of its tree cover between 2001 and 2017, more than a third of which happened within the last three years of that time period. Preliminary data for 2019 indicate Río Plátano is experiencing another heavy round of forest loss this year, with UMD recording around 160,000 deforestation alerts in the reserve between January and August, which appears to be an uptick from the same period in 2018.
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/08/rainforest-destruction-accelerates-in-honduras-unesco-site/ (https://news.mongabay.com/2019/08/rainforest-destruction-accelerates-in-honduras-unesco-site/)
WOW!
Drug gangs run by the new President - Rainforest Destruction - Torture and Death Squads
No wonder we supported the Coup!


Long Live Maduros
Long Live the Revolution
Long Live Venezuela
oh &
Viva Cuba


Honduras is Toast
Terry
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Mozi on August 15, 2019, 09:01:20 PM
You're aware that Maduro's family and friends are directly implicated in major drug trafficking schemes as well, of course.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: TerryM on August 15, 2019, 10:53:08 PM
You're aware that Maduro's family and friends are directly implicated in major drug trafficking schemes as well, of course.
Sure they are.
That's probably why the UK won't return the country's deposited bullion.
Terry
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: rboyd on August 19, 2019, 08:37:56 PM
Race to save the rainforest - Why replacing cocaine barons with cattle ranchers is destroying the Amazon

Quote
Colombia’s great Amazon rainforest – a ‘vital lung’ of the planet – is being cleared for grazing cattle by an area bigger than Los Angeles every year

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/amazon-deforestation-in-colombia/ (https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/amazon-deforestation-in-colombia/)

So we have the elites of Honduras, Brazil and Colombia happily wiping out the vast carbon sink we call the rain forest.

And Peru...

Record levels of deforestation in Peruvian Amazon as gold mines spread

https://news.mongabay.com/2019/03/record-levels-of-deforestation-in-peruvian-amazon-as-gold-mines-spreads/ (https://news.mongabay.com/2019/03/record-levels-of-deforestation-in-peruvian-amazon-as-gold-mines-spreads/)

And words, but seemingly no real actions in Indonesia...

Indonesia forest-clearing ban is made permanent, but labeled ‘propaganda’

https://news.mongabay.com/2019/08/indonesia-forest-clearing-ban-is-made-permanent-but-labeled-propaganda/ (https://news.mongabay.com/2019/08/indonesia-forest-clearing-ban-is-made-permanent-but-labeled-propaganda/)

Once these levels of deforestation get properly figured into the emissions figures (under the Land Use and Land Cover changes category) it will make it even harder to reduce reported emissions.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: sidd on August 19, 2019, 09:35:20 PM
Repost to fix error in subject:

I just returned from a trip out west, Yellowstone seems to be recovering a little from the beetle attack. I was there two years ago and was shocked by the extent of damage. This time the trees seem to be coming back. I also see a few deciduous trees appearing at higher elevations than before. This leads me to believe that we are going to see an evolution of yellowstone/grand tetons into a mixed forest.

sidd
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: blumenkraft on August 19, 2019, 09:40:53 PM
Glad to have you back, Sidd!  :D
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: TerryM on August 19, 2019, 10:32:39 PM
sidd


Wonderful that you're back!!


Many here were concerned.
Terry
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: oren on August 19, 2019, 11:06:15 PM
Glad to have you back, Sidd!  :D
Same here.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on August 20, 2019, 06:36:15 AM
Same here.
Only yesterday I almost made a post inquiring whether you had left, and here you are!  ;D :)  :-*  :-[
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: sidd on August 20, 2019, 08:05:03 AM
No, happy to report i not be dead yet. Just had very small or nonexistent bandwidth forawhile.

From what I saw, the beetle spread in yellowstone/teton seems abated to some extent from a couple years ago. East yellowstone was the most seriously affected then, but is better. I got into the backcountry forabit, same story, the trees seem better.  Good.

Sorta reminds me of the gipsy moths in Pennsylvania a decade or two ago. Forabit it  looked like they would eat the whole thing and come west into ohio but they quit.

sidd
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on August 22, 2019, 01:24:35 AM
Quote
Internet users around the world are planting trees—nearly 65 million of them to date—just by browsing the internet. That’s because instead of relying on Google or Yahoo to conduct their online searches, they are using Ecosia.
Like other search engines, Ecosia makes money through advertising—every time someone clicks on one of the ads located next to search results, Ecosia makes a few cents. Only instead of using its profits to line shareholder pockets, the Berlin-based start-up invests 80 percent of its profits in tree planting. On average, it takes 45 searches to plant a tree.
https://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/ecosia-you-can-help-plant-trees-just-surfing-internet

AUG 22
Brazil’s Amazon rainforest is burning at a record rate, research center says
https://fox59.com/2019/08/21/brazils-amazon-rainforest-is-burning-at-a-record-rate-research-center-says/
Quote
Fires are raging at a record rate in Brazil’s Amazon rainforest, and scientists warn that it could strike a devastating blow to the fight against climate change.

The fires are burning at the highest rate since the country’s space research center, the National Institute for Space Research (known by the abbreviation INPE), began tracking them in 2013, the center said Tuesday.

There have been 72,843 fires in Brazil this year, with more than half in the Amazon region, INPE said. That’s more than an 80% increase compared with the same period last year.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on August 27, 2019, 09:27:08 PM
Carbon offsets are not enough to save forests:
If Carbon Offsets Require Forests to Stay Standing, What Happens When the Amazon Is on Fire?
https://www.propublica.org/article/if-carbon-offsets-require-forests-to-stay-standing-what-happens-when-the-amazon-is-on-fire
Quote
But the devastating blaze encapsulates a key weakness of offsets that scientists have been warning about for the past decade: that they are too vulnerable to political whims and disasters like wildfires. As a recent ProPublica investigation noted, if you give corporations a pass to pollute by saying their emissions are being canceled out somewhere else, you need a way to guarantee that continues to be the case.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: longwalks1 on August 29, 2019, 05:47:34 PM
A nice little read about the plundering of forests in Cambodia. 

https://interactive.aljazeera.com/aje/2019/plundering-cambodias-forests/index.html

Quote
In one of his more daring exploits, Leng disguised himself as a chef working at logging camps to infiltrate the network of notorious logging baron, Try Pheap, an adviser to Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen.

It has a slider for 2009 versus 2019 and also a map showing what geographic areas are being plundered via which nations. 

I have not watched the "101 East" video the web page springs from.   Hopefully it will also discuss the trafficking in animal species that would probably occur during forest raping.  Sending lumber out of a country via container shipping, something I had never considered before, but for more rare or exotic lumber, probably worth the cost. 

peace out,
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on August 29, 2019, 10:45:25 PM
‘We have cut them all’: Ghana struggles to protect its last old-growth forests
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/08/we-have-cut-them-all-ghana-struggles-to-protect-its-last-old-growth-forests/
Quote
Deforestation of Ghana’s primary forests jumped 60 percent between 2017 and 2018 – the biggest jump of any tropical country. Most of this occurred in the country’s protected areas, including its forest reserves.
A Mongabay investigation revealed that illegal logging in forest reserves is commonplace, with sources claiming officers from Ghana’s Forestry Commission often turn a blind eye and even participate in the activity.
The technical director of forestry at Ghana’s Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources said attempts at intervention have met with limited success, and are often thwarted by loggers who know how to game the system.
A representative of a conservation NGO operating in the country says a community-based monitoring project has helped curtail illegal logging in some reserves, but additional buy-in from other communities is needed to scale up its results. Meanwhile, the Ghanaian government is reportedly starting its own public outreach program, as well as coordinating with the EU on an agreement that would allow only legal wood from Ghana to enter the EU market.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on September 01, 2019, 01:06:37 AM
British Columbia’s 'irreplaceable' forest could disappear after decades of clear-cut logging
https://crosscut.com/2019/08/british-columbias-irreplaceable-forest-could-disappear-after-decades-clear-cut-logging
Quote
Only 9% of BC’s inland rain forest has been designated as protected areas or parks by the provincial government, leaving more than three-quarters of the remaining land open to clear-cut logging, which has removed more than a quarter of all the old-growth cedar and hemlock over the past half century. There is no end in sight.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on September 04, 2019, 08:06:59 PM
Actually, maybe forests aren't as good at storing carbon as we thought
Are We Overestimating How Much Trees Will Help Fight Climate Change?
https://undark.org/article/imaging-scans-climate-change/
Quote
But Marra, a forest pathologist at the Experiment Station with a Ph.D. in plant pathology from Cornell University, has documented from studying his fallen trees that internal decay has the capacity to significantly reduce the amount of carbon stored within.

Will Deforestation and Warming Push the Amazon to a Tipping Point?
https://e360.yale.edu/features/will-deforestation-and-warming-push-the-amazon-to-a-tipping-point
Quote
In an e360 interview, Carlos Nobre, Brazil’s leading expert on the Amazon and climate change, discusses the key perils facing the world’s largest rainforest, where a record number of fires are now raging, and lays out what can be done to stave off a ruinous transformation of the region.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on September 06, 2019, 10:52:44 PM
We could help prevent deforestation by simply reprogramming logging machines
https://www.fastcompany.com/90398939/we-could-help-prevent-deforestation-by-simply-reprogramming-logging-machines
Quote
In the Amazon, protected forests sit right next to logging operations. With lax enforcement, sometimes the protected forest ends up getting logged, as well. But what if it was impossible for the logging machines to cut down protected trees? A few lines of computer code entered into the machine’s source code could make it possible—code which some developers have created. They now hope that heavy equipment manufacturers will begin to add it to new machinery to help prevent deforestation in areas that struggle with enforcement.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on September 07, 2019, 02:08:29 PM
Rodius recently posted information concerning old growth forests versus reforested or plantation areas in the Wildfires thread:

https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,1368.msg227251.html#msg227251
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on September 07, 2019, 09:00:01 PM
We could help prevent deforestation by simply reprogramming logging machines
https://www.fastcompany.com/90398939/we-could-help-prevent-deforestation-by-simply-reprogramming-logging-machines
Quote
In the Amazon, protected forests sit right next to logging operations. With lax enforcement, sometimes the protected forest ends up getting logged, as well. But what if it was impossible for the logging machines to cut down protected trees? A few lines of computer code entered into the machine’s source code could make it possible—code which some developers have created. They now hope that heavy equipment manufacturers will begin to add it to new machinery to help prevent deforestation in areas that struggle with enforcement.

If that worked it would force them to use more manual labor.

You can alternatively just enforce the laws and protect the people.

Or do what happens in reality and pander to the money interests.
Buying gadgets optional but appreciated.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on September 09, 2019, 06:20:02 PM
Pope says deforestation must be treated as a global threat
http://news.trust.org/item/20190907160919-kjhjd/
Quote
Pope Francis said on Saturday rapid deforestation and the loss of biodiversity in individual countries should not be treated as local issues since they threaten the future of the planet.

Francis made his appeal on a visit to Madagascar, the world's fourth-largest island, which research institutes and aid agencies say has lost about 44% of its forest over the past 60 years, abetted by illegal exports of rosewood and ebony.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: gerontocrat on September 13, 2019, 09:39:07 PM
I try to avoid Forest news, it is just too depressing. But this one just came up on the screen.
Note that the data is to 2018 - before Bolsonaro

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-49679883
World 'losing battle against deforestation'
Quote
A historic global agreement aimed at halting deforestation has failed, according to a report.

An assessment of the New York Declaration on Forests (NYDF) says it has failed to deliver on key pledges.

Launched at the 2014 UN climate summit, it aimed to half deforestation by 2020, and halt it by 2030.

Yet deforestation continues at an alarming rate and threatens to prevent the world from preventing dangerous climate change, experts have said.

The critique, compiled by the NYDF Assessment Partners (a coalition of 25 organisations), painted a bleak picture of how the world's forests continue to be felled.

Deforestation 'accelerating'
"Since the NYDF was launched five years ago, deforestation has not only continued - it has actually accelerated," observed Charlotte Streck, co-founder and director of Climate Focus, which co-ordinated the publication of the report.

The report says the amount of annual carbon emissions resulting from deforestation around the globe are equivalent to the greenhouse gases produced by the European Union.

On average, an area of tree cover **the size of the United Kingdom was lost every year between 2014 and 2018.

i.e. 250,000 km2

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on September 13, 2019, 09:47:28 PM
It’s Time We Treat Some Forests Like Crops
https://www.outsideonline.com/2401572/mass-timber-logging-climate-change
Quote
Tree crops don’t always provide the kind of habitat that supports diverse ecosystems. For that we need to continue fighting like hell to protect our remaining old-growth forests. But if you take it as truth that climate change is the greatest threat to the planet, then mass timber offers a rare opportunity—a chance to transform the construction and logging industries so that we reduce emissions while adding millions of carbon-sequestering trees to the landscape. We’ll cut them down and then grow more, gardening the earth as stewards living in a built world made more and more out of wood.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on September 16, 2019, 05:48:42 PM
Deforestation Is Getting Worse, 5 Years After Countries and Companies Vowed to Stop It
https://insideclimatenews.org/news/13092019/forest-loss-rate-global-deforestation-amazon-fires-corporate-agribusiness-international-declaration
Quote
As fires in the Amazon draw attention to the problem, critics say big agribusinesses aren't doing enough to stop deforestation in their supply chains.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on September 18, 2019, 07:58:20 PM
Indigenous communities, wildlife under threat as farms invade Nicaraguan reserve
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/09/indigenous-communities-wildlife-under-threat-as-farms-invade-nicaraguan-reserve/
Quote
Nicaragua’s Bosawás Biosphere Reserve straddles the country’s border with Honduras and was declared a UNESCO site in 1997. It comprises one of the largest contiguous rainforest regions in Latin America north of the Amazon Basin and includes 21 ecosystems and six types of forest that are home to a multitude of species, several of which are threatened with extinction.
According to a report by the Nicaraguan environmental agency MARENA, a little more than 15 percent of the Bosawás reserve had been cleared and converted for agricultural use in 2000. But today, that number stands at nearly 31 percent. Satellite data show deforestation reached the heart of the reserve’s core zone earlier this year.
Deforestation in Bosawás stems mainly from migration, as people in other parts of the country move to the region looking for fertile land and space to raise cattle and grow crops.
Indigenous communities are allowed to own land within Bosawás. But sources say land traffickers are selling plots of land to non-indigenous farmers and ranchers, creating conflicts that have caused death on both sides.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on September 21, 2019, 12:31:08 AM
Gran Chaco: South America’s second-largest forest at risk of collapsing
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/09/gran-chaco-south-americas-second-largest-forest-at-risk-of-collapsing/
Quote
Distributed between Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil, the Gran Chaco is a collection of more than 50 different ecosystems typified by dry forest.
The Gran Chaco is one of the most deforested areas on the planet. Every month, an area twice the size of Buenos Aires is cut down.
Chaco deforestation is driven by the expansion of the agricultural frontier and hunting, as well as climate change.

Deforestation increase dovetails with armed conflict in Colombia, study finds
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/09/deforestation-increase-dovetails-with-armed-conflict-in-colombia-study-finds/
Quote
According to the report’s primary author, forested areas in Colombia that are less than 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) away from illicit crops are most likely areas to be deforested.
Deforestation linked to armed conflict and coca cultivation was most prevalent in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, La Macarena, and San Lucas mountains, and in the regions of Tumaco and Catatumbo.
All areas impacted in Colombia are those with high biodiversity and conservation value.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on September 23, 2019, 02:00:07 PM
I read about this story on nu.nl but wanted to find an english article then forgot about it.
Luckily ASLR posted about it:

Also, let's not forget about the degradation happening now to Brazil's Cerrado (a mosaic of savannah, grassland and forest) regions, as I dare to point-out that consensus climate models do not capture this climate risk:

Title: "The Amazon burns. But another part of Brazil is being destroyed faster"

https://www.cnn.com/2019/09/22/americas/brazil-cerrado-soy-intl/index.html

Extract: "Brazil's Cerrado -- a "mosaic" habitat made up of savannah, grassland and forest -- is the world's most biodiverse such region, and spans around 200 million hectares.

Like in the Amazon, Cerrado habitats are being cleared because of global demand for meat -- to make way for cattle ranches, and later converted to grow soy which is used to feed livestock or exported to other parts of the world.

The destruction of the habitat is also bad news for climate change: the Cerrado, the WWF says, locks up a "deceptively large amount of carbon" in its deep root systems.

"It is a forest in a different way -- it is an upside-down forest, because a lot of the biomass is underground," de Oliviera Rosa told CNN.

In a recent report, Greenpeace suggested that the remaining original vegetation of the region contains a carbon store of equivalent to 13.7 gigatonnes of equivalent carbon dioxide.


Bolding mine.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on September 24, 2019, 10:14:36 PM
Prompted by Amazon fires, 230 investors warn firms linked to deforestation
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/09/prompted-by-amazon-fires-230-investors-warn-firms-linked-to-deforestation/
Quote
Prompted by the Amazon fires in Brazil and Bolivia, 230 global investors with $16.2 trillion in assets have issued a strongly worded statement warning hundreds of unnamed companies to either meet their commodities supply chain deforestation commitments or risk economic consequences.
The statement was published by Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI), an international network of investors and Ceres, a U.S. non-profit which works with investors to promote sustainability.
Among the 230 signatories are CalPERS (the California Public Employees’ Retirement System), which manages the largest public pension fund in the United States, and some more unexpected firms, such as China Asset Management.
Elsewhere, consumer pressure has led the VF Corporation, a US apparel and footwear firm which owns Timberland and The North Face brands, to announce it has stopped buying Brazilian leather. It remains to be seen whether a global Brazilian boycott linked to deforestation will develop.

A NEW GENERATION OF ACTIVISTS PUT THEIR BODIES ON THE LINE TO DEFEND CALIFORNIA’S FORESTS
Quote
https://theintercept.com/2019/09/21/environmental-activists-logging-trees/
In Humboldt County, California, activists have been fighting for decades to preserve the forests and have embraced direct action tactics aimed at physically preventing logging companies from felling redwoods, Douglas firs, madrones, and other trees by using their own bodies as blockades. They have built platforms 100 feet in the air in the canopies of trees and lived on them for weeks, months, or even years at a time. They have erected tripods to block logging roads and sat atop them, so that if the tripods were dismantled, they would face injury or death. They have chained themselves to bulldozers and other earth-moving equipment.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on September 27, 2019, 04:48:30 PM
'Alarming' extinction threat to Europe's trees

...

The conservation status of most animals in Europe has already been assessed for the inventory of endangered species known as the Red List.

Experts are now turning their attention to plants, with an assessment of all 454 tree species native to the continent.

The report found:

42% are threatened with extinction (assessed as Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered)
Among endemic trees - those that don't exist anywhere else on Earth - 58% are threatened.
Species highlighted include the horse chestnut, which is declining across Europe, and most of almost 200 trees in the family that includes the rowan and mountain ash.

for details see:
https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-49838650
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on September 27, 2019, 05:29:37 PM
Oops, kassy posted the same news. Anyway I'll post this version:
-
  More than half of native European trees face extinction, warns study
Ash, elm and rowan among trees threatened by pests and pollution, says biodiversity report

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/sep/27/more-than-half-of-native-european-trees-face-extinction-warns-study

  Quotes:

More than half of Europe’s endemic trees are threatened with extinction as invasive diseases, pests, pollution and urban development take a growing toll on the landscape, according to a study.

“I’ve been keeping an eye on it over the past five years. Last year, I began to get quite worried. This year, huge areas are experiencing a dieback and it’s not just affecting saplings like it was before. Now it’s whole big trees. I drove in some parts of Pembrokeshire recently, and every five or 10 metres there was an ash tree dead or dying. This is a major problem – way worse than I expected it to be.”

The study of trees is part of a wider European red list that examines the status of overlooked species in order to determine priorities for conservation. It found 20-50% of terrestrial molluscs, shrubs and bryophytes, such as moss and liverworts, are threatened with extinction due to a loss of wild areas, expanded agriculture and climate change. Although these species are unglamorous and rarely attract attention, they play a vital role in food production and other natural life support systems through oxygen production, nutrient recycling and soil regeneration.

"Thus, once these species are lost from Europe, they are gone for ever,”

“We are seeing our natural environment being eaten away,” he said. It’s such a wide scale problem, rather like climate
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: aslan on September 27, 2019, 05:48:20 PM
Yes, it is already some years that horse chestnut is screaming its sorrow and pain. It is often question of Amazon or Indonesia or California... but here in northeastern France trees are dying everywhere, it is crazy. Bark beetle are eating away forest, and relentless heatwaves are drying trees. You can't walk 5 meters in any forest without spotting dead trees after dead trees, of any species, old one or young one. Leaves are already falling here, which is really early -and while temperatures are still high and there is no frost still-.

https://www.foretpriveefrancaise.com/data/fe248_p54_60_1.pdf

In the mean, around 10% to 20% trees are dying now. With an annual harvest of 12 millions m3 it is at least 2 millions m3 of damaged wood for this year for France. But locally up to 80% to 90% (!) of trees are dry and dead. Hornbeam, beech, spruce, ash, douglas, you name it.

http://www.fncofor.fr/docs/library/secheressequestions-reponsesonf-fncoforseptembre-2019.pdf

Here it is named a "sanitary crisis", but it is no longer a crisis as it is only worst years after years. It was already very, very bad in 2018, and "only" very bad years before. It is just that mass mortality is growing more massive years after years. And in Deutshland or in Switzerland it is no better.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on September 27, 2019, 05:51:37 PM
If we've just about finished up cataloging European animals and are working on plants, how are we doing on the organisms of the other regions?
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on October 02, 2019, 06:49:31 PM
https://earther.gizmodo.com/fewer-fires-burned-the-amazon-in-september-but-defores-1838701813

Fewer fires in the Amazon but the deforestation continues.
This sort of stood out:

Quote
In Brazil, however, most of the states that are home to the Amazon saw a reduction in their number of fires. Only Mato Grosso saw an increase. In that state—which is home to the Xingu Indigenous Park where some 16 tribes reside—the number of fires grew by 34 percent compared to August.

...

These fires aren’t natural or wild. They’re manmade fires set by loggers and ranchers illegally cutting down trees and then burning them to convert the land to pastures for cattle and eventually illegally sell to soy farmers.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on October 07, 2019, 02:38:54 PM
Bolivia wildfires in east extinguished by rain

Heavy rains have extinguished wildfires which destroyed more than four million hectares of land in eastern Bolivia in recent months, officials say.

"It has rained all across Chiquitanía and our satellite no longer shows any active forest fires," a Santa Cruz province official said.

for the details see:
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-49958767
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on October 21, 2019, 08:00:25 AM
In our local small woods there are many mushrooms 'blooming' from a wide variety of species. Lovely. I have never seen so many and most for the first time, like the fly agaric (see photo).

Here is a link to a photo sequence from a local website. The photo's are taken in the last few weeks and within 800m of my place. I feel lucky :).
https://www.trynwalden.nl/nieuws/2019/10/hjerst-yn-it-heemstra-en-kaetsjemuoibosk/
photo's by Annie Hellinga
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on October 21, 2019, 02:09:34 PM
It´s good year for mushrooms here.

Meanwhile in Indonesia:

In september meer hectares in Indonesië door brand verwoest dan in heel 2018

De hoeveelheid door brand verwoeste hectares in Indonesië lag in september van dit jaar hoger dan in heel 2018, zo melden de autoriteiten maandag. In september gaat het om 857,756 hectares, vorig jaar zijn in totaal 529,267 hectares verwoest.

https://www.nu.nl/buitenland/6005494/in-september-meer-hectares-in-indonesie-door-brand-verwoest-dan-in-heel-2018.html

In Indonesia more forest has been destroyed this september that in the whole year 2018.

September saw the destruction of 8578 KM2 while the loss in 2018 was 5293 KM2
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: sidd on October 26, 2019, 11:12:34 PM
Amazon on fire: Harvard and US pension plans to profit

Farmlandgrab has detail:

"the Cerrado fires are also linked to other US-based financial interests: the Harvard University Endowment and TIAA, the private pension fund"

" TIAA and Harvard University have collectively spent over $1 billion on Brazilian farmland, making them two of the largest owners of farmland in the Cerrado."

"TIAA and Harvard's farms overlap with the areas of the Cerrado where there has been a heavy concentration of forest fires over this period."

https://www.farmlandgrab.org/post/view/29247-harvard-and-tiaa-s-farmland-grab-in-brazil-goes-up-in-smoke

sidd
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: rboyd on October 27, 2019, 01:43:52 AM
Amazon rainforest 'close to irreversible tipping point' Forecast suggests rainforest could stop producing enough rain to sustain itself by 2021

Bolsonaro is helping rapidly accelerate our journey to the Amazon tipping point it seems, anytime between the early 2020's (worst case) and last 2030's (best case). This is in my life time (I am 56), that reality needs to get through to the masses, its not the grandchildren's problem it will be their life experience.

Quote
Soaring deforestation coupled with the destructive policies of Brazil’s far-right president, Jair Bolsonaro, could push the Amazon rainforest dangerously to an irreversible “tipping point” within two years, a prominent economist has said.

After this point the rainforest would stop producing enough rain to sustain itself and start slowly degrading into a drier savannah, releasing billions of tonnes of carbon into the atmosphere, which would exacerbate global heating and disrupt weather across South America.

The warning came in a policy brief published this week by Monica de Bolle, a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics in Washington DC.

The report sparked controversy among climate scientists. Some believe the tipping point is still 15 to 20 years away, while others say the warning accurately reflects the danger that Bolsonaro and global heating pose to the Amazon’s survival.

Quote
“It’s a stock, so like any stock you run it down, run it down – then suddenly you don’t have any more of it,” said de Bolle, whose brief also recommended solutions to the current crisis.

Bolsonaro has vowed to develop the Amazon, and his government plans to allow mining on protected indigenous reserves. Amazon farmers support his attacks on environmental protection agencies. His business-friendly environment minister, Ricardo Salles, has met loggers and wildcat miners, while deforestation and Amazon fires have soared since he assumed office in January.

The policy brief noted that Brazil’s space research institute, INPE, reported that deforestation in August was 222% higher than in August 2018. Maintaining the current rate of increase INPE reported between January and August this year would bring the Amazon “dangerously close to the estimated tipping point as soon as 2021 … beyond which the rainforest can no longer generate enough rain to sustain itself”, de Bolle wrote.

Quote
“If Bolsonaro is serious about developing the Amazon without paying any attention to sustainability or maintaining the forest’s standing, these rates would happen within his mandate,” she said.

Carlos Nobre, one of Brazil’s leading climate scientists and a senior researcher at the University of São Paulo’s Institute for Advanced Studies, questioned her calculation that estimated deforestation would quadruple from an estimate of nearly 18,000 km2 this year to nearly 70,000 km2 by 2021.

“It seems very improbable to me – the projected deforestation increase is more an economic calculation than ecological,” he said. However, he added: “We are seeing an increase in deforestation, I am not questioning this.”

Quote
Last year, Nobre argued in an article written with celebrated American conservation biologist Thomas Lovejoy that the Amazon tipping point could happen in eastern, southern and central Amazonia when 20% to 25% of the rainforest has been felled – not expected for 20 to 25 years. He has since brought forward his prediction by about five years.

“The Amazon is already 17% deforested, so when you calculate at the current rate of deforestation, this 20% to 25% is reached in 15 to 20 years,” he said. “I hope she is wrong. If she is right, it is the end of the world.”

But Lovejoy, a professor at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia, said that de Bolle’s projection could come true because global heating, soaring deforestation and an increase in Amazon fires have created a “negative synergy” that is accelerating its destruction – citing droughts in recent years as a warning sign.

“We are seeing the first flickering of that tipping,” he said. “It’s sort of like a seal trying to balance a rubber ball on its nose … the only sensible thing to do is to do some reforestation and build back that margin of safety.”

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/oct/23/amazon-rainforest-close-to-irreversible-tipping-point (https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/oct/23/amazon-rainforest-close-to-irreversible-tipping-point)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on October 30, 2019, 03:13:22 AM
Elon Musk pledges $1 million to #TeamTrees viral tree-planting initiative
October 29, 2019
Quote
In May of 2019, popular YouTube creator “MrBeast” – real name: Jimmy Donaldson – reached 20 million subscribers. His followers quickly challenged him to plant as many trees as he had followers. In response, the YouTuber did what YouTubers do best: formed a collaborative effort of other well known YouTubers and legitimate foundations to crowdfund a viral challenge. The viral challenge has been so successful in just four days that it now has the backing of Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk.

With the help of multiple partners, Donaldson paired up with The Arbor Day Foundation to create a fundraising campaign that would plant 20 million trees. TeamTrees.org was created and went live on Oct. 25th following an announcement video posted to the MrBeast Youtube channel. As stated on the site’s FAQ page, the organizers have promised all donors that “for every dollar you donate, one tree will be planted in a forest of high need around the world.”  ...
https://www.teslarati.com/elon-musk-million-dollar-pledge-team-trees/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: TerryM on October 30, 2019, 07:10:29 AM
^^
Doesn't sound possible for someone who very recently, and under oath told the court that he had liquidity problems.
Is Kimbal somehow involved?
Terry
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: El Cid on October 30, 2019, 09:23:41 AM
20 million trees sounds good, but it is just a drop in the bucket. Don't misunderstand me, it's important to have initiatives like these but me and a friend planted 1.2 million oaks (8000/hectare), so I know that for us 20 million is a big number but planetary-wise that is nothing. If you plant 8000  per hectare, ie. 800 000 per sq km then it is only 25 sq km of forest. We need to plant many-many billions of trees to have any effect!!!
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: vox_mundi on October 30, 2019, 09:32:28 PM
Carbon Bomb: Study Says Climate Impact from Loss of Intact Tropical Forests Grossly Underreported
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-carbon-climate-impact-loss-intact.html

A new study in the journal Science Advances says that carbon impacts from the loss of intact tropical forests has been grossly underreported.

The study calculates new figures relating to intact tropical forest lost between 2000-2013 that show a staggering increase of 626 percent in the long-term net carbon impacts through 2050. The revised total equals two years' worth of all global land-use change emissions.

Researchers found that direct clearance of intact tropical forests resulted in just 3.2 percent of gross carbon emissions from all deforestation across the pan-tropics. However, when they factored in full carbon accounting, which considers forgone carbon removals (carbon sequestration that would occur annually into the future if cleared or degraded forest had remained intact after year 2000), selective logging, edge effects and declines of carbon-dense tree species due to overhunting of seed-dispersing animals, they discovered that the figure skyrocketed by a factor of more than six times.

... The authors go on to say that a comparable analysis is needed for intact forests outside of the tropics such as the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, given that approximately half to two-thirds of carbon removals on earth's intact ecosystems occur outside the tropics. Without this global clean-up service, CO2 from human activities would accumulate in the atmosphere markedly faster than it does at present.

(https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/advances/5/10/eaax2546/F2.large.jpg?width=800&height=600&carousel=1)

Open Access: Sean L. Maxwell, et.al. "Degradation and forgone removals increase the carbon impact of intact forest loss by 626%" (https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/10/eaax2546) Science Advances (2019)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on October 31, 2019, 03:11:38 PM
Campaign to save Czech forests reaches parliament

...

What’s the problem with Czech forests?
Czech forests have been stressed and dying off at an alarming rate in recent years. Dry years have struck Czech forests badly since 2013.

At first, the trees in the north-eastern Jeseníky Mountains, already impacted by low rainfall and air pollution, quickly began to die off. But it soon became apparent that trees across the whole country faced similar problems.

Consensus has grown that one cause of Czechia’s stressed forests is monoculture plantations of spruce trees – a species not adapted to warming temperatures. Planting forests of fast-growing spruce might have been profitable in the past, but they are bad for biodiversity and climate resilience.

Bark beetles have spread across the country – attacking weakened spruce trees. Czech foresters have reacted by clear-cutting infected areas, creating a glut of cheap wood and bare deforested landscapes.

But they are replanting with more inappropriate spruce plantations, creating weak forests in a warming world, as the European Forest Institute warns.

The Czech government has ignored the problem for the past decade, and failed to take action to improve forest management.

...

So far, the Lower House (Chamber of Deputies) voted to support a legal reforms to improve the state of Czech forests. But the Government and the Agricultural Committee have removed many of the good propositions for living forests – including giving more time to forests to regenerate naturally, and avoiding high-risk trees.

Now this week, the Upper House (Czech Senate) has the opportunity to vote to reinstate the best proposals. Hnuti Duha calls on the Senators to back a longer period for the reforestation of forests, to significantly improve the chances for natural reforestation.

http://www.foeeurope.org/campaign-save-czech-forests-reaches-parliament-301019
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on October 31, 2019, 09:01:08 PM
Elon Musk pledges $1 million to #TeamTrees viral tree-planting initiative
October 29, 2019 ...

Add another million trees, inspired by Musk’s donation.
Quote
MrBeast (@MrBeastYT) 10/30/19, 1:31 PM
THE CEO OF SHOPIFY IS GOING TO PLANT 1,000,001 TREES TO TAKE THE TOP SPOT FROM ELON!!! WHAT IS GOING ON??? 

Tobi Lorax (@tobi) 10/30/19, 11:58 AM
Good idea. OK Boomers, on behalf of 1,000,000 Shopify merchants and my own defunct snowboarding store, I‘ll donate 1,000,001 trees. @elonmusk
https://twitter.com/tobi/status/1189572181501440001

Treelon (@elonmusk) 10/30/19, 1:39 PM
@tobi Congrats! Shopify is great btw. Nice work.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: bluesky on October 31, 2019, 11:56:04 PM
"Degradation and forgone removals increase the carbon impact of intact forest loss by 626%"
Sean L. Maxwell et al Oct 2019

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/10/eaax2546

"Abstract
Intact tropical forests, free from substantial anthropogenic influence, store and sequester large amounts of atmospheric carbon but are currently neglected in international climate policy. We show that between 2000 and 2013, direct clearance of intact tropical forest areas accounted for 3.2% of gross carbon emissions from all deforestation across the pantropics. However, full carbon accounting requires the consideration of forgone carbon sequestration, selective logging, edge effects, and defaunation. When these factors were considered, the net carbon impact resulting from intact tropical forest loss between 2000 and 2013 increased by a factor of 6 (626%), from 0.34 (0.37 to 0.21) to 2.12 (2.85 to 1.00) petagrams of carbon (equivalent to approximately 2 years of global land use change emissions). The climate mitigation value of conserving the 549 million ha of tropical forest that remains intact is therefore significant but will soon dwindle if their rate of loss continues to accelerate."
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: gerontocrat on November 02, 2019, 08:02:19 PM
Expect a lot of of tropical forests to be destroyed in the next few years as use of palm-oil for bio-diesel goes through the roof.

And the politicians will be congratulating each other on their green energy credentials as they commit his act of self-harm


https://www.reuters.com/article/indonesia-palmoil-fry/update-1-palm-prices-outlook-revised-up-as-output-disappoints-b30-sparks-buying-idUSL3N27H262
UPDATE 1-Palm prices outlook revised up as output disappoints, B30 sparks buying

Indonesia, the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has a target of implementing a mandatory ‘B30’ programme - meaning biodiesel with 30% bio-content - from 2020.

That represents expansion from the ‘B20’ mandate for 20% bio-fuel content and would be the highest bio-content ever used in a transport fuel.

Biodiesel mandates are not only increasing in Indonesia, Fry said, but also in Malaysia and Thailand, driving overall demand.

Malaysia increased its biodiesel mandate to 10% from 7% last December, and aims to implement a ‘B20’ programme in 2020.

Fry estimated that European crude palm oil prices would climb to more than $700 per tonne in the first-quarter of 2020, as lower-than-expected output and use of supplies in biodiesel squeeze stocks, he said on Friday.

Palm oil prices could then surge to $750 per tonne in the second quarter.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on November 03, 2019, 01:19:15 AM
Expect a lot of of tropical forests to be destroyed in the next few years as use of palm-oil for bio-diesel goes through the roof.
...

Palm oil is used in a huge variety of food and personal care products, manufacturers of which will doubtless find a way to switch to another option if palm oil prices rise significantly.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: gerontocrat on November 05, 2019, 01:31:13 PM
Expect a lot of of tropical forests to be destroyed in the next few years as use of palm-oil for bio-diesel goes through the roof.
...

Palm oil is used in a huge variety of food and personal care products, manufacturers of which will doubtless find a way to switch to another option if palm oil prices rise significantly.

And the world will buy products from destroyed forests, and from the crops grown on the land cleared, even if they are somewhat bloodstained.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/nov/02/brazilian-forest-guardian-killed-by-illegal-loggers-in-ambush
Brazilian 'forest guardian' killed by illegal loggers in ambush
Paulo Paulino Guajajara was killed by armed loggers in the Araribóia region in Maranhão

Quote
A Brazilian indigenous land defender has been killed in an ambush by illegal loggers in an Amazon frontier region.

According to a statement by the Brazilian Indigenous Peoples Association, Paulo Paulino Guajajara was shot and killed inside the Araribóia indigenous territory in Maranhão state. Another tribesman, Laércio Guajajara, was also shot and hospitalised and a logger has been reported missing. No body has yet been recovered.

Sérgio Moro, the justice minister of far-right president Jair Bolsonaro’s government, confirmed that Brazil’s federal police were investigating the killing. “We will spare no effort to bring those responsible for this serious crime to justice,” he tweeted.

The tribesmen are members of an indigenous forest guard called Guardians of the Forest, which formed in 2012 to ward off logging gangs pillaging their rare, hardwood-rich reserve.

Their work involves armed patrols and destroying logging encampments and has earned them dangerous enemies. Several Guardians in Maranhão have been killed in recent years, including three from Araribóia.

According to Gilderlan Rodrigues, Maranhão regional coordinator of Brazil’s indigenous missionary council, the murdered tribesman had been threatened several times. “Their work bothers those that want to loot their territory,” he said, adding that the killers were from a nearby rural settlement and had entered the reserve without permission. “These criminal actions must be combated so that more lives are not lost.”
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on November 05, 2019, 06:08:37 PM
Thank you for your high morality gerontocrat. Nice to also have your opinions and views (in addition to those on the deteriorating cryosphere).
not just your choice to post this article but your apparent morals :)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: vox_mundi on November 06, 2019, 05:52:55 PM
Human Activities Are Drying Out the Amazon: NASA Study
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-human-amazon-nasa.html
https://ecostress.jpl.nasa.gov/news

(https://scx2.b-cdn.net/gfx/news/hires/2019/4-humanactivit.jpg)
The image shows the decline of moisture in the air over the Amazon rainforest, particularly across the south and southeastern Amazon, during the dry season months - August through October - from 1987 to 2016. The measurements are shown in millibars. https://ecostress.jpl.nasa.gov/news

A new NASA study shows that over the last 20 years, the atmosphere above the Amazon rainforest has been drying out, increasing the demand for water and leaving ecosystems vulnerable to fires and drought. It also shows that this increase in dryness is primarily the result of human activities.

... "We observed that in the last two decades, there has been a significant increase in dryness in the atmosphere as well as in the atmospheric demand for water above the rainforest," said JPL's Armineh Barkhordarian, lead author of the study. "In comparing this trend to data from models that estimate climate variability over thousands of years, we determined that the change in atmospheric aridity is well beyond what would be expected from natural climate variability."

... "It's a matter of supply and demand. With the increase in temperature and drying of the air above the trees, the trees need to transpire to cool themselves and to add more water vapor into the atmosphere. But the soil doesn't have extra water for the trees to pull in," said JPL's Sassan Saatchi, co-author of the study. "Our study shows that the demand is increasing, the supply is decreasing and if this continues, the forest may no longer be able to sustain itself."

Scientists observed that the most significant and systematic drying of the atmosphere is in the southeast region, where the bulk of deforestation and agricultural expansion is happening. But they also found episodic drying in the northwest Amazon, an area that typically has no dry season. Normally always wet, the northwest has suffered severe droughts over the past two decades, a further indication of the entire forest's vulnerability to increasing temperatures and dry air.

If this trend continues over the long term and the rainforest reaches the point where it can no longer function properly, many of the trees and the species that live within the rainforest ecosystem may not be able to survive. As the trees die, particularly the larger and older ones, they release CO2 into the atmosphere; and the fewer trees there are, the less CO2 the Amazon region would be able to absorb—meaning we'd essentially lose an important element of climate regulation.

(https://media.springernature.com/m685/springer-static/image/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41598-019-51857-8/MediaObjects/41598_2019_51857_Fig1_HTML.png)
Top: Detection of externally forced changes in Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) trends. Bottom: The effects of land surface and atmospheric conditions on VPD. https://ecostress.jpl.nasa.gov/news

Open Access: Armineh Barkhordarian, et.al. "A Recent Systematic Increase in Vapor Pressure Deficit Over Tropical South America," (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-51857-8) Scientific Reports, (2019)

(https://media.springernature.com/lw685/springer-static/image/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41598-019-51857-8/MediaObjects/41598_2019_51857_Fig5_HTML.png)

----------------------------------

Drought-Stressed Forest Fueled Amazon Fires
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-drought-stressed-forest-fueled-amazon.html
https://ecostress.jpl.nasa.gov/news

A new satellite-based map of a section of the Amazon Basin reveals that at least some of the massive fires burning there this past summer were concentrated in water-stressed areas of the rainforest. The stressed plants released measurably less water vapor into the air than unstressed plants; in other words, they were struggling to stay cool and conserve water, leaving them more vulnerable to the fires.

(https://scx2.b-cdn.net/gfx/news/2019/droughtstres.jpg)
NASA's ECOSTRESS sensor measured the stress levels of plants when it passed over the Peruvian Amazon rainforest on Aug. 7, 2019. The map reveals that the fires were concentrated in areas of water-stressed plants (brown). The pattern points to how plant health can impact the spread of fires https://ecostress.jpl.nasa.gov/news

... "To the naked eye, the fires appear randomly distributed throughout the forest," said Josh Fisher, ECOSTRESS science lead at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. "But, if you overlay the ECOSTRESS data, you can see that the fires are mainly confined within the highly water-stressed areas. The fires avoided the low-stress areas where the forest appears to have access to more water."

---------------------------------

NASA's ECOSTRESS Detects Amazon Fires From Space
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-nasa-ecostress-amazon-space.html

https://ecostress.jpl.nasa.gov/news
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Hefaistos on November 10, 2019, 01:48:09 PM
An international team analyzed decades of experiments to globally map the potential of forests to increase their biomass and continue to absorb and store CO2 in the future.

A massive international science collaboration, the Global Forest Biodiversity Initiative, is what made the study possible. Through the initiative, researchers shared data from surveys of forests, woodlands, and savannas from every continent (except Antarctica) and ecosystem on Earth. The team fed the location of 31 million trees from the database, along with information about what symbiotic fungi or bacteria most often associates with those species, into a learning algorithm that determined how different variables such as climate, soil chemistry, vegetation and topography seem to influence the prevalence of each symbiosis.
https://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/about/news/190517-microbial-symbioses-in-forests.html

 Several individual experiments, such as fumigating forests with elevated levels of CO2 and growing plants in high CO2 chambers, have provided critical data but no definitive answer globally. To more accurately predict the capacity of vegetation to sequester CO2 in the future, the researchers synthesized data from all elevated CO2 experiments conducted so far – in grassland, shrubland, cropland, and forest systems – including ones they directed themselves.

The study results show that CO2 levels expected by the end of the century should increase plant biomass by 12%, enabling plants and trees to store more CO2 – an amount equivalent to six years of current fossil fuel emissions. The study highlights important partnerships trees forge with mycorrhizal fungi to help them take up the extra nitrogen and phosphorus they need to balance their additional CO2 intake.

https://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/about/news/190812-preserving-forests.html

Research paper in Nature just published relating ecosystem processes to the functioning of distinct types of mycorrhizas on a global scale. It is not only about forests. Open access.
"Global mycorrhizal plant distribution linked to terrestrial carbon stocks"
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-13019-2

Figure byline: Percentage of aboveground plant biomass of mycorrhizal vegetation. a Arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, b ectomycorrhizal plants, c ericoid mycorrhizal plants, and d non-mycorrhizal plants. The map resolution is 10 arcmin.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on December 08, 2019, 11:31:09 PM
Quote
Twee inheemse mannen zijn zondag vanuit een auto doodgeschoten in het Amazonewoud in het noordoosten van Brazilië, melden lokale autoriteiten. De slachtoffers zijn onderdeel van de Guajajara-stam

...

De plek waar de schutters het vuur openden, ligt niet ver van waar vorige maand Paulo Paulino Guajajara werd omgebracht. Hij was een prominent hoofd van de stam die zich inzette tegen illegale ontbossing.

https://www.nu.nl/buitenland/6016307/twee-inheemse-mannen-gedood-bij-drive-by-in-braziliaanse-amazone.html

Two men were killed in a drive by shooting in the Amazon. They were members of the Guajajara tribe which is protecting the forest (which is also their home, k). The spot was not far from the stop where one of their prominent leaders was killed.

Possibly some pressure will be applied by not signing the Mercosur trade agreement.

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: gerontocrat on December 09, 2019, 12:23:11 PM
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union%E2%80%93Mercosur_free_trade_agreement
European Union–Mercosur free trade agreement

Blindly continuing down the path of mutually assured destruction......

It is just possible that the actions of Bolsonaro will force the EU to think again. Hope dies last.
Quote
According to Jonathan Watts ‘negotiations took almost two decades, which may explain why the outcome signed last week reflects the pro-industry values of the past rather than the environmental concerns of the present’.[12] An editorial in The Irish Times states “EU countries are committing to achieving net-zero carbon by 2050, but this will prove meaningless if the planet’s greatest carbon sink is destroyed.”

The deal is expected to trigger a huge surge of Brazilian beef exports to all EU countries.[8][12] Under the agreement, the EU will open its markets to a quota of up to 99,000 tonnes of beef per year at a preferential rate of 7.5% tariffs.

Cattle farming is the single largest driver of Amazon deforestation, and has been responsible for as much as 80% of the deforestation

Opposition
The deal has been denounced by European beef farmers, environmental activists and indigenous rights campaigners.[5][9] Protests against the deal have taken place.[5][10] After Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro received much criticism concerning the protection of the Amazon rain forest, both Ireland and France voiced concern, and threatened a veto on the agreement unless action is taken by the Brazilian government.[11]

European farmers
The deal is expected to trigger a huge surge of Brazilian beef exports to all EU countries.[8][12] Under the agreement, the EU will open its markets to a quota of up to 99,000 tonnes of beef per year at a preferential rate of 7.5% tariffs.[5] Farmers throughout the EU oppose this, particularly smaller farmers who fear being undercut on price.[5] The COPA-COGECA union, which represents 23 million farmers across the EU, warned the deal “will go down in history as a very dark moment”.[5] The Irish Farmers' Association denounced the deal as a “disgraceful and feeble sell-out”.[13]

Of concern also is the potential environmental impact of the agreement, in particular that it could represent a setback in the fight against climate change.[12] The Amazon rainforest is one of the world's largest carbon sinks.[14] But the amount of carbon that the Amazon is absorbing from the atmosphere and storing each year has fallen by around a third in the last decade.[15] This decline in the Amazon carbon sink amounts to one billion tonnes of carbon dioxide – equivalent to over twice the UK’s annual emissions.[15] Since the election of Jair Bolsonaro as President of Brazil deforestation of the Amazon has intensified.[12] The deforestation of the Amazon is now at its highest rate in a decade, with 2018 seeing a 13% increase in deforestation.[12]

Cattle farming is the single largest driver of Amazon deforestation, and has been responsible for as much as 80% of the deforestation.[12][16] The current increased rate of rainforest destruction comes at a time of record beef exports from Brazil.[12] The fear is that the deal could lead to even more deforestation as it expands market access to Brazilian beef.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on December 10, 2019, 02:39:51 PM
Then ofc there are other plans...


A report presented at COP25 says that plans are in place for a huge expansion of oil drilling in the upper Amazon.

The analysis says that Ecuador and Peru are set to sanction oil extraction across an area of forest the size of Italy.

...

The area in question is known as the sacred headwaters of the upper Amazon and spans some 30 million hectares (74 million acres) in Ecuador and Peru.

The region is home to around 500,000 indigenous peoples from 20 nationalities, and is a hotspot of biodiversity.

But a report prepared by campaign group, Amazon Watch, says that Ecuador and Peru are actively planning to expand extraction and auction new oil blocks across the area.

Right now this is a pristine area, with few roads. The indigenous people have title to these lands and in the area several tribes are living in voluntary isolation. Campaigners fear that if the oil blocks are sold it will see new roads built, which will lead to illegal logging, deforestation and poor outcomes for the residents of the region.

Ecuador is due to leave the OPEC oil consortium in 2020, allowing it to boost its oil production. The country is also under pressure from China to supply oil because of financial debts.

"There's about $14bn that Ecuador owes China right now and that's a big part of the drive to expand production and look for new oil," said Kevin Koenig, from Amazon Watch who authored the report.

"In addition there are about $6bn in hidden debt in these oil for loan deals between PetroChina and Petroecuador which Ecuador is paying in barrels of oil."

It's estimated that around five billion barrels of oils are to be found in the upper Amazon region, which would equate to two billion metric tonnes of CO2.

For all details see the full article:
https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-50719386

We really need a worldwide effort to save areas like these. Not that i expect any.  >:(
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on December 13, 2019, 07:55:27 AM
Australia's bushfires have emitted 250m tonnes of CO2, almost half of country's annual emissions

Exclusive: forest regrowth can reabsorb emissions from fires but scientists fear natural carbon ‘sinks’ have been compromised

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/dec/13/australias-bushfires-have-emitted-250m-tonnes-of-co2-almost-half-of-countrys-annual-emissions
  by Graham Readfearn


  Excerpts:
Analysis by Nasa shows the NSW fires have emitted about 195m tonnes of CO2 since 1 August, with Queensland’s fires adding a further 55m tonnes over the same period.

In 2018, Australia’s entire greenhouse gas footprint was 532m tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent.

Experts say the pulse of CO2 from this season’s bushfires is significant, because even under normal conditions it could take decades for forest regrowth to reabsorb the emissions.

But scientists have expressed doubt that forests already under drought stress would be able to reabsorb all the emissions back into soils and branches, and said the natural carbon “sinks” of forests could be compromised.

More than 2.7m hectares of land has been burned in this NSW bushfire season, with authorities warning there will be more fires with little prospect of rain in coming months.

Emissions from bushfires are considered to be neutral because when forests regrow after fires, they absorb a similar amount of CO2 as they did when they burned.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: El Cid on December 13, 2019, 08:01:22 AM
You must realize though, that Australians consciously burn some part of the vegetation every year to stop the creation of real big fires. Moreover, this has been a practice for thousands of years! There is plenty of smoke and fire every year there
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: gerontocrat on December 14, 2019, 01:14:50 PM
You must realize though, that Australians consciously burn some part of the vegetation every year to stop the creation of real big fires. Moreover, this has been a practice for thousands of years! There is plenty of smoke and fire every year there

The aborigines did not farm. It was mostly lightning strikes from dry electrical storms.

You would not be suggesting, perchance, that this year is not that unusual?

Because just about nobody else does, (except perhaps the Aussie Government & the usual assorted deniers, apologists etc)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: gerontocrat on December 14, 2019, 01:19:30 PM
Unstoppable?

Brazil's Amazon deforestation this year nearly size of Puerto Rico, says agency
Destruction of the world’s largest tropical rainforest in November more than doubled the same period last year

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/dec/14/brazils-amazon-deforestation-this-year-nearly-size-of-puerto-rico-says-agency

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/dec/14/indigenous-boy-15-murdered-on-brazils-amazon-border
Indigenous boy, 15, murdered on Brazil's Amazon border
Erisvan Soares Guajajara’s body was found with knife wounds in Maranhão region

Quote
A 15-year-old indigenous boy has been murdered in Brazil on the edge of a heavily deforested indigenous reserve in the state of Maranhão, on the fringes of the Amazon.

The murder, the fourth from the Guajajara tribe in recent weeks, came as a wave of racist abuse against indigenous people swept social media in the state.

The Indigenous Missionary Council(CIMI), a non-profit group reported that Erisvan Soares Guajajara’s body was found with knife wounds on Friday in Amarante do Maranhão. The group said he had travelled to the town, on the edge of the Araribóia indigenous reserve, with his father. The G1 news site reported that a non-indigenous man called Roberto Silva, 31, was also killed with Erisvan and that both died in the early hours of Friday at a party in an area called Vila Industrial.

“Another brutal crime against the Guajajara people,” tweeted Sonia Guajajara, a leader from the same tribe and reserve who is executive coordinator of Brazilian indigenous association ABIP. “Everyone who doesn’t like us feels allowed to kill because they know impunity rules. It’s time to say ENOUGH.”

Murders of indigenous people soared 23% in 2018, according to CIMI figures, and land invasions have risen since far-right president Jair Bolsonaro took office in January. He has compared indigenous people living on reserves to “prehistoric men” and said their lands should be developed.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: El Cid on December 14, 2019, 01:57:43 PM
You must realize though, that Australians consciously burn some part of the vegetation every year to stop the creation of real big fires. Moreover, this has been a practice for thousands of years! There is plenty of smoke and fire every year there

The aborigines did not farm. It was mostly lightning strikes from dry electrical storms.

NOT AT ALL! See (as i personally saw it done - this was a widespread practice) :

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire-stick_farming

"Fire-stick farming, also known as cultural burning,[1][2][3][4] is the practice of Indigenous Australians regularly using fire to burn vegetation. While it has been discontinued in many parts of Australia, it has been reintroduced to Indigenous groups[5][1][3] by the teachings of custodians from areas where the practice is extant in continous unbroken tradition.[6][5] There are a number of purposes, including to facilitate hunting, to change the composition of plant and animal species in an area,[5][4] weed control,[5][4] hazard reduction,[1][4] and increase of biodiversity.[5] Fire-stick farming had the long-term effect of turning dry forest into savannah, increasing the population of nonspecific grass-eating species like the kangaroo.
One theory of the extinction of Australian megafauna implicates the ecological disturbance caused by fire-stick farming.[7]

In the resultant sclerophyll forests, fire-stick farming maintained an open canopy and allowed germination of understory plants necessary for increasing the carrying capacity of the local environment for browsing and grazing marsupials. "
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: El Cid on December 14, 2019, 02:00:22 PM
Furthermore: The aboroginals created pretty large scale climate change by burning the forest!

https://theconversation.com/how-aboriginal-burning-changed-australias-climate-4454

"...We showed that the climate responded significantly to reduced vegetation cover in the pre-monsoon season. We found decreases in rainfall, higher surface and ground temperatures and enhanced atmospheric stability. In other words, there was a decline in the strength of the early monsoon “phase”.

The results of the experiment lead us to suggest that by burning forests in northwestern Australia, Aboriginals altered the local climate. They effectively extended the dry season and delayed the start of the monsoon season...."
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on December 14, 2019, 04:54:09 PM
Hypothetical situation:
"I can't handle this. It must not be true that only civilisation is destroying all the forests, all life. I must find ways to water down all the good talk about those wild savages. To convince them that the savages are not better than us! Aarrgg. CAN'T be better than us. Impossible! I must convince them that us is all there is. Aaarrgg! it can't be trueee!"
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: dnem on December 15, 2019, 01:41:48 PM
Nanning, understanding that pre-industrial civilizations were already imbued with the human tendency to control and manipulate their environment to help them thrive really has little to do with whether or not they are "better" than us.  They are us, just before industrial society.  No one disputes that smaller numbers of humans living in a pre-industrial manner had a lighter footprint on the planet. But they were  very smart animals looking to gain whatever advantage they could to thrive, grow and increase their numbers.  It's what animals do. 
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: El Cid on December 15, 2019, 01:57:19 PM
Hypothetical situation:
"I can't handle this. It must not be true that only civilisation is destroying all the forests, all life. I must find ways to water down all the good talk about those wild savages. To convince them that the savages are not better than us! Aarrgg. CAN'T be better than us. Impossible! I must convince them that us is all there is. Aaarrgg! it can't be trueee!"
hypothetical situation:

"Oh no! It can't be! I want to believe that there truly was a Golden Age, when man and all the beasts of this world lived in harmony in the Garden of Eden. What is this guy saying? He is destroying my butterfly-filled dreams! I know that modern industrial civilization is evil, and it was perfect during the great old days, when half of babies died before age 5 and expected lifespan was 35 years at most. Oh yes, those were the days. I won't let anyone spoil the glorious past when there still was balance in the Force!"
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on December 15, 2019, 05:11:51 PM
Quote from: dnem
They are us, just before industrial society
Sorry dnem but I strongly disagree. "us" was still the same violent conquering civilisation. From the cancerous mediterranian tribe that spread all over Europe, conquering everything with mass violence. "They" are not like that. All historic "They"'s were conquered by civlisation and saw their culture erased. Living nature degraded.
The Amazon indiginous nature tribes can tell you all about the difference: "We only eat when everyone has something to eat".

This video is about the San tribes from southern Africa and even though the narrator wears 'civilisation-glasses', there's loads of really very good information. I think I got it from this forum. Many thanks to the poster.
(27m06)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1oQ5Jd7p2aY
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Juan C. García on December 20, 2019, 08:38:53 PM
Quote
Top scientists warn of an Amazon ‘tipping point”

Continued deforestation and other fast-moving changes in the Amazon threaten to turn parts of the rainforest into savanna, devastate wildlife and release billions of tons carbon into the atmosphere, two renowned experts warned Friday.

“The precious Amazon is teetering on the edge of functional destruction and, with it, so are we,” Thomas Lovejoy of George Mason University and Carlos Nobre of the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil, both of whom have studied the world’s largest rainforest for decades, wrote in an editorial in the journal Science Advances. “Today, we stand exactly in a moment of destiny: The tipping point is here, it is now.”

Combined with recent news that the Arctic permafrost may be beginning to fill the atmosphere with greenhouse gases, and that Greenland’s ice sheet is melting at an accelerating pace, it’s the latest hint that important parts of the climate system may be moving toward irreversible changes at a pace that defies earlier predictions.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/top-scientists-warn-of-an-amazon-tipping-point/2019/12/20/9c9be954-233e-11ea-bed5-880264cc91a9_story.html?utm_campaign=news_alert_revere&utm_medium=email&utm_source=alert&wpisrc=al_news__alert-hse--alert-national&wpmk=1 (https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/top-scientists-warn-of-an-amazon-tipping-point/2019/12/20/9c9be954-233e-11ea-bed5-880264cc91a9_story.html?utm_campaign=news_alert_revere&utm_medium=email&utm_source=alert&wpisrc=al_news__alert-hse--alert-national&wpmk=1)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on December 21, 2019, 05:39:03 PM
Amazon Forest Regrows Much Slower Than Previously Thought

The regrowth of Amazonian forests following deforestation could be much slower than previously thought, a new study shows.

The findings made significant impacts on global climate change predictions due to the ability of secondary forests to ingest carbon from the atmosphere. The study, which monitored forest regrowth over 20 years, shows that global climate change, and therefore the broader loss of forests, might be hampering regrowth within the Amazon.

Secondary forests are a crucial tool in combatting human-caused global climate change by taking large amounts of carbon from the atmosphere. However, the examined secondary forests held only 40 percent of the carbon in forests that had not been disrupted by human interactions. If current trends continue, it'll take more than a century for the woods to completely recover, meaning their ability to assist in fighting global climate change are vastly overestimated.

 The study, published within the journal Ecology, also shows that secondary forests take less carbon from the atmosphere during droughts. Yet, global climate change is increasing the number of drought-years within the Amazon.

continues on:
https://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/43012/20191221/amazon-forest-regrows-much-slower-previously-thought.htm
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on December 23, 2019, 05:34:22 PM
Elon Musk-Backed Tree-Planting Campaign Meets $20 Million Goal
Quote
Team Trees
In October, YouTuber Jimmy “MrBeast” Donaldson publicly launched Team Trees, a campaign to raise enough money to plant 20 million trees at a dollar a pop(lar).

Within days, the campaign secured a million dollar pledge from Tesla CEO Elon Musk, which was soon followed by a pledge of a million and one dollars from Shopify CEO Tobi Lütke.

Now, less than two months later, the tree-planting campaign has announced that it’s officially surpassed its $20 million fundraising goal.

Global Growth
According to the Team Trees FAQ page, the Arbor Day Foundation will oversee the planting of the trees, which will begin in January 2020 and wrap up no later than December 2022.

“Due to the sheer volume of trees planted (20 million), they will be planted in a variety of forests on public and private lands in areas of great need,” Team Trees wrote, adding that the aim is to “plant trees on every continent not named Antarctica!” ...
https://futurism.com/the-byte/elon-musk-tree-planting-meets-goal
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: sidd on December 27, 2019, 10:48:27 PM
Restore natural forests to sequester carbon: monocrop plantations are no answer

"The regular harvesting and clearing of plantations releases stored CO2 back into the atmosphere every 10–20 years. By contrast, natural forests continue to sequester carbon for many decades[4]."

"To combat climate change, the most effective place to plant trees is in the tropics and subtropics"



PDF version
Two workers handle tree saplings being grown to reforest burned areas of Indonesia

Reforesting of burnt areas in Kalimantan province, Indonesia.Credit: Kadir van Lohuizen/NOOR/eyevine

Keeping global warming below 1.5 °C to avoid dangerous climate change1 requires the removal of vast amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, as well as drastic cuts in emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests that around 730 billion tonnes of CO2 (730 petagrams of CO2, or 199 petagrams of carbon, Pg C) must be taken out of the atmosphere by the end of this century2. That is equivalent to all the CO2 emitted by the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and China since the Industrial Revolution. No one knows how to capture so much CO2.

Forests must play a part. Locking up carbon in ecosystems is proven, safe and often affordable3. Increasing tree cover has other benefits, from protecting biodiversity to managing water and creating jobs.

The IPCC suggests that boosting the total area of the world’s forests, woodlands and woody savannahs could store around one-quarter of the atmospheric carbon necessary to limit global warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels2. In the near term, this means adding up to 24 million hectares (Mha) of forest every year from now until 2030.

Policymakers are sowing the seeds. For example, in 2011, the German government and the International Union for Conservation of Nature launched the Bonn Challenge, which aims to restore 350 Mha of forest by 2030. Under this initiative and others, 43 countries across the tropics and subtropics where trees grow quickly, including Brazil, India and China, have committed nearly 300 Mha of degraded land (see Supplementary Information, Table S1). That’s encouraging.

But will this policy work? Here we show that, under current plans, it will not. A closer look at countries’ reports reveals that almost half of the pledged area is set to become plantations of commercial trees (see Table S1). Although these can support local economies, plantations are much poorer at storing carbon than are natural forests, which develop with little or no disturbance from humans. The regular harvesting and clearing of plantations releases stored CO2 back into the atmosphere every 10–20 years. By contrast, natural forests continue to sequester carbon for many decades4.

To stem global warming, deforestation must stop. And restoration programmes worldwide should return all degraded lands to natural forests — and protect them. More carbon must be stored on land, while recognizing competing pressures to deliver food, fuel, fodder and fibre.

We call on the restoration community, forestry experts and policymakers to prioritize the regeneration of natural forests over other types of tree planting — by allowing disturbed lands to recover to their previous high-carbon state. This will entail tightening definitions, transparently reporting plans and outcomes and clearly stating the trade-offs between different uses of land.
Misdirected efforts

To combat climate change, the most effective place to plant trees is in the tropics and subtropics — this is where most forest-restoration commitments are found. Trees grow and take up carbon quickly near the Equator, and land is relatively cheap and available (see go.nature.com/2ogmbmz and ‘Restoration potential’). Establishing forests has little effect on the albedo (reflectivity) of the land surface, unlike at high latitudes, where trees obscure snow that would otherwise reflect solar energy and help to cool the planet. Well-managed forests can also help to alleviate poverty in low-income regions, as well as conserve biodiversity and support the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals — notably, goals 1 (no poverty), 6 (clean water), 11 (sustainable communities), 13 (climate action) and 15 (life on land).

Source: https://go.nature.com/2ogmbmz

"So far, just over half (24) of the countries in the Bonn Challenge and other schemes have published detailed restoration plans, covering two-thirds of the total pledged area (Table S1). Nations are following three main approaches. First, degraded and abandoned agricultural land will be left to return to natural forest on its own. Second, marginal agricultural lands are to be converted into plantations of valuable trees, such as Eucalyptus for paper or Hevea braziliensis for rubber. Third is agroforestry, which involves growing crops and useful trees together."

"Natural regeneration is the cheapest and technically easiest option. Just over one-third (34%) of the total area allocated is to be managed in this way. Protecting land from fire and other human disturbances allows trees to return and forests to flourish, building carbon stocks rapidly to reach the level of a mature forest in roughly 70 years [4]"

"plantations are the most popular restoration plan: 45% of all commitments involve planting vast monocultures of trees as profitable enterprises. "

"plantations hold little more carbon, on average, than the land cleared to plant them. Clearance releases carbon, followed by rapid uptake by fast-growing trees ... But after such trees are harvested and the land is cleared for replanting — typically once a decade — the carbon is released again by the decomposition of plantation waste and products "

"if the entire 350 Mha is given over to natural forests, they would store an additional 42 Pg C by 2100 (see ‘Which strategy?’). Giving the same area exclusively to plantations would sequester just 1 Pg C or, if used only for agroforestry, 7 Pg C. Furthermore, we find, on average, that natural forests are 6 times better than agroforestry and 40 times better than plantations at storing carbon (sequestering 12, 1.9 and 0.3 Pg C per 100 Mha by 2100, respectively"

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01026-8

sidd
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on December 31, 2019, 10:15:11 AM
Illegal tin mining leaves trail of ruin in protected Brazilian rainforest


Floresta Nacional de Altamira (Flona de Altamira) spans some 724,965 hectares in the state of Pará, and is home to a rich diversity of plants and animals, including several species threatened with extinction.
Recently, an influx of illegal mining has led to rampant deforestation and the sullying of rivers. The miners are targeting the mineral cassiterite, the main ore of tin. Illegal ranching and road construction are also causing deforestation in Flona de Altamira.

...

Like in much of Brazil, the mining fever gripping Flona de Altamira has its roots in the broader development of the Amazon region in the 1970s and 1980s. The construction of the BR-163, a behemoth highway stretching thousands of kilometers from the south of Brazil through the heart of the Amazon Basin, served as a catalyst: the eventual paving of the road in the 1990s brought a flood of people scouring the unexplored region for gold and other minerals.

...

But unlike gold mining, extracting tin ore is less costly and difficult, making the activity particularly attractive to speculators, according to local sources. Illegal miners – many of whom are impoverished, illiterate men – have flocked to Flona de Altamira with the hopes of striking it rich.

Across the Brazilian Amazon, there are more than 450 illegal mines in the Brazilian Amazon, according to the Rede Amazónica de Información Socioambiental Georreferenciada (RAISG), a consortium of civil society organizations. Thousands of illegal miners toil away at these sites, extracting resources like tin, gold and nickel.

...

In Flona de Altamira, local sources point to the surge in mining activity as a key contributor to the stark deterioration in the water quality of Rio Aruri.

While some tin ore can be found in ground rock, most easily accessible deposits are concentrated in streams and along river banks. When forest and topsoil are removed from shorelines for mineral extraction, soil and mining waste run unobstructed directly into the river when it rains.

Tin ore mines also use water from nearby rivers for hydraulic extraction and then dispose of the waste in mining ponds and tailings dams nearby. Research has linked highly toxic tin ore waste stored in tailings dams to dramatic pollution of soil, vegetation, surface water and groundwater.

In the case of gold mining, where mercury is often used in the extraction process, the impact on human and animal health can be devastating.

Full details + pictures on:
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/12/illegal-tin-mining-leaves-trail-of-ruin-in-protected-brazilian-rainforest/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: sidd on January 03, 2020, 08:44:38 AM
Laudato si : theology in forests

To see the world in a grain of sand and heaven in a wild flower, indeed.

https://www.commonwealmagazine.org/cathedral-not-made-hands

sidd
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Aporia_filia on January 03, 2020, 11:44:55 AM
Thanks a lot Sidd. I take communion with all it says, and you know I'm an atheist.
This is why I decided living in an old forest trying to be the less disturbing animal in it. (Rather difficult!)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Ranman99 on January 03, 2020, 01:55:36 PM
Very noble (as a concept). It is a way. It is all connected right? It is not a metaphysical thing so much as just the way it is all connected. We could work in that but as a herd we keep barreling for the cliff.

What a human thinks about himself or herself is just what they think and most of that is not so much thinking like when you write it down and puzzle it out over a few days. Like a meta stream of random flotsam and jetsam on top or among what is. Memory is cool. The human creature uses a lot of different types of memory. The type we seemingly see / hear with our awareness is a very small portion and the stories that thing tells us are mostly whacked becuase of the influence of culture etc. ;-)

The human creature (flotsam and jetsam) does not like NOT getting what it wants. It does not always get what it wants however!!!

I spent a few hours speaking with an old school chum a few days ago that I stumbled across and have not seen for years and years. He is a bank VP and I thought he was in tune to what we are facing based on things I had heard from another friend over the years.

I was sadly mistaken and though he knows most (almost all) main stream media is propaganda he had such a weird mix of beliefs as to not be helpful in any way to what could be a chance for folks to change some directions. He wields a certain power in approving massive amounts of commercial lending in Canada.

Wow I say ;-) We are the deluded species!!! Good job the squirrels aren't confused and really control everything!!! I'm enjoying the entertainment but if it gets physically painful then hmmm.

https://youtu.be/fpZZQ2ov4lc




Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: wdmn on January 04, 2020, 07:44:02 PM
Bushfires devastate rare and enchanting wildlife as 'permanently wet' forests burn for first time

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-11-27/bushfires-devastate-ancient-forests-and-rare-wildlife/11733956?pfmredir=sm

The rainforests along the spine of the Great Dividing Range, between the Hunter River and southern Queensland, are remnants of Gondwana, the ancient supercontinent that broke up about 180 million years ago.

....

The forests are mountaintop islands that have been "permanently wet" for tens of millions of years.

But now, some of these forests are being burnt for the first time.

....

Beyond the koalas are many rare and fascinating creatures whose lives and homes have been destroyed, or remain threatened.

"The fauna in these landscapes requires permanently wet conditions, and many of the fauna species in these landscapes simply have no tolerance to fire," Mr Graham says.

...

"Friends. Shit is getting well-serious.

"I am at my place at the very top of the Bellinger Valley. Smoke has completely saturated everything for days now.

"Most of this evening I have heard the wind absolutely roaring on the escarpment above. These beasts are inexorably heading for Point Lookout and New England National Park — the biggest and healthiest chunk of Gondwana.

"There are no words that can describe the significance, enormity and horror of what now looks highly likely to happen … Rain, RAIN … RAIN …"
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on January 04, 2020, 09:15:50 PM
Of course all this burning wood is pumping out CO2...
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on January 05, 2020, 05:27:53 PM
But the tragedy is losing all these places with unique life forms. We will not get them back because they exist no where else.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Aporia_filia on January 08, 2020, 11:15:00 AM
Another silent tragedy...
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/08/violence-escalates-as-romania-cracks-down-on-illegal-timber-trade

"But still, a report commissioned by the government said 20m cubic metres of timber is disappearing from the forests each year, a number bigger than the total amount of legal logging, signifying both a huge hole in the government budget and a potential climate disaster.

“The situation is out of the control of the central authorities. They don’t know what’s happening in these forests. They don’t use satellite images, they don’t use smart tools,” said Ciprian Găluşcă, of Greenpeace Romania."
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: sidd on January 14, 2020, 02:12:13 AM
Ross at newyorker on bristlecones: post apocalypse trees

"Bristlecones are post-apocalyptic trees, sci-fi trees. They can be seen as symbols of our own precarious future."

https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2020/01/20/the-past-and-the-future-of-the-earths-oldest-trees

sidd
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on January 14, 2020, 01:49:16 PM
Nice article!

More on old trees:

Secrets of '1,000-year-old trees' unlocked

Scientists have discovered the secret of how the ginkgo tree can live for more than 1,000 years.

A study found the tree makes protective chemicals that fend off diseases and drought.

And, unlike many other plants, its genes are not programmed to trigger inexorable decline when its youth is over.

...details on:
https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-51063469
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tor Bejnar on January 15, 2020, 04:18:31 PM
Incredible, secret firefighting mission saves famous 'dinosaur trees' (https://www.smh.com.au/environment/conservation/incredible-secret-firefighting-mission-saves-famous-dinosaur-trees-20200115-p53rom.html)
By Peter Hannam
January 15, 2020 — 4.24pm (eastern Australian time zone) - Sydney Morning Herald
Quote
Desperate efforts by firefighters on the ground and in the air have saved the only known natural grove of the world-famous Wollemi pines from destruction during the record-breaking bushfires in NSW.

The rescue mission involved water-bombing aircraft and large air tankers dropping fire retardant. Helicopters also winched specialist firefighters into the remote gorge to set up an irrigation system to increase the moisture content of the ground fuels to slow the advance of any fire.
...
While most of the Wollemi National Park has been burnt by the huge Gospers Mountain fire north-west of Sydney, specialist remote-area fire crews managed to ensure the so-called "dinosaur trees" survived.

"Wollemi National Park is the only place in the world where these trees are found in the wild and, with less than 200 left, we knew we needed to do everything we could to save them,” Mr Kean said.

The National Parks and Wildlife Service, backed by the Rural Fire Service, kept their efforts largely a secret to avoid revealing the location of the Wollemi pines.
...
"When the pines were discovered in 1994, you might as well have found a living dinosaur," Mr Kean said.
...
While one population of a couple of trees was lost [to fire], the remaining 200 made it.
...
Professor Brack said evidence from researchers who have visited the trees' secret location suggests the pines were able to withstand fires in the past. That said, "these fires have been abnormally hot and large", he added.

Saving the area was not only important for preserving the pines, which have now been propagated by nurseries at home and abroad since their discovery a quarter of a century ago.

"The entire ecosystem may be as old and as amazing as the Wollemi pines themselves," Professor Brack said.

The Gospers Mountain fire alone burnt through more than 512,000 hectares before crews contained the blaze in recent days.

Started by lightning on October 26, the fire may be assessed as the largest ever fire known to have started from a single source, the Herald reported last month.
...
I actually was wondering what their fate was.  (I've known about them for about a decade.)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: gerontocrat on January 19, 2020, 02:52:48 AM
'This is not how sequoias die. It’s supposed to stand for another 500 years'


https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jan/18/this-is-not-how-sequoias-die-its-supposed-to-stand-for-another-500-years-aoe

https://soundcloud.com/user-880618252/dr-christy-brigham-sees-lazarus-for-the-first-time

Quote
Giant sequoias were thought to be immune to insects, drought and wildfires. Then the unthinkable happened: trees started to die – and scientists began the search for answers

The fable of the giant sequoia tree is an enduring tale of America’s fortitude. Standing quietly on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, the Californian giants can survive almost anything – fire, disease, insect attack, cold years, hot years, drought – so the story goes.

The largest living organisms on the planet can grow over 90 metres (300ft) tall. When they do die after 3,000 years or so, the oldest trees, known as monarchs, usually succumb to their own size and collapse. Their giant trunks will rest on the forest floor for another millennia.

But the miraculous story of the near-indestructible giant trees that millions of Americans tell their children is no longer true.

When Dr Christy Brigham, who is responsible for the welfare of the ecosystems in Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks, saw Lazarus for the first time, all she could do was weep.

“This is a tree that has lived through 2,000 years of fires, other droughts, wet years, dry years, hot years, cold years. It’s been here longer than Europeans have been in this country and it’s dead. And it shouldn’t be dead. This is not how giant sequoias die. It’s suppose to stand there for another 500 years with all its needles on it, this quirky, persistent, impressive, amazing thing, and then fall over. It’s not supposed to have all of its needles fall off from the top to the bottom and then stand there like that. That’s not how giant sequoias die,” she says, standing next to the skeletal Lazarus as the occasional tourist wanders past.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jan/18/beetles-and-fire-kill-dozens-of-california-indestructible-giant-sequoia-trees-aoe

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on January 19, 2020, 06:45:23 AM
^^
That is ominous for all other living nature. To me it seems an effect of ecosystem collapse: Some unknown essential is removed.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: gerontocrat on January 24, 2020, 04:44:37 PM
If the US gets 4 more years of Trump, there is a lot of irreversible environmental degradation in the works.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jan/24/trump-administration-wildfire-science-promote-logging-california-emissions
‘Blatant manipulation’: Trump administration exploited wildfire science to promote logging
Quote
“As wildfire experts have repeatedly explained, you can’t log or even ‘rake’ our way out of this mess,” O’Neill said. “The Trump administration and the interior department are pushing mystical theories that are false in order to justify gutting public land protections to advance their pro-industry and lobbyist dominated agenda.”
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on January 24, 2020, 10:27:13 PM
Catastrophic Amazon tipping point less than 30 years away: study
https://news.mongabay.com/2020/01/catastrophic-amazon-tipping-point-less-than-30-years-away-study/
Quote
The Amazon rainforest generates half its own rainfall, but deforestation threatens to disrupt this cycle, shifting large parts of this ancient forest to dry, savanna habitat. Passing such a “tipping point” would have disastrous knock-on effects for climate and weather patterns regionally and globally.
A recent study modelling the impact of proposed roads, hydropower and mining developments in the Amazon basin suggests that 21-43 percent of the Amazon’s original extent will be lost by 2050, putting it close to, or beyond, the tipping point for a biome shift in large parts of the region.
Although development is not currently proceeding at the rapid rate predicted under various ambitious government initiatives, experts say that, even with no new Amazon infrastructure, continued deforestation could drive the biome to the tipping point in the next 15–30 years.
A quick transition to zero deforestation is the only way to avert catastrophic change to the Amazon, say experts. But conservationists fear the political will is lacking as the Bolsonaro administration continues to slash protections. Backing indigenous land stewards could offer a solution.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on January 30, 2020, 08:09:39 PM
Joe Rogan with mycologist Paul Stamets talking about all kinds of cool fungus related stuff.

Forests are not just trees. They live with the fungal network and that is huge compared to the trees.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on January 30, 2020, 08:55:22 PM
Land degradation is globally recognised as a major contributor to global warming. The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) estimated in 2018 that 10% of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions derive from deforestation alone.

Even this is probably an underestimate: soils are disturbed during and after deforestation, and the carbon previously stored in the soil is subsequently released in the form of CO₂, further driving global warming. Soils are capable of holding three times as much carbon as the atmosphere; they are fundamental to mitigate climate change.

Given the high potential and importance of soils and woody biomass to store carbon and offer numerous ecosystem services that are vital to all life, planting trees is often advocated as the most cost-effective way to keep global warming under 2°C and an urgent priority to prevent, reduce and reverse land degradation and to avoid conflict and migration. There is much support for this approach from national policymakers.

...

In China, for example, an enormous investment has been made by central and local governments to plant trees since the late 1970s. Today, China plans to increase its forest coverage rate to 23% by 2020, to 26% by 2035, and to 42% by 2050. This is not just a state effort: private companies, Alibaba and Alipay, the e-commerce giant and global leader of mobile payment, aims to invest US$28 million into tree-planting projects.

As a result, total forest area in the Asia-Pacific region has been increased by more than 17 million hectares over 25 years owing to afforestation: the establishment of new forests. These new forests are mostly in China due to the country’s afforestation investment strategy. In a targeted area the size of France – the Loess Plateau – the forest cover doubled from 50,000 to 100,000 km² between 2001 and 2016.

But while China becomes greener, the health of freshwater system deteriorates. A recent study my colleagues and I conducted on China’s afforestation effort provides evidence that replacing natural grass vegetation with unmanaged artificial black locust plantations – a fast-growing non-local species – for soil conservation and carbon sequestration has significantly changed the water availability as well as whole water cycle.

Black locust plantations – which make up the bulk of the China afforestation – are much more thirsty than natural grassland. They use 92% of annual rainfall (700mm in a wet year) for biomass growth, leaving only 8% of annual rainfall for human uses. As a result, not enough water remains to recharge groundwater or flow into rivers and lakes. We found that deep percolation (the water moving from root zone into groundwater) in years with average or lower-than-average rainfall can be expected to be close to zero.

Full details see:
https://theconversation.com/planting-trees-must-be-done-with-care-it-can-create-more-problems-than-it-addresses-128259

The takeaway message is that you have to replant proper trees. Proper local trees. They might yield a much slower biomass gain but it is probably more sustainable.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on February 11, 2020, 04:16:46 PM
Forests are amazing until you kill them.


Quote
The Amazon Is Nearing the Point of No Return

In 1975, the Brazilian scientist Enéas Salati made an astonishing discovery: the Amazon rainforest doesn’t just receive an unusual level of precipitation but actually creates half its own rainfall. The moisture contained in air masses crossing the Amazon basin, he showed, cycles through five or six phases of precipitation and evaporation before it reaches the high wall of the Andes Mountains. There, it rises, cools, and rains down one last time in a mighty deluge that suffuses the Amazon River system with water.

Previously, scientists had regarded vegetation largely as a consequence of climate. Forests, they believed, responded to their climatic environments but didn’t actively shape them. Salati showed to what extent plants and soil hold water and distribute it across large, evaporative surfaces—leaves, in particular—powering a hydrologic cycle that sustains the rainforest climate. His findings raised the possibility that deforestation might eventually degrade the hydrologic cycle to such an extent that the region’s climate would change. And in the decades after his study, as development and deforestation ravaged huge swaths of the jungle, scientists concluded that there is in fact a tipping point after which the Amazon will no longer generate sufficient rainfall to maintain forest cover in much of its southern and eastern regions.

So that is 45 years of knowing something and not acting on it.

Quote
That tipping point is now at hand. Approximately 20 percent of the Brazilian Amazon has been stripped of its trees, and the Brazilian government’s recent rollback of rainforest-protection laws and programs has accelerated the pace of environmental destruction. Between July 2018 and July 2019, deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon soared to an 11-year high—wiping out a total of 3,789 square miles of forest, an area larger than Yellowstone National Park in the United States. But the problem goes beyond Brazil. Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, and other countries that extend into the Amazon have deforestation problems, as well.

https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/americas/2020-02-10/amazon-nearing-point-no-return

I really cannot fathom why we live in a world were we actually ignore such things as this.
As in i don´t know how we got that stupid.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: nanning on February 11, 2020, 06:32:00 PM
^^
"I really cannot fathom why we live in a world were we actually ignore such things as this.
As in i don´t know how we got that stupid."

Those three 'we's denote three different groups of people.
You and I belong to the first 'we' but not to the second and third 'we'.
In a well designed human language those ambiguities would not be possible. It's about the quality of communication. And therefore of thought.


The Amazon rainforest is lost I think. If not via deforestation and tipping points, then by the effects of +5°C GMSTA.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on February 12, 2020, 02:16:22 PM
Deforested parts of Amazon 'emitting more CO2 than they absorb'

...

Results from a decade-long study of greenhouse gases over the Amazon basin appear to show around 20% of the total area has become a net source of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

One of the main causes is deforestation.

While trees are growing they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere; dead trees release it again.

Millions of trees have been lost to logging and fires in recent years.

The results of the study, which have not yet been published, have implications for the effort to combat climate change.

They suggest that the Amazon rainforest - a vital carbon store, or "sink", that slows the pace of global warming - may be turning into a carbon source faster than previously thought.

Every two weeks for the past 10 years, a team of scientists led by Prof Luciana Gatti, a researcher at Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (INPE), has been measuring greenhouse gases by flying aircraft fitted with sensors over different parts of the Amazon basin.

What the group found was startling: while most of the rainforest still retains its ability to absorb large quantities of carbon dioxide - especially in wetter years - one portion of the forest, which is especially heavily deforested, appears to have lost that capacity.

Gatti's research suggests this south-eastern part of the forest, about 20% of the total area, has become a carbon source.

"Each year is worse," she told Newsnight.

"We observed that this area in the south-east is an important source of carbon. And it doesn't matter whether it is a wet year or a dry year. 2017-18 was a wet year, but it didn't make any difference."

...

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-51464694

Well this is no huge surprise but it ticks me off.

So we lost the arctic permafrost as a sink and this is already a large part of the Amazonian one.

Most of the climate models don´t factor in our voracious appetite even as a line of reducing carbon sinks (whereas long term effects due to warming seas are modelled for example).

Having saved those areas as sources would have helped...

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: vox_mundi on March 04, 2020, 08:20:18 PM
Tropical Forests' Carbon Sink is Already Rapidly Weakening
https://phys.org/news/2020-03-tropical-forests-carbon-rapidly-weakening.html

The ability of the world's tropical forests to remove carbon from the atmosphere is decreasing, according to a study tracking 300,000 trees over 30 years, published today in Nature.

The global scientific collaboration, led by the University of Leeds, reveals that a feared switch of the world's undisturbed tropical forests from a carbon sink to a carbon source has begun.

The new analysis of three decades of tree growth and death from 565 undisturbed tropical forests across Africa and the Amazon has found that the overall uptake of carbon into Earth's intact tropical forests peaked in the 1990s.

By the 2010s, on average, the ability of a tropical forest to absorb carbon had dropped by one-third. The switch is largely driven by carbon losses from trees dying

(https://www.carbonbrief.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/estimates-and-projections-of-tropical-carbon-sinks.jpg)

Asynchronous carbon sink saturation in African and Amazonian tropical forests (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2035-0), Nature (2020)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on March 05, 2020, 02:09:50 PM
The Congo rainforest is losing its ability to absorb carbon dioxide. That’s bad for climate change.

...

The new paper predicts that by 2030, the African jungle will absorb 14% less carbon dioxide than it did 10 to 15 years ago. By 2035, Amazonian trees won’t absorb any carbon dioxide at all, the researchers said.

...

The findings contradict models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and governments around the world, which predicted that the Congo rainforest would continue to absorb carbon for many decades to come.

...

The researchers estimate that in the 1990s, 17% of the carbon dioxide pumped out of smokestacks and tailpipes when oil, coal and natural gas are burned was thought to be taken up by uncut tropical jungles rather than accumulating in the atmosphere, slowing climate change. That figure has dropped to only 6%, they say.

https://www.seattletimes.com/nation-world/the-congo-rainforest-is-losing-its-ability-to-absorb-carbon-dioxide-thats-bad-for-climate-change

Same research above but some different quotes.
It´s a rather long article and it is the reprint of the WaPo article.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on March 06, 2020, 03:07:31 PM
Protected Hungarian forest by the Tisza River destroyed

An old floodplain forest in Hungary was destroyed by unauthorized clear-cutting in a protected area near the Tisza River.

In Hungary, floodplain forests are among the most endangered forest habitats. Their area has shrunk to less than 1% of their area before river regulation, and old forests are hard to find among them. The National Directorate of Water Management did not have a permit to clear-cut near the village Tiszaug.

The forest, managed by the Hungarian National Directorate of Water Management, was about 90 years old. Irreversible damage has been done to the impacted ecosystem. The illegal cutting of the protected old poplar forest was part of the Government's "VTT River Bank Management in the Middle Tisza" river bank design concept that includes the construction of runoff routes that facilitate quick drainage of flood water. The decimation of the forest has also had a negative impact on valuable wildlife and their habitats, including the protected black stork.

...

WWF-Hungary previously opposed the river bank management concept, which prefers creating runoff pathways over other, more nature-friendly solutions. In 2017, the organization also raised its voice against the amendment of the Hungarian Forest Act, which allowed drastic interventions in protected forests for flood protection purposes.

"The clear-cutting in January 2020 draws attention to the fact that current practices for flood risk management include methods that are damaging to nature," said Péter Kajner, expert of WWF-Hungary's Living Rivers Programme.

...

It is regrettable that, while various tree planting movements are gaining attention throughout Hungary, the protection of the country's natural, high conservation value forests, which are of major ecological and climate protection importance, is still not taken seriously

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-hungarian-forest-tisza-river.html
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on March 09, 2020, 09:44:53 AM
A nice bit of corruption from Indonesia:  >:(

Indonesian indigenous land defenders jailed in fight with pulpwood giant

A court in Indonesia has sentenced two indigenous farmers to nine months in jail in the latest legal battle over land claimed by both the community and pulp and paper company PT Toba Pulp Lestari.

The two sides have been locked in dispute over the land in North Sumatra’s North Tapanuli district since 1992, with the Sihaporas indigenous community claiming ancestral rights to some 40,000 hectares (98,800 acres) inside the concession granted to PT TPL.

Tribal elders Jonny and Thomson Ambarita are the latest members of the community to be jailed following charges brought by the company, which itself stands accused of an assault against the community. Authorities have not pursued the Sihaporas complaints against the company.

Indigenous and land rights activists have criticized what they say was a flawed trial, and called for greater recognition by the Indonesian government of indigenous land rights.

...

The Simalungun District Court, in North Sumatra province, handed down nine-month sentences to Jonny Ambarita and Thomson Ambarita, who are elders from the Sihaporas community, for assaulting an employee of PT Toba Pulp Lestari (TPL), an RGE affiliate company.

...

The sentences, handed down Feb. 13, cap a trial sparked by an incident last September in which the company, or people claiming to represent it, appeared to be the side escalating the legal wrangling into a violent conflict.

On the morning of Sept. 16, 2019, according to the community members, a group of men claiming to be PT TPL employees arrived in their village and demanded that they cease their farming activity and leave the area. The farmers refused, and a scuffle broke out, during which the 3-year-old son of one of the community members was reportedly hit by one of the purported company representatives. The child passed out and had to be taken to a nearby public health center.

The following day, leaders of the Sihaporas community went to a nearby police station to file a report about the alleged assault on the child. But the officers refused to receive their complaint, telling them instead to file it at a different precinct office.

Officers from that larger precinct later issued a summons for Jonny and Thomson Ambarita to appear for questioning on Sept. 24. Unknown to the community, PT TPL had filed its own report with the police, alleging that the farmers had assaulted one of its employees in the earlier skirmish. When Jonny and Thomson showed up at the police station, they were promptly charged and arrested.

In the months since then, they’ve been indicted, tried, and convicted. But police have still not acted on the community’s report on the alleged attack on the child.

...

In its campaign to free Jonny and Thomson, the Sihaporas community took its case to Indonesia’s National Commission for Human Rights last October. Community elders also sent three letters to President Joko Widodo to demand state recognition of their ancestral lands and ask the government to revoke PT TPL’s permit. There have been no responses to any of those initiatives.

https://news.mongabay.com/2020/03/indonesia-indigenous-land-sumatra-toba-pulp-lestari-rge/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on March 09, 2020, 10:09:55 AM
Quote
Warming ‘May Harm Rainforests Less’

LONDON – Scientists think they have found some good news for the Amazon and other tropical forests. They say they appear more able to withstand the effects of climate change than previous studies had suggested.


The research team was led by Dr Chris Huntingford from the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology in the UK. He and his colleagues used computer simulations with 22 climate models to explore the response of tropical forests in the Americas, Africa and Asia to greenhouse gas-induced climate change.

They found loss of forest cover in only one model, and only in the Americas. The researchers found the largest source of uncertainty in the projections to be differences in how plant physiological processes are represented, rather than the choice of emission scenario and differences between various climate projections


“Different vegetation models currently simulate remarkable variability in forest sensitivity to climate change. And while these new results suggest that tropical forests may be quite resilient to warming, it is important also to remember that other factors not included in this study, such as fire and deforestation, will also affect the carbon stored in tropical forests.

https://goodmenproject.com/featured-content/warming-may-harm-rainforests-less/

So they study a whole bunch of models and find ´good news´ for rainforests.
That would be nice but it would help if the model ensemble they studied was good over the whole range but there are some doubts about that.

And then the is no fire in them and no deforestation.

So what does the only model which shows rainforest loss say?

Quote
Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model


The continued increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide due to anthropogenic emissions is predicted to lead to significant changes in climate1. About half of the current emissions are being absorbed by the ocean and by land ecosystems2, but this absorption is sensitive to climate3,4 as well as to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations5, creating a feedback loop. General circulation models have generally excluded the feedback between climate and the biosphere, using static vegetation distributions and CO2 concentrations from simple carbon-cycle models that do not include climate change6. Here we present results from a fully coupled, three-dimensional carbon–climate model, indicating that carbon-cycle feedbacks could significantly accelerate climate change over the twenty-first century. We find that under a ‘business as usual’ scenario, the terrestrial biosphere acts as an overall carbon sink until about 2050, but turns into a source thereafter. By 2100, the ocean uptake rate of 5 Gt C yr-1 is balanced by the terrestrial carbon source, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations are 250 p.p.m.v. higher in our fully coupled simulation than in uncoupled carbon models2, resulting in a global-mean warming of 5.5 K, as compared to 4 K without the carbon-cycle feedback.

https://www.nature.com/articles/35041539

So not convincing...
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on March 12, 2020, 01:50:00 PM
Amazon rainforest could be gone within a lifetime

Large ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest, will collapse and disappear alarmingly quickly, once a crucial tipping point is reached, according to calculations based on real-world data.

Writing in Nature Communications (10.1038/s41467-020-15029-x), researchers from Bangor University, Southampton University and The School of Oriental & African Studies, University of London, reveal the speed at which ecosystems of different sizes will disappear, once they have reached a point beyond which they collapse - transforming into an alternative ecosystem.

For example, once the 'point of no return' is reached, the iconic Amazon rainforest could shift to a savannah-type ecosystem with a mix of trees and grass within 50 years, according to the work.

Some scientists argue that many ecosystems are currently teetering on the edge of this precipice, with the fires and destruction both in the Amazon and in Australia.

...

Prof John Dearing from Geography and Environment at Southampton University says:

"We intuitively knew that big systems would collapse more slowly than small ones - due to the time it takes for impacts to diffuse across large distances. But what was unexpected was the finding that big systems collapse much faster than you might expect - even the largest on Earth only taking possibly a few decades."

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-03/bu-arc030920.php

OA:
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-15029-x
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on March 24, 2020, 12:41:10 PM
Extreme summer heat and drought lead to early fruit abortion in European beech

Abstract

Years with high fruit production, known as mast years, are the usual reproduction strategy of European beech. Harsh weather conditions such as frost during flowering can lead to pollination failure in spring. It has been assumed that mast is controlled by flowering, and that after successful pollination, high amounts of fruits and seeds would be produced. However, the extremely hot and dry European summer of 2018 showed that despite successful pollination, beechnuts did not develop or were only abundant in a few forest stands. An in-depth analysis of three forest sites of European beech from the Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research Programme over the last 15–19 years revealed for the first time that extreme summer heat and drought can act as an “environmental veto”, leading to early fruit abortion. Within the forest stands in years with fruit abortion, summer mean temperatures were 1.5 °C higher and precipitation sums were 45% lower than the long-term average. Extreme summer heat and drought, together with frost during flowering, are therefore disrupting events of the assumed biennial fruiting cycle in European beech.

Open access:
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-62073-0
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on March 27, 2020, 01:16:27 PM
Study shows why trees won't benefit much from extra CO2 in the air

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing steadily, ... , one argued silver lining is that plants are better off due to more of their food being in the air. But a new study has dashed those hopes, finding that the more extreme heat and drought brought on by climate change would cancel out most of the benefits for trees.

...

The researchers grew a series of Aleppo pines from seeds under two different concentrations of CO2 – 421 parts per million (ppm), which is a little higher than the current atmospheric level, and an elevated level of 867 ppm.

When the trees were 18 months old, the team began testing them. For the first month, they watered one group well, while leaving others without, to simulate drought conditions. Then, they planted both groups in chambers where they could control the temperature. Over 10 days, the heat was gradually increased from a pleasant 25 °C (77 °F) to a sweltering 40 °C (104 °F), while the scientists measured the trees’ responses.

The team found that higher CO2 levels did help the trees use their water more efficiently, and lose less of it, as the heat rose. That was largely thanks to root proteins becoming more stable, and the trees closing their stomata – the pores in leaves that allow for gas exchange.

But that’s where the benefits end, unfortunately. Closed stomata meant the stressed-out trees took up significantly less carbon from the air, and the heat had a negative effect on their metabolism as well.

“Overall, the impact of the increased CO2 concentration on stress reactions of the trees was rather moderate,” says Nadine Rühr, lead author of the study. “With increasing heat and drought, it decreased considerably. From this, we conclude that the increasing CO2 concentration of the atmosphere cannot compensate the stress of the trees resulting from extreme climate conditions.”

...

https://newatlas.com/environment/trees-atmospheric-co2-effects-heat-drought/

Cute trees...see the picture in the article.

Hot drought reduces the effects of elevated CO2 on tree water‐use efficiency and carbon metabolism (OA)

https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.16471
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on April 01, 2020, 01:50:09 PM
Why Old-Growth Trees Are Crucial to Fighting Climate Change

...

But there are also important opportunities for change beyond just cutting our use of fossil fuels. All these living things that take in carbon dioxide and turn it into biomass are protecting us through their very existence. When we destroy nature's carbon storage (should we clear-cut all that biomass at Wind River, for instance), we can turn it from a carbon sink into a source, from an ally into yet more fuel for the fires of our era. But what if we were able to help deepen the sinks—to work with nature, to lean into the curve, to help it help us out of a mess of our own making? Nature, too, is an amazing, complex, and remarkably effective technology—our biggest and most overlooked ally in the climate fight.

...

In 2010 it took Lutz and a team roughly 10,000 hours of measuring, tagging, and detailed mapping of trees to set up the plot; the annual forest census takes another 1,500 hours or so. When I ask Lutz what inspired so much effort, he explains that he was pursuing not just a discrete inquiry but “an abiding objective” that would last as long as his career did: a drive to understand the details of how an old-growth forest actually works. When and why do trees die? (“You'd think people would have worked that out by now,” he adds.) When and why do they gain or lose carbon? How does their most basic biology react as the world around them gets hotter or drier? “You have questions that can't be answered except with a large number of trees over a large number of years,” Lutz says.

...

These days, old-growth forest is itself a rare find, but even within it, the attrition of centuries means that most trees aren't actually that old. As Lutz puts it, “to grow a big tree, you need an old tree, which means a tree has to survive”—not just logging but fires and insects and diseases, and anything else that could have come along during its long life and killed it. Old-growth forest is naturally a complicated mix of ages and sizes and structures. But though truly big trees aren't the most common of the forest's residents, Lutz has learned that their role in its ability to store carbon is as oversized as they are.

...

In a 2018 paper looking at 48 different forest plots, including the one in Wind River, he found that the largest 1 percent of trees contain fully half of all the above-ground live biomass, which also means half of all the carbon, since the two are directly correlated. Young trees sequester carbon faster, packing it on in the vigorous growth of their early years, but they can't begin to compete with what large trees have been able to build into their trunks and branches through years and years of maturation. “You can't sequester a lot of carbon without big trees,” Lutz says. “You just can't do it.”

This makes old trees—and even Munger's much-hated dead trees and logs, which can take centuries to rot in the Northwest—not useless but precious. While a single-age stand would lose 1 percent of its carbon storage if it lost 1 percent of its trees, big trees are so important that a 1 percent loss of individuals in an old forest could reduce its carbon by half. And while old forests eventually begin to reach an equilibrium, at which they're not adding a lot more carbon than they're losing through death and decomposition, researchers have found that the old growth in Wind River is still sequestering new carbon each year, adding to the huge amount it already stores. “Even just putting a thin annual growth layer on such a big cylinder is a huge deal,” explains Ben Vierra, who manages NEON's research in the Pacific Northwest. Bible, deep in the grove, says: “This forest is still putting on forest. Quite a bit actually—it could give a young forest a run for its money.”

https://www.wired.com/story/trees-plants-nature-best-carbon-capture-technology-ever/

All trees are not equal so saving old growth is important and new forests we plant must be resilient and be set up to grow for centuries which is hard as it is which underlying changes.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on April 08, 2020, 07:44:36 PM
Mature forest shows little increase in carbon uptake in a CO2-enriched atmosphere

Will mature forests absorb enough carbon from the atmosphere to mitigate climate change as levels of carbon dioxide increase? An experiment in a eucalyptus forest provides fresh evidence.

When atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide increase, land ecosystems take up more carbon from the atmosphere as a result of increased photosynthesis, a process known as CO2 fertilization. It has long been suggested that CO2 fertilization will slow the rate of increase of CO2 levels in the atmosphere1, potentially mitigating climate change. To quantify the effect, ecologists have conducted experiments in which the atmosphere around a confined environment is enriched with CO2 — mostly in ecosystems for which the vegetation is short in stature, to reduce costs. A small number of enrichment experiments have been conducted in young forests, but there is a paucity of knowledge about the CO2-fertilization effect in mature forests. Writing in Nature, Jiang et al.2 present results of the Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment in a mature forest in Australia. Their estimate of the CO2-fertilization effect is among the lowest yet reported.

Jiang and colleagues carried out their study in a warm-temperate evergreen forest that has been undisturbed for the past 90 years, and which is dominated by eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus tereticornis). They collected data for all the main carbon pools and fluxes in three circular plots (each 490 square metres; Fig. 1) in which the atmospheric CO2 concentration was elevated by 150 parts per million for 4 years, from 2013 to 2016. These data were compared with those from three control plots that were not enriched in CO2.

The authors report that CO2 enrichment induced a 12% increase in carbon uptake, equivalent to an extra 247 grams of carbon per square metre per year, through gross primary production (GPP; the conversion of CO2 to organic carbon through photosynthesis). Of this, 28% ended up as net primary production (NPP; the fraction of GPP that is used for biomass growth, rather than consumed for metabolic processes) and 12.8% as an increase in the total carbon pools of the ecosystem (that is, in wood and soil). Their results add more uncertainty to already highly variable estimates of CO2 fertilization from previous CO2-enrichment experiments.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00962-0

As you can see here there are all kind of different trees and ecosystems.

I don´t think that Eucalyptus forests are our saving grace.

The key is preserving what we have and strengthening that to make bigger really old growth forests (because 90 years is not really that old see post above).

Also if you make new local forests use local trees.

And that is not going to help much in Australia but we already knew that that is not the place where it is going to help most.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on April 16, 2020, 04:15:10 PM
Long-living tropical trees play outsized role in carbon storage

Summary:
A group of trees that grow fast, live long lives and reproduce slowly account for the bulk of the biomass -- and carbon storage -- in some tropical rainforests, a team of scientists says. The finding that these trees, called long-lived pioneers, play a much larger role in carbon storage than previously thought may have implications in efforts to preserve forests as a strategy to fight climate change.

...

Using more than 30 years' worth of data collected from a tropical rainforest in Panama, the team has uncovered some key traits of trees that, when integrated into computer models related to climate change, will improve the models' accuracy. With the team's improved model, the scientists plan to begin answering questions about what drives forest composition over time and what factors affect carbon storage.

Most existing Earth system models used to forecast global climate decades from now, including those used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, represent the trees in a forest as all basically the same.

"This analysis shows that that is not good enough for tropical forests and provides a way forward," Farrior said. "We show that the variation in tropical forest species's growth, survival and reproduction is important for predicting forest carbon storage."

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/04/200409141550.htm
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on April 17, 2020, 07:01:25 PM
The Carbon We Can’t Afford to Lose

We have protected areas for wildlife; we need to protect ecosystems whose death could release massive amounts of CO2 as well

...

But in the face of today’s climate crisis, we must expand our vision of protection even further. We need to start thinking about protected areas as refuges not just for wildlife, but for carbon.

This mental shift would be subtle but profound. It would mean protecting areas that we may not have previously identified as priorities. And, as my co-authors and I found in a new paper for Nature Climate Change, it is necessary if we want to solve the climate crisis.

In addition to a rapid transition towards renewable energy, protecting carbon-rich ecosystems is one of the most effective ways we can fight climate change. For hundreds and even thousands of years, these places have absorbed carbon from the atmosphere and stored it indefinitely within trees and soil. In the process, they have created a global system of living carbon reserves.

...

Our team set out to understand the potential cost of losing these reserves. We wanted to know the extent to which human activity threatened these ecosystems, how much carbon they could potentially release and how much of that carbon we could reabsorb before 2050—when we must reach zero net emissions to minimize the impact of climate change.

What we came up with was a list of places around the world that contain “irrecoverable carbon”—carbon that, if released, we could not recover within the next three decades.

Irrecoverable carbon exists in areas that are already protected, in areas that are somewhat protected and in areas that we wouldn’t otherwise prioritize for protection. Some of them face immediate pressure from agricultural and logging interests. Others will come under threat in the coming decades.

In total, they contain more than 260 gigatons of irrecoverable carbon, equivalent to 26 times last year’s fossil fuel emissions. In other words, the destruction of these ecosystems would make our long-term climate goals effectively impossible. 

That is why we must immediately act to protect living carbon reserves, especially in the three areas with the greatest concentration of irrecoverable carbon: tropical peatlands, mangroves and old-growth forests.

and more on:
https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/the-carbon-we-cant-afford-to-lose/

Paper can be accessed via link above.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on April 21, 2020, 07:03:03 PM
The linked article discusses how Canada's managed forests have recently changed from carbon sinks to carbon sources:

Title: "As Canada's forests become carbon bombs, Ottawa pushes the crisis off the books"

https://www.nationalobserver.com/2020/03/30/opinion/canadas-forests-become-carbon-bombs-ottawa-pushes-crisis-books

Extract:
•   "The climate crisis unfolding in Canada's managed forest lands, as they flip from much-needed carbon absorbers into super-emitters
•   How unnatural surges in insect outbreaks and wildfires are fueling the crisis
•   The troubling data showing that logging is now extracting more carbon than grows back, pushing our forests over the edge
•   And finally, the government's scramble to push the crisis, and any responsibility for it, off the books"
Title: Moved from Re: Weird Weather and anecdotal stories about climate change
Post by: Juan C. García on April 30, 2020, 02:22:36 PM
In fast-warming Minnesota, scientists are trying to plant the forests of the future
Quote
“The forest can’t perpetuate itself the way it once did,” said Chris Swanston, a U.S. Forest Service ecologist and director of the Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science. Forests are always evolving, he added. “It’s just with climate change, things are changing faster and in different ways. We’re having to roll with that change a lot faster and be a much more active part of it.”

That fast change contributes to some “zombie” forests in parts of the state, said his colleague Stephen Handler, a Forest Service climate change specialist.

“There are places where climate change is already influencing forest regeneration,” Handler said. “Big, healthy trees overhead — but on the forest floor, no baby trees to fill in the gap.”

The fate of Minnesota’s forests depends in large part on humans and whether they can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions that fuel warming trends, Frelich told state lawmakers last year, adding, “There’s still time to change the outcome.”
https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2020/national/climate-environment/climate-change-minnesota/?itid=hp_hp-more-top-stories_climatesolutions-635pm%3Ahomepage%2Fstory-ans (https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2020/national/climate-environment/climate-change-minnesota/?itid=hp_hp-more-top-stories_climatesolutions-635pm%3Ahomepage%2Fstory-ans)
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on May 07, 2020, 12:31:07 PM
Logging Fueled Last Year's Catastrophic Megafires In Australia And Could Spark Repeats

...

 a new study in Nature Ecology and Evolution (links to study on link, k) claims the influence of logging has been overlooked.

The paper’s authors are Australian, and their focus is on the unprecedented fires that ripped through millions of hectares of Australia's forests during the Southern Hemisphere’s most recent summer. However, Professor James Watson of the University of Queensland told IFLScience their conclusions apply worldwide.

“The general processes are the same everywhere,” Prof. Watson said. “When you log a forest you open up a canopy so it gets more dried out. There is moisture loss from the soil and more wind, which dries things out more.” The loss of windbreaks allows the fires to move faster and become hotter. Moreover, Watson noted in a statement, “[Logging] can leave up to 450 tonnes of combustible fuel per hectare close to the ground – by any measure, that’s an incredibly dangerous level of combustible material in seasonally dry landscapes.”

Cool season fires are lit after timber removal to reduce fuel and encourage regrowth. However, Watson told IFLScience, “This doesn’t get rid of all of it, and it just dries the soil out more,” making an area more vulnerable to future fires.

Advocates for native forest logging often claim the industry is a defence against wildfires, but Watson told IFLScience the claim never comes with evidence to back that up, or even much logic. “The only argument is that it removes some of the wood from the system, but in the process it makes what is left more flammable.” Watson notes fire-building starts with kindling, not thick logs, and an area with a thousand regrowth saplings is far more likely to burn than one with a few mighty trees, even if it has less total wood.

Fire rips through canopies of equal height easily but is obstructed by the multi-story canopies of areas untouched for centuries.

The consequences endure. “There are places in Australia that were logged a century ago and haven’t been logged since, but they are still more vulnerable to fire,” Watson said, although some ecosystems recover more quickly.

The authors urgently call for logging to be moved from native forests to plantations, and particularly for protection of forests around towns. Watson stressed that the most urgent issue is to avoid “salvage logging” of areas that burned last summer. While promoted as a way to put dead wood that would otherwise go to waste to use, Watson says it simply increases the change of a repeat. Instead, he told IFLScience, replanting with a mix of species can help provide a safety buffer.

https://www.iflscience.com/environment/logging-fueled-last-years-catastrophic-megafires-in-australia-and-could-spark-repeats/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on May 08, 2020, 02:21:29 PM
We need more city forests.

"Around the world, metropolitan cities are incorporating urban forestry into city architecture in order to improve air pollution & regenerate urban areas. Researchers say these carbon-hungry structures can help fight pollution & improve the mental & physical health of residents.“
https://mobile.twitter.com/pattrn/status/1257007241233870848
Image below; 1 minute video at the link.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on May 08, 2020, 10:34:12 PM
They are not proper forests plus the plants must be limited by rooting depth. Still an interesting concept and we are getting a building like that too.

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on May 09, 2020, 10:14:37 AM
Reminds me of Oliver Wendell Douglas before he moved to Hootersville.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on May 09, 2020, 11:20:39 AM
Brazil's Amazon: Surge in deforestation as military prepares to deploy

Deforestation in Brazil's Amazon rainforest rose sharply last month as the country prepared to send troops to try to curb illegal logging and mining.

Brazil's space research agency said the area destroyed in April was 64% bigger than in the same period last year.

In the first four months of 2020, destruction of the forest by illegal loggers and ranchers rose 55%, it said.

...

Brazil's National Institute of Space Research (Inpe) said that more than 405 sq km (156 sq miles) of the Amazon had been deforested last month compared with 248 sq km in April last year.

Between January and April, a total of 1,202 sq km was wiped out, it said.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-52595030
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Sigmetnow on May 22, 2020, 12:29:36 AM
Tree Deaths in Urban Settings Are Linked to Leaks from Natural Gas Pipelines Below Streets
Quote
Natural gas leaks from underground pipelines are killing trees in densely populated urban environments, a new study suggests, adding to concerns over such leaks fueling climate change and explosion hazards.

The study, which took place in Chelsea, Massachusetts, a low-income immigrant community near Boston, also highlights the many interrelated environmental challenges in a city that faces high levels of air pollution, soaring summer temperatures and is now beset by one of the highest coronavirus infection rates in the nation.   

Dead or dying trees were 30 times more likely to have been exposed to methane in the soil surrounding their roots than healthy trees, according to the study published last month in the journal Environmental Pollution.

"I was pretty blown away by that result," said Madeleine Scammell, an environmental health professor at Boston University's School of Public Health who co-authored the study. "If these trees were humans, we would be talking about what to do to stop this immediately."

The study measured soil concentrations of methane and oxygen at four points around the trunks of 84 dead or dying trees and 97 healthy trees. For trees that had elevated levels of methane in the surrounding soil, the highest concentrations were found in the dirt between the tree and the street, suggesting that the gas had leaked from natural gas pipelines, which are typically buried beneath roadways.   ...   
https://insideclimatenews.org/news/19052020/tree-deaths-urban-natural-gas-pipelines
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on May 23, 2020, 10:33:32 AM
Amazon under threat: fires, loggers and now virus

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-51300515

General article about the amazon with some interesting graphics.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on May 23, 2020, 10:46:53 AM
We found 2˚C of warming will push most tropical rainforests above their safe ‘heat threshold

...

This is why scientists like us are concerned that climate change will mean death outweighs growth, and tropical forests will eventually switch to releasing more carbon into the atmosphere than they take out. Our new research, published in the journal Science, shows that tropical forests can resist small increases in temperature – but only up to a point.

Such forests are found right across the tropics and although they’re generally hot and wet, this simplification hides a lot of variation in climate. Some forests at the southern edge of the Amazon reach 35˚C in the hottest months of the year, while others towards the foothills of the Andes reach no more than 26˚C. The jungles of the western Amazon and Borneo are wet all year round, while elsewhere in Amazonia and in Africa there are “rainforests” that have virtually no rainfall in the driest months. We used this variation to understand how climate affects the amount of carbon tropical forests store, and to predict how this might change in the future.

Why did we look at variation between locations to predict changes over time? Because, since individual trees live for a long time, even decades of monitoring cannot tell us exactly how a forest will respond to climate change in the long term. For example, Amazonian forests that are drying fastest are slowly shifting towards more drought-adapted tree species, but this is only evident if we look at the youngest trees.

...

For example, we can use the difference in the amount of carbon stored by forests growing at 30˚C and 32˚C as a guide for how the former might respond over the long-term to a 2˚C increase in temperature.

So, we joined efforts with 223 other researchers. The international team measured more than half a million trees in 813 forests across the tropics. In each forest patch we recorded tree diameter, species and height. And a few years later we went back to measure how much each tree had grown, if some had died, or if new ones had established. Each tree had a numerical tag, which allowed us to track them over their lives. Overall we identified about 10,000 tree species and made two million measurements of diameter, across 24 tropical countries.

We found that tropical forests can tolerate small changes in temperatures, but only up to a point. Once annual mean daytime temperatures in the warmest part of the year hit 32˚C or more, these forests release four times as much carbon to the atmosphere per degree increase in temperature as they would below the threshold. This is mostly because hotter temperatures reduce tree growth, but it’s also down to heat combined with drought meaning trees are more likely to die and decompose, which releases carbon back into the atmosphere.

Adaptation is possible – if we act now

Our results indicate that we have an opportunity to ensure forests can adapt to climate change, but we need to act now. Firstly, we need to protect and connect the forests that remain, so that tree species are able to move as the climate warms.

But trees go from place to place very slowly: they can only “move” when animals or the wind carry their seeds somewhere else where climatic conditions are suitable. The more fragmented the forests, the less likely seeds can reach certain patches. Also, smaller patches are more affected by “edge effects” such as increased light, drier air and fire risks, creating challenging conditions for seeds to germinate and grow. Therefore, keeping forests connected is of crucial importance.

Secondly, we need to limit emissions. Even limiting global temperatures to 2°C above pre-industrial levels – already a best case scenario – will push nearly three-quarters of tropical forests above the 32°C heat threshold we identify. As each degree increase above the heat threshold releases 100 billion tonnes of CO₂ from tropical forests to the atmosphere, representing over 280 years of annual fossil fuel emissions by a country such as the UK, there is a clear incentive to avoid further warming.

https://theconversation.com/we-found-2-c-of-warming-will-push-most-tropical-rainforests-above-their-safe-heat-threshold-139071



Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on May 23, 2020, 10:52:56 AM
Illegal logging ‘mafia’ stripping hornbill habitat in Northeast India

Illegal logging is driving the loss of forest that poses the biggest threat to rare hornbill species in the Eastern Himalayan forests of India’s Arunachal Pradesh state.

Hunting of the hornbills for their casques and meat was previously a major threat, but has been largely defused through a conservation program that engages the indigenous Nyishi community.

The Papum Reserve Forest in which the birds are found doesn’t have the same protections as India’s national parks, and suffers from logging activity that goes largely unchecked by authorities.

Indigenous activists working to protect the forest and its wildlife have come under attack from illegal loggers.

...

Over the past decade, extensive illegal logging has led to the loss of more than 20% of the reserve’s forest cover, according to the study. Satellite data and imagery show this loss has continued into 2020, with what appear to be logging roads snaking ever deeper into old-growth rainforest

...

https://news.mongabay.com/2020/05/illegal-logging-mafia-stripping-hornbill-habitat-in-northeast-india/

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on May 29, 2020, 06:45:17 PM
Earth’s forests are getting shorter and younger as the climate shifts

A new study has determined that Earth’s forests are transforming in response to a combination of human actions and natural processes such as wildfires, causing them to lose their oldest trees and grow shorter. Sadly, this trend is likely to continue as the climate grows ever hotter thanks to human-led climate change.

...

Increasingly, human-induced climate change, wood harvesting, and a range of naturally occurring processes are placing forests around the world under stress. A new global study has used satellite observations and examined over 160 published papers in order to assess the impact that these disruptive influences are having on global forest dynamics.

Upon completing their review, the researchers discovered that Earth’s forests are dramatically shorter and younger on average than they were a century ago, and that we are at least partially to blame for this potentially damaging change.

...

For example, rising temperatures are making it much harder for trees and plants to photosynthesize. This is damaging to a forest on many levels, as not only does it kill trees, but it also makes it more difficult for them to regenerate and grow. It is also a major reason as to why the forests we see today are not as tall as they once were.

Prolonged high temperatures also give rise to droughts, which place trees under enormous stress and either kills them off directly or leaves them more susceptible to attack from insects or disease.

The high amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which has increased significantly since the onset of the industrial revolution, could actually help some trees ability to grow and propagate, but according to the new study there are limitations. The benefits of this carbon dioxide fertilization are apparently only observed in relatively young forests, where there is an abundance of nutrients and moisture.

https://newatlas.com/environment/earth-forests-shorter-younger-climate/

pw:
Pervasive shifts in forest dynamics in a changing world
https://science.sciencemag.org/content/368/6494/eaaz9463
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on June 02, 2020, 03:18:17 PM
Climate change: older trees loss continue around the world

Older, carbon-rich tropical forests continue to be lost at a frightening rate, according to satellite data.

In 2019, an area of primary forest the size of a football pitch was lost every six seconds, the University of Maryland study of trees more than 5 metres says.

Brazil accounted for a third of it, its worst loss in 13 years apart from huge spikes in 2016 and 2017 from fires.

However, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo both managed to reduce tree loss.

Meanwhile, Australia saw a sixfold rise in total tree loss, following dramatic wildfires late in 2019, .

...

The tropics lost 11.9 million hectares (46,000 square miles) of tree cover, the study found, 3.8 million in older, primary forest areas - the third highest loss of primary trees since 2000 and a slight increase on 2018.

"The level of forest loss that we saw in 2019 is unacceptable," Frances Seymour, from the World Resources Institute, said.

"And one of the reasons that it's unacceptable is that we actually already know how to turn it around.

"If governments put into place good policies and enforce the law, forest loss goes down.

"But if governments relax restrictions on burning, or [are] signalling that they intend to open up indigenous territories for commercial exploration, forest loss goes up."

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-52881721
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: gerontocrat on June 04, 2020, 01:31:13 PM
It's BAU for the UK banks & financial institutions as they fund companies at the front line of deforestation while at the same time talking loads of greenwashing blah blah.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jun/04/revealed-uk-banks-and-investors-2bn-backing-of-meat-firms-linked-to-amazon-deforestation

Revealed: UK banks and investors' $2bn backing of meat firms linked to Amazon deforestation
Investigation uncovers ties between financial institutions and three Brazilian firms connected to environmental destruction

Quote
British-based banks and finance houses have provided more than $2bn (£1.5bn) in financial backing in recent years to Brazilian beef companies which have been linked to Amazon deforestation, according to new research.

 Thousands of hectares of Amazon are being felled every year to graze cattle and provide meat for world markets.

As well as providing financial backing for Minerva, Brazil’s second largest beef exporter, and Marfrig, its second largest meat processing company, UK-based financial institutions held tens of millions of dollars worth of shares in JBS, the world’s largest meat company.

All three meat companies have been linked to deforestation in their supply chains, though they say they are working to monitor their suppliers and mitigate risks.

Marfrig, a Brazilian meat company that has supplied fast-food chains around the world, was found to have bought cattle from a farm that had been using deforested land last year.

JBS remains unable to monitor a significant proportion of its suppliers despite operating deep in the Amazon, while last year Marfrig admitted that more than half of the cattle it slaughtered originated from indirect suppliers that it could not monitor.

According to a joint investigation by the Guardian, Unearthed and the Bureau of Investigative Journalism, financial data between January 2013 and May 2019 shows that HSBC underwrote $1.1bn of bonds for Marfrig and $917m for Minerva. They also held nearly $3m in JBS shares.

Schroders held $14m in Marfrig bonds and $12m in Minerva bonds, while Standard Life Aberdeen held $10m in Marfrig bonds and $3m in JBS shares. Prudential UK had $23m in JBS shares and $5m in Minerva bonds.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on June 11, 2020, 02:10:30 PM
Brazil revises deforestation data: Amazon rainforest loss topped 10,000 sq km in 2019

Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon surpassed 10,000 square kilometers in 2019, the first time forest clearing in Earth’s largest rainforest has topped that mark since 2008, according to revised data from Brazil’s national space research institute INPE.

INPE says that 10,129 square kilometers of forest were cleared across the “Legal Amazon” between August 1, 2018 and July 31, 2019. That’s 3.8% higher than the preliminary estimate the government provided in November.

Forest loss in 2020 is pacing well ahead of last year’s rate according to INPE’s short-term deforestation alert system.

...

Forest loss in 2020 is pacing well ahead of last year’s rate according to INPE’s short-term deforestation alert system called DETER. Through mid-May 2020 over 6,000 sq km of forest had been cleared since August 1, 85% more than the same time last year and the fastest rate of loss since at least 2007.

...

Deforestation in 2019 increased most rapidly in the northern state of Roraima, which is experiencing a mining boom. Most deforestation however occurred in Pará, Mato Grosso, Amazonas and Rondônia.

Brazil is about to enter into the dry season, which is typically when the bulk of deforestation and fire occurs in the Amazon. Last year fires in the Amazon made global headlines when the resulting smoke blackened the skies above São Paulo, one of the world’s most populous cities.

Scientists fear that continued deforestation, combined with the effects of climate change, could trigger the Amazon rainforest to “tip” toward a drier, savanna-like ecosystem. Such a shift would have profound implications for the region’s biodiversity, rainfall patterns, and forest-dependent peoples.

https://news.mongabay.com/2020/06/brazil-revises-deforestation-data-amazon-rainforest-loss-topped-10000-sq-km-in-2019/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: wdmn on June 14, 2020, 05:11:15 AM
Brazilian Amazon deforestation hits new record in May

https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/world/brazilian-amazon-deforestation-hits-new-record-in-may-12831346

"Deforestation continued to surge in the Brazilian Amazon last month, according to official figures released on Friday (Jun 12), showing it was the worst May and worst first five months of the year on record.

Environmentalists warn 2020 is on track to be the most destructive year ever for the world's biggest rainforest, with even more losses than in devastating fires that triggered global outcry last year.

"We are facing a scenario of total catastrophe for the Amazon," Mariana Napolitano, scientific director at the World Wildlife Fund's Brazil office, said in a statement.

A total of 829 square kilometres (320 square miles) in the Brazilian Amazon, 14 times the area of Manhattan, was lost to deforestation in May, according to satellite data from Brazil's National Space Research Institute (INPE).

That was a 12-per cent increase from last year, and the worst May since record keeping began in August 2015.

Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon is now at more than 2,000 square kilometres so far this year, up 34 per cent from the same period last year.

That is all the more worrying given that the most destructive months are still ahead - the dry season, from around June to October, when forest fires accelerate the deforestation caused by illegal loggers, miners and farmers."
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on June 20, 2020, 06:09:11 AM
Bangladesh Coal Plants Threaten World’s Largest Mangrove Forest

...

But the Bangladesh government threatens to destroy these life-saving forests by building coal-fired power plants that could subject them, and the nearly 2.5 million people who depend on them for their livelihoods, to harmful pollution. And while the mangroves slow climate change by soaking up carbon, coal-fired plants contribute greenhouse gas emissions that fuel global warming.

Of particular concern is the proposed Rampal Thermal Power Plant, just north of the Sundarbans. Scientists and activists have repeatedly voiced concerns that the plant could spell disaster for the world’s largest mangrove forest. But the government has fought calls to cancel or relocate the project, using tear gas and rubber bullets against protestors and insisting, contrary to scientific evidence, that the plant will do no harm.

Meanwhile, international efforts to protect the Sundarbans have been stymied. A recommendation by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to add the Sundarbans to the list of World Heritage Sites in Danger was rejected by UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee, which is chaired by China. The Chinese, Bosnian, and Cuban delegations even passed an amendment erasing mention of the Rampal power plant and two joint Bangladesh-China coal-fired power plants from the decision.

...

https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/06/18/bangladesh-coal-plants-threaten-worlds-largest-mangrove-forest

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on June 26, 2020, 02:41:17 PM
Climate extremes will cause forest changes

Until now, 2003 was considered as the driest and hottest year since the beginning of instrumental climate recording. This record can now be considered obsolete: "The past five years were among the warmest in Central Europe since record, and 2018 was the most extreme one," says Professor Bernhard Schuldt from Julius-Maximilians-Universität (JMU) Würzburg in Bavaria, Germany.

The average temperature from April to October 2018 was on average 3.3 degrees Celsius above the long-term average and 1.2 degrees higher than in 2003, Schuldt and a research team report in the journal Basic and Applied Ecology. This had dramatic consequences for the forests in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

Water transport through the wood collapses

"At such temperatures, our Central European vegetation reaches its limits," says the JMU professor. Together with other researchers from Germany and Switzerland, the plant ecologist was able to confirm with physiological measurements: When it is too hot, the tree simply loses too much water via its surface. As a result, the negative tension in the wood's conducting tissue becomes too steep, which ultimately leads to hydraulic failure interrupting the water transport.

Already during the course of the summer, severe drought-related stress symptoms were observed in most ecologically and economically important tree species, including widespread leaf discoloration and premature lead shedding.

Spruce and beech trees most affected

Moreover, unexpectedly strong drought-legacy effects were detected in 2019: many broad-leaved trees did not unfold their leaves -- they had died. Others that survived the 2018 event where not able to withstand the following drought in 2019, or became increasingly susceptible to infestation with bark beetles or fungi.

"Spruce was most severely affected, mainly because this mountainous species has been planted outside its natural habitat in Central Europe," explains Schuldt. "Unexpected was, however, the extent to which beech trees were affected. Here in Northern Bavaria, I have seen several stands with complete dieback, especially on sites with shallow soil." Until this event, beech has been considered as "future tree species," even though its drought tolerance has been controversially discussed since the hot drought in 2003.

This year's climatic condition in spring again started too warm and too dry. "Now in June 2020 we have fortunately received high amounts of rainfall," the Würzburg professor is pleased to report. This has mitigated the situation, but the water deficit in the deeper soil layers has certainly not been recharged. Therefore, he assumes that affected trees will continue to die-off in the coming years due to legacy effects.

Mixed forests with drought-stress resistant tree species are needed

...

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/06/200625115913.htm
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on June 27, 2020, 07:43:16 PM
The linked article advises that immediate steps need to be taken to prevent tropical forests from crossing a temperature tipping point:

Title: "Temperature Tipping Point for Tropical Forests Identified – Scientists Recommend Immediate Steps"

https://scitechdaily.com/temperature-tipping-point-for-tropical-forests-identified-scientists-recommend-immediate-steps/

Extract: "All living things have tipping points: points of no return, beyond which they cannot thrive. A new report in Science shows that maximum daily temperatures above 32.2 degrees Celsius (about 90 degrees Fahrenheit) cause tropical forests to lose stored carbon more quickly. To prevent this escape of carbon into the atmosphere, the authors, including three scientists affiliated with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama, recommend immediate steps to conserve tropical forests and stabilize the climate."

Thermal sensitivity of tropical trees

A key uncertainty in climate change models is the thermal sensitivity of tropical forests and how this value might influence carbon fluxes. Sullivan et al. measured carbon stocks and fluxes in permanent forest plots distributed globally. This synthesis of plot networks across climatic and biogeographic gradients shows that forest thermal sensitivity is dominated by high daytime temperatures. This extreme condition depresses growth rates and shortens the time that carbon resides in the ecosystem by killing trees under hot, dry conditions. The effect of temperature is worse above 32°C, and a greater magnitude of climate change thus risks greater loss of tropical forest carbon stocks. Nevertheless, forest carbon stocks are likely to remain higher under moderate climate change if they are protected from direct impacts such as clearance, logging, or fires.

PW:
https://science.sciencemag.org/content/368/6493/869
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: be cause on June 28, 2020, 12:02:21 PM
here Channel 4 reported on IKEA's devastation of Ukraine's ancient beech forests , illegally harvested but every tree has it's FSC stamp . Corruption at every level .. b.c.

https://www.channel4.com/news/from-chainsaw-to-chair-ikeas-illegally-sourced-furniture
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on June 29, 2020, 09:38:07 AM
How one teaspoon of Amazon soil teems with fungal life

...

A teaspoon of soil from the Amazon contains as many as 1,800 microscopic life forms, of which 400 are fungi.

Largely invisible and hidden underground, the "dark matter" of life on Earth has "amazing properties", which we're just starting to explore, say scientists.

The vast majority of the estimated 3.8 million fungi in the world have yet to be formally classified.

Yet, fungi are surprisingly abundant in soil from Brazil's Amazon rainforest.

...

Fungi are usually neglected in inventories of biodiversity, being inconspicuous and largely hidden underground.

Fewer than 100 types of fungi have been evaluated for the IUCN Red List, compared with more than 25,000 plants and 68,000 animals.

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-53197650
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on July 01, 2020, 09:16:33 PM
EU must not sacrifice the Amazon rainforest on the altar of trade with Brazil

...

This month European investors managing trillions of dollars of assets wrote an open letter warning that they could withdraw their investments in Brazil because increasing deforestation and the “dismantling” of policies to protect the environment and Indigenous Peoples are “creating widespread uncertainty”.

...

From August 2018 to July 2019, over 10,000 square kilometres of the Amazon rainforest was cut down, a rise of 34 per cent. This represents the worst year on year increase for a quarter of a century. Accompanying this is increasing incursions into Indigenous lands, along with violence against Indigenous Peoples.

...

For the European Union, Brazil’s second largest trading partner, and a huge importer of the soy and beef that drive deforestation, social conflict and land grabs in Mato Grosso and elsewhere in Brazil, all this poses serious questions about its commitment to protecting human rights and the environment.

Last June, after 20 years of negotiations, the EU finalised a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the Mercosur bloc of nations, of which Brazil is the largest member. If unopposed, this deal will allow the import of 99,000 tonnes of beef tariff-free – sacrificing forests and rights on the altar of trade.

This week Germany takes over the rotating EU Council Presidency, and one of its priorities is getting the Mercosur deal signed by the Council of the EU. Now, therefore is the time for those calling for the EU to discard the agreement to raise their voices.

...

https://www.climatechangenews.com/2020/07/01/eu-must-not-sacrifice-amazon-rainforest-altar-trade-brazil/

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on July 02, 2020, 03:41:51 PM
Gold Mining Is Hurting the Amazon's Ability to Store Carbon

Gold mining is becoming an increasingly dangerous threat to the Amazon. A new study has found that barely any trees or plants grow where mines once sat. This is bad news for the wildlife that depends on vegetation for habitat. Without trees or vegetation, though, the Amazon also can’t store as much carbon to prevent further global warming.

The study, published Sunday in the Journal of Applied Ecology, found that abandoned mining pits and tailing ponds in Guyana saw nearly no recovery of vegetation three to four years after mining ended. The recovery rates are among the lowest ever recorded for tropical forests. This lack of regrowth has reduced the forest’s carbon sequestration by about 21,000 tons of carbon a year, the study found. While previous research has used satellite imagery to measure the impact of gold mining on the environment, this study involves on-the-ground investigation with thorough measurements. It’s the first study to offer a full picture of what gold mining may be doing to the Amazon.

and more on:
https://earther.gizmodo.com/gold-mining-is-hurting-the-amazons-ability-to-store-car-1844232362

Limited biomass recovery from gold mining in Amazonian forests
https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1365-2664.13669

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: blumenkraft on July 10, 2020, 04:37:01 PM
Most trees alive today won’t be able to survive in the climate expected in 40 years

Link >> http://www.rapidshift.net/most-trees-alive-today-wont-be-able-to-survive-in-the-climate-expected-in-40-years/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on July 13, 2020, 04:27:13 PM
The Wood Pellet Business is Booming. Scientists Say That’s Not Good for the Climate.

Trump’s EPA is expected to propose a new rule declaring burning biomass to be carbon neutral, as industry looks to expand its domestic markets.


In rural Southern towns from Virginia to Texas, mill workers are churning out wood pellets from nearby forests as fast as European power plants, thousands of miles away, can burn them.

On this side of the Atlantic, new pellet plants are being proposed in South Carolina, Arkansas and other southern states. And Southern coastal shipping ports are expanding along with the pellet industry, vying to increase deliveries to Asia.

While the United States has fallen into a coronavirus-induced recession that dealt a blow to oil, gas, and petrochemical companies, for biomass production across the South, it's still boom time.

The industry has exploded, driven largely by European climate policies and subsidies that reward burning wood, even as an increasing number of scientists call out what they see as a dangerous carbon accounting loophole that threatens the 2050 goals of the Paris climate agreement.

This month, the Environmental Protection Agency, acting at the direction of the U.S. Congress, is expected to propose securing that loophole with a new rule that details how burning biomass from forests can be considered carbon neutral, at least in the United States.

and more details on;
https://insideclimatenews.org/news/10072020/wood-pellet-business-booming-scientists-say-%E2%80%99s-not-good-climate

The EU law needs to be changed quickly.

The forests we need are long term. Capturing carbon for centuries. Old strong trees provide so much shading so whatever is relatively old should be protected. Of course much small uninteresting life dies with the felled trees too.

It´s going to be hard enough as it is (see post above) so we just can´t treat forests as oil that grows on the ground.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on July 18, 2020, 11:13:53 PM
Amazon soya and beef exports 'linked to deforestation'

Up to one-fifth of Brazil's soya exports to the European Union may be "contaminated" by illegal deforestation, a study has found.

Researchers used freely available maps and data to identify the specific farms and ranches clearing forests to produce soya and beef destined for Europe.

They found 2% of properties were responsible for 62% of illegal deforestation.

These "bad apples" have global environmental consequences, they said.

Prof Raoni Rajão, of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais in Brazil, said it was up to the country's political and economic leaders to root out "the bad apples in the soy and beef sectors".

"Brazil has the information it needs to take swift and decisive action against these rule-breakers to ensure that its exports are deforestation-free," he said.

...

The research, published in the journal Science, found that 2% of properties in the Amazon rainforest and the Cerrado grasslands are responsible for 62% of all potentially illegal deforestation.

Roughly 20% of soya exports and at least 17% of beef exports to the EU may be "contaminated with illegal deforestation", the researchers said.

According to their analysis, two million tons of soya grown on properties with illegal deforestation may have reached EU markets annually during the period of analysis, 500,000 of which came from the Amazon.

...

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-53438680

and

Brazil's Bolsonaro under pressure to protect Amazon

Faced with investors demanding "results" in the fight against Amazon deforestation, Brazil's government seems to be performing something of an about-face, although it will have to work to convince skeptics.

The simple fact that Vice President Hamilton Mourao committed on Wednesday to cutting deforestation and forest fires "to an acceptable minimum" was a mini-revolution in the administration of far right President Jair Bolsonaro.

Less than a year ago the international community watched in horror as the number of forest fires in the Amazon soared to their highest levels since 2013.

Ireland and France threatened to scupper a trade deal between the European Union and Mercosur—of which Brazil is a member—unless Bolsonaro acted to protect what French President Emmanuel Macron described as a "common interest."

Macron called the fires an "international crisis" and Bolsonaro fired back at his counterpart's "colonialist mentality."

...

But at the end of June, investment funds from Europe, Asia and South America that collectively administer close to $4 trillion in assets cranked up the pressure in an open letter to Bolsonaro, urging the end of projects that threaten to accelerate destruction of the world's largest rainforest.

That seems to have hit home.

"The fact that the pressure comes from investors and not from heads of state, that gives it a different tone," Andre Perfeito, an economist at Necton consultants, told AFP.

details on:
https://phys.org/news/2020-07-brazil-bolsonaro-pressure-amazon.html

Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on July 21, 2020, 04:17:10 PM
Pine Trees Have An Ecological Memory

Climate change is leading to drier conditions in Valais. For around two decades now, many Scots pines in the canton have been dying, in some cases over large areas. The Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL) is conducting an irrigation experiment to investigate the growth of Scots pines in the Pfyn Forest. Since 2003, it has been irrigating a number of plots within the forest to illustrate the dependency of pine growth on an adequate water supply.

The trees, which were first drought-stressed and then irrigated, grew very well for over a decade, developing thicker crowns and stems than their non-irrigated neighbours. At the end of 2013, the water supply was turned off in some parts of the site.

The question was whether the trees could benefit from the ‘years of plenty’ or whether the long period of irrigation had made them less well adapted to the new drier conditions. The answer is multifaceted, as different tree organs responded in different ways. It is clear, however, that pine growth is influenced by past conditions, as the results published by a WSL-led international research group in the journal New Phytologist now illustrate.

Needles respond quickly, annual shoots slowly

One of the expected responses to discontinued irrigation was that newly formed needles grew to a shorter length than in the years when irrigation took place. Surprisingly, however, the length of new shoots did not decrease in the first year, but only in the second year without irrigation.

This is the first indication of a legacy effect, the term used to describe delayed growth responses that can only be explained by past, rather than current, conditions. In other words, some responses do not occur in the next growing season, but only in the season after that, or later still. Trees, it would seem, have some sort of ecological memory.

Stems continue to grow well
However, the most remarkable finding was the development of radial stem growth. The mean wood and bark increments of the trees that had stopped being irrigated did not decrease immediately, as expected, but remained significantly wider than prior to irrigation for the next four years.

...

This research shows that the intensity of tree growth seen in damper conditions can impact positively on several subsequent dry years. However, the reverse conclusion also applies, namely that an extremely dry year has a negative impact on several subsequent years.

Growth, and many other physiological processes, therefore not only depend on the current weather conditions but are also influenced by the physiological processes of the preceding years. Consequently, the extremely dry conditions experienced during the record-breaking summer of 2018 are likely to make themselves felt for several years to come.

https://www.eurasiareview.com/15072020-pine-trees-have-an-ecological-memory/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on August 04, 2020, 03:04:22 AM
Humanity likely faces rapid ‘catastrophic collapse,’ study warns
https://nypost.com/2020/07/29/humanity-likely-faces-rapid-catastrophic-collapse-study-warns/
Quote
By comparing the rate of deforestation against humanity’s rate of consumption, study authors Mauro Bologna and Gerardo Aquino have determined there’s a 90% chance our species will collapse within decades — calling this estimate an “optimistic” measure.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on August 14, 2020, 07:02:43 PM
The linked reference, and associated article, indicate that tropical forests are likely to transitions from carbon sinks to carbon sources much sooner than previously assumed by consensus climate science; which implies that ECS by 2100 may be greater than previously assumed:

Nottingham, A.T., Meir, P., Velasquez, E. et al. Soil carbon loss by experimental warming in a tropical forest. Nature 584, 234–237 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2566-4

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2566-4

Abstract: "Tropical soils contain one-third of the carbon stored in soils globally, so destabilization of soil organic matter caused by the warming predicted for tropical regions this century could accelerate climate change by releasing additional carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Theory predicts that warming should cause only modest carbon loss from tropical soils relative to those at higher latitudes, but there have been no warming experiments in tropical forests to test this. Here we show that in situ experimental warming of a lowland tropical forest soil on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, caused an unexpectedly large increase in soil CO2 emissions. Two years of warming of the whole soil profile by four degrees Celsius increased CO2 emissions by 55 per cent compared to soils at ambient temperature. The additional CO2 originated from heterotrophic rather than autotrophic sources, and equated to a loss of 8.2 ± 4.2 (one standard error) tonnes of carbon per hectare per year from the breakdown of soil organic matter. During this time, we detected no acclimation of respiration rates, no thermal compensation or change in the temperature sensitivity of enzyme activities, and no change in microbial carbon-use efficiency. These results demonstrate that soil carbon in tropical forests is highly sensitive to warming, creating a potentially substantial positive feedback to climate change."

See also:

Title: "Carbon dioxide loss from tropical soils increases on warming" by Eric Davidson

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02266-9

Extract: "Besides the clear take-home message that the responses of soil respiration processes under climate change should not be represented in Earth-system models only by simple Q10 or Arrhenius functions, Nottingham and co-workers’ study adds to recently accumulating evidence that tropical forests are unlikely to continue indefinitely to be carbon sinks as the world warms. Tropical soil carbon does not receive as much attention as do the large and vulnerable soil-carbon stocks at high latitudes, which pose major concerns as a potential source of positive feedback to climate change. But tropical-forest soils also contain substantial carbon stores that might be more vulnerable to loss in a warming world than was previously recognized."
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on August 29, 2020, 10:48:13 AM
Yeah lets check...  :(

Quote
Let’s Check in on the Amazon, and Damn, That’s Not Good

Major fires in the Brazilian Amazon are being set at an unprecedented rate. Between May 28 and Aug. 25, 2020, more than 500 major forest fires blazed across roughly 912,000 acres, new satellite data from the Monitoring of the Andean Amazon Project (MAAP) shows. That’s on par with the inferno that’s consumed California this month.

MAAP defines fires’ severity based on their aerosol index, a measure of the presence of levels of particles of smoke and ash in the air. Shockingly, nearly half of these forest fires took place in just the past two weeks. The largest of the documented blazes was one in Northern Brazil on August 17. That single fire alone burned nearly 25,605 acres of land.

Unlike the ones currently scorching California, these forest fires weren’t lit by lightning. Instead, they were set by people, mostly people looking to clear land for mining, cattle ranching, and soybean farming industries. And most of this clearing is conducted illegally, by actors with ties to a years-old criminal network in the country.

and much more on:
https://earther.gizmodo.com/let-s-check-in-on-the-amazon-and-damn-that-s-not-good-1844882608

And then this nugget:

Quote
Despite expanding fires, Brazil suspends operations to combat Amazon deforestation

Brazil’s Ministry of the Environment announced it will suspend all operations to combat illegal deforestation and fire in the Amazon and Pantanal on Monday, August 31, 2020.

In a statement published on its official web site, the ministry said it would demobilize staff and resources across two agencies: the environmental protection agency IBAMA and the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. The suspension affects 1,805 firefighters, 401 inspectors, six helicopters, 144 vehicles, and ten aircraft.

The ministry said the decision is the result of a federal budget cut of 60.6 million Brazilian real.
The cut comes as fires are currently burning widely across the Amazon.

Update: shortly after this post was published, the Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA) – Brazil’s Ministry of Environment – announced it had reached a deal to secure funding to maintain operations.
https://news.mongabay.com/2020/08/despite-expanding-fires-brazil-suspends-operations-to-combat-amazon-deforestation/

So they seemingly cancelled this but it shows their intentions.

Also see link for cumulative deforestation graph.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: oren on August 30, 2020, 08:05:27 AM
Quote
So they seemingly cancelled this but it shows their intentions.
Politics is a weird field. Most probably they realized what would raise the biggest cry and chose to cut that item, knowing the response would bring back the budget.
In any case all this posturing doesn't matter, what matters is the actual reality, in which the Amazon gets more and more deforested. Humanity performing a slow-motion suicide.
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on September 12, 2020, 09:29:04 AM
From the Amazon to the Congo Basin to Indonesia, people are destroying precious rainforest and other ecosystems, mostly for agricultural expansion. Indigenous people are pushed off their lands, and even murdered when they resist. This destruction happens far away from Europe, but that doesn’t mean that Europe’s hands are clean. The EU imports a huge 36% of all the ‘embedded deforestation’ linked to products traded globally – beef, palm oil and soy for animal feed, but also coffee, cacao, paper and others. This means that the EU is responsible for over 10% of all the forest destruction worldwide. European supermarkets are filled with products linked to forest and ecosystem destruction.

In 2010, at the Consumer Goods Forum, over 400 of the biggest companies – owning many household brands – promised to cut deforestation out of their supply chains by 2020. Well, 2020 is here, and not one of them followed through on that promise.

The only way to stop European consumption leading to forest destruction is an EU law that keeps deforestation products off the European market. If a corporation wants to sell its products in Europe, they should have to show they have no deforestation, ecosystem destruction, or human rights abuses in their supply chain.

https://www.greenpeace.org/international/story/45002/europe-meat-deforestation-save-amazon/
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on September 12, 2020, 09:35:40 AM
In the Amazon, forest degradation is outpacing full deforestation

Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has increased abruptly in the past two years, after having been on a downward trajectory for more than a decade. With the country’s president Jair Bolsonaro notoriously enthusiastic about expanding into the rainforest, new deforestation data regularly makes global headlines.

But what fewer people realise is that even forests that have not been cleared, or fully “deforested”, are rarely untouched. Indeed, just 20% of the world’s tropical forests are classified as intact. The rest have been impacted by logging, mining, fires, or by the expansion of roads or other human activities. And all this can happen undetected by the satellites that monitor deforestation.

These forests are known as “degraded”, and they make up an increasingly large fraction of the world’s remaining forest landscapes. Degradation is a major environmental and societal challenge. Disturbances associated with logging, fire and habitat fragmentation are a significant source of CO₂ emissions and can flip forests from carbon sinks to sources, where the carbon emitted when trees burn or decompose outweighs the carbon taken from the atmosphere as they grow.

...

Degradation detectives
New research published in the journal Science by a team of Brazilian and US researchers led by Eraldo Matricardi has taken an important step towards tackling this challenge. By combining more than 20 years of satellite data with extensive field observations, they trained a computer algorithm to map changes in forest degradation through time across the entire Brazilian Amazon. Their work reveals that 337,427 km² of forest were degraded across the Brazilian Amazon between 1992 and 2014, an area larger than neighbouring Ecuador. During this same period, degradation actually outpaced deforestation, which contributed to a loss of a further 308,311 km² of forest.

The researchers went a step further and used the data to tease apart the relative contribution of different drivers of forest degradation, including logging, fire and forest fragmentation. What these maps reveal is that while overall rates of degradation across the Brazilian Amazon have declined since the 1990s – in line with decreases in deforestation and associated habitat fragmentation – rates of selective logging and forest fires have almost doubled. In particular, in the past 15 years logging has expanded west into a new frontier that up until recently was considered too remote to be at risk.

for details and maps see:
https://theconversation.com/in-the-amazon-forest-degradation-is-outpacing-full-deforestation-145901
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on September 12, 2020, 09:38:22 AM
More than 90% of the world's protected areas are disconnected

According to a new study, more than 90% of Earth's protected areas are disconnected -- surrounded by human pressures -- according to a study published Friday in the journal Nature Communications.

"Connected landscapes ensure species can move through a landscape," lead study author Michelle Ward told UPI in an email.

"Species travel for many reasons including seasonal migrations, finding a mate, moving away from close relatives to ensure genetic diversity, escaping natural disasters such as fires, or tracking their preferred climates," said Ward, an environmental scientist and doctoral candidate at the University of Queensland in Australia.

...

According to the Human Footprint, 40% of Earth's land remains intact, while the remaining 60 percent is relatively degraded.

When researchers looked at the distribution of intact land, they found it rarely forms a bridge between protected areas.

"If two protected areas have 'intact' land in between them, we define those two protected areas as connected," Ward said. "While this kind of structural connectivity alone does not guarantee connectivity for all species, high levels of landscape connectedness is seen as critical for species in regards to migration, escaping natural disasters, and adaptation under human-induced climate change."

...

To protect Earth's biodiversity and important ecological processes, authors of the latest study argue more must be done to connect the planet's protected areas. That means safeguarding still-intact landscapes and restoring landscapes that can connect isolated pockets of wild habitat.

https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2020/09/11/More-than-90-of-the-worlds-protected-areas-are-disconnected/7461599824845/?ur3=1
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: kassy on September 20, 2020, 11:05:45 AM
Europe's old-growth forests at risk

A new study presents the first comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of primary forests in Europe -- and shows that many of them are not protected and at risk of being destroyed. The researchers conclude that formal conservation of these forests should be a top priority for countries to meet their climate change and biodiversity goals.

...

Gathering data and mapping for five years, the team's research makes clear that Europe's ancient forests are in a perilous state -- and that many of them continue to be logged. The researchers conclude that formal conservation of these forests should be a top priority for countries to meet their climate change and biodiversity goals.

"While many primary forests are in fact well protected, we also found many regions where they are not -- particularly where primary forests are still common," says Francesco Sabatini, the study's lead author from the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research and Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg. "And where they are protected, in some cases, the level of protection is inadequate to ensure these forests will be protected in the long-term."

The study also highlights that remaining primary forests are very unevenly distributed across Europe. "Some regions, particularly in Scandinavia and Finland as well as Eastern Europe, still have many primary forests. But often those countries do not realize how unique their forests are at the European scale and how important it is to protect them," says senior author Tobias Kuemmerle from Humboldt University in Berlin. "At the same time, we were shocked to see that there are many natural forests types in Europe without any primary forest remaining at all, particularly in Western Europe."

...

The new study found a "substantial bias," the scientists write, in how these remaining primary forests are distributed across forest types. Of the 54 forest types they assessed, they found that six had no remaining old-growth stands at all. And in two-thirds of the forest types, they found that less than one percent was old growth. And only ten forest types had more than half of their old growth strictly protected.

In other words, even if scarce and irreplaceable, many of these primary forests are not legally protected and continue to be logged in Europe. However, with swift action, strict conservation protections on those that remain can be put in place, the team says -- plus: old-growth forests, and their many values, can be restored.

...

"Now is the time to be ambitious. There is a lot of momentum for forest conservation and restoration in Europe at the moment," says Francesco Sabatini, in part because of the European Union's Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 that explicitly recognizes the irreplaceable value of primary forests. "Our study provides a foundation for putting this strategy into practice," he says.

"Our work shows that all the remaining primary forests in Europe could be protected with a modest expansion of protected areas," says UVM's Bill Keeton, "and I think this study will change the whole dialogue around old forest restoration in Europe, highlighting where that would be most valuable."

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200917122842.htm
Title: Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
Post by: vox_mundi on September 23, 2020, 11:45:03 PM
Amazonia Racing Toward Tipping Point, Fueled by Unregulated Fires
https://phys.org/news/2020-09-amazonia-fueled-unregulated.html

In a new paper published today in the Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Florida Tech biology professor Mark Bush describes how the vast Amazonian rainforest could be replaced by savanna, which is a grassland with few trees, within our lifetime.

One of the key points of the paper, "New and repeating tipping points: the interplay of fire, climate change and deforestation in Neotropical ecosystems," is that while no individual government can control climate change, fire can be regulated through policy. Almost all fires in Amazonia are set deliberately by people and have become much more frequent in the last two years, because of altered policy, than over the previous decade.

Bush's data show that the tipping point is likely to be reached if temperatures rise by another 2 to 3 degrees Fahrenheit (1-1.5°C). Anthropogenic warming would bring those temperatures by the end of this century, but increased burning creates hotter, drier, less shaded landscapes that could hasten that transition.

"Warming alone could induce the tipping point by mid-century, but if the present policies that turn a blind eye to forest destruction aren't stopped, we could reach the tipping point much sooner," Bush said.

He added, "Beyond the loss of wildlife, the cascading effects of losing Amazonian rainforest would alter rainfall across the hemisphere. This is not a remote problem, but one of global importance and critical significance to food security that should concern us all."

Mark B. Bush, New and Repeating Tipping Points: The Interplay of Fire, Climate Change, and Deforestation in Neotropical Ecosystems, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
https://annals.mobot.org/index.php/annals/article/view/565
https://annals.mobot.org/index.php/annals/article/view/565/537

... Past tipping points are identified to have occurred within ca. 1°C–1.5°C of modern conditions. The recent climatic instability in both Amazonia and the Andes is viewed in the context of ecological flickering, while the drought-induced and fire-induced tree mortality are aspects of critical slowing down; both possibly portending an imminent tipping point.