Arctic Sea Ice : Forum

AGW in general => Science => Topic started by: ArcticMelt2 on July 07, 2019, 04:20:38 PM

Title: Little known greenhouse gases
Post by: ArcticMelt2 on July 07, 2019, 04:20:38 PM
As you know, now the main struggle is with emissions of carbon dioxide and methane. But the chemical industry produces many other gases that have greenhouse properties. Their influence on climate can be comparable to CO2 and CH4.

(H)CFCs are ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and have been successfully been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. As a result, the abundance of ODSs in the atmosphere has declined and the ozone layer is expected to recover. CFCs also had higher Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) than the HFCs replacing them. As such, by replacing CFCs by HFCs, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and other users not only contributed to the preservation of the ozone layer, but also made a most significant and positive contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Their reduction would represent about four times the objective of the Kyoto Protocol. In 1990, CFCs represented 25 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. In 2002, the emissions from the use of HFCs were about 0.5 % of total global GHG emissions and according to the US NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), which provides annual updates of the AGGI (Annual Greenhouse Gas Index), intended to follow the evolution of the radiative forcing (ability of all greenhouse gases to trap heat) of greenhouse gases, the HFC impact in 2016, was 0.89 % of the total GHG emissions.


In the 1980s, scientists discovered that the earth’s protective ozone layer was thinning, raising the risk of skin cancer and cataracts. The culprits were chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), chemical substances widely used in spray cans, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and heretofore considered as safe because they are non-toxic, not inflammable and not explosive.

The international community reacted quickly and adopted the Montreal protocol in 1987, which phases out ozone-destroying substances. However, it turns out that the F-gases which replace CFCs contribute to global warming, having a global warming potential up to 23 000 times higher than CO2. F-gases account for around 2% of the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions.

The worldwide use of F-gases has grown rapidly and reached almost 500 million tonnes CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent) in 2005. The rapid growth is expected to continue with growing demand for refrigeration and air conditioning, especially in developing countries. By 2050, F-gases could account for 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Refrigerant leaks in mobile air conditioning systems are common and hard to prevent. To reduce the climate impacts from air condition in vehicles, the Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) Directive requires that new cars be equipped with air conditioning systems that use more climate-friendly refrigerants. However,  Mercedes-Benz recently discovered that the relatively climate-friendly refrigerant R1234xy can catch fire in a car crash. The company intends to continue using HFC-134a, whose global warming potential 1320 times higher than CO2, and risks infringement proceedings for violation of the MAC Directive.


Projections for global f-gas emissions 2005-2050. Source: Umweltbundesamt
Title: Re: Little known greenhouse gases
Post by: ArcticMelt2 on July 07, 2019, 04:26:18 PM
In general, taking into account all greenhouse gases and deforestation, the total impact on the climate now reaches nearly 60 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year.


Global greenhouse gas emissions show no signs of peaking. Global CO2 emissions from energy and industry increased in 2017, following a three-year period of stabilization. Total annual greenhouse gases emissions, including from land-use change, reached a record high of 53.5 GtCO2e in 2017, an increase of 0.7 GtCO2e compared with 2016.
Fluorinated gases (hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)) are only responsible for 2.4 percent of total GHG emissions and continue to have strong growth at around 5 percent/year. The Kigali Amendment to the
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer aims for the phase-down of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by cutting their production and consumption.

Global greenhouse gas emissions per type of gas
LUC = Land Use Change;
The chart includes emissions for the 6 greenhouse gases
CO2, CH4, N2O, and F-Gases (HFCs, SF6, PFCs) and LUC

Global GHG emissions in 2030 need to be approximately 25 percent and 55 percent lower than in 2017 to put the world on a least-cost pathway to limiting global warming to 2°C and 1.5°C respectively.
Title: Re: Little known greenhouse gases
Post by: ArcticMelt2 on July 07, 2019, 05:05:09 PM
It is also important that at the same time with the continuous growth of greenhouse gas emissions, people in pursuit of comfort very quickly reduce emissions of cooling aerosols (SO2).


With these illogical actions, people are increasingly destabilizing and shaking our fragile climate.

Most still do not realize the consequences of the anthropogenic impact on the planet’s climate, considering that it is miserable.
Title: Re: Little known greenhouse gases
Post by: ArcticMelt2 on July 07, 2019, 05:24:27 PM
So in China, first of all, they are struggling with cooling sprays, spitting on greenhouse gases.

People consider anthropogenic warming nonsense.