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Messages - Tom_Mazanec

Pages: [1] 2 3 ... 14
1
The rest / Re: Masks
« on: October 29, 2020, 01:43:18 AM »

2
The rest / Re: Good music
« on: October 26, 2020, 10:12:19 PM »
Since you lot like oldies so much here are some:  :)

THE OLDEST SONG IN THE WORLD

This song to the Hurrian goddess Nikkal, is the oldest piece of music for which we have both the words and the accompanying musical notes. The work was written on clay tablets around 3500 years ago, and was discovered by archaeologists in the 1950’s in the ruins of the ancient city of Ugarit.



The Epic Of Gilgamesh In Sumerian




3
The politics / Re: The Trump Presidency
« on: October 26, 2020, 07:10:00 PM »
Of course it is possible that Biden may be the beneficiary of Trump's Executive Order.
I wouldn't want any president to have it either. This is designed to increase corruption.

4
The rest / Re: Systemic Isolation
« on: October 26, 2020, 12:40:21 AM »
Are We Living In a Computer Simulation? I Don’t Know. Probably.
https://www.vox.com/future-perfect/2019/4/10/18275618/simulation-hypothesis-matrix-rizwan-virk

... Sean Illing
Are we living in a simulated universe right now?

Rizwan Virk
There are lots of mysteries in physics that are better explained by the simulation hypothesis than by what would be a material hypothesis. ... one of which is this mystery they call quantum indeterminacy, which is the idea that a particle is in one of multiple states and you don’t know that unless you observe the particle.

Sean Illing
How does quantum indeterminacy relate to a video game or a computer simulation?

Rizwan Virk
... The history of video game development is all about optimizing limited resources. If you asked somebody in the 1980s if you could you render a game like World of Warcraft, which is a full three-dimensional or a virtual reality game, they would say, “No, It would take all the computing power in the world. We couldn’t render all those pixels in real time.”

But what happened over time was that there were optimization techniques. The core of all these optimizations is “only render that which is being observed.” ... and it’s one of the things that reminds me of a video game in the physical world.

... I’ll bring up a very famous physicist, John Wheeler. He was one of the last physicists who worked with Albert Einstein and many of the great physicists of the 20th century. He said that physics was initially thought to be about the study of physical objects, that everything was reducible to particles. This is what’s often called the Newtonian model. But then we discovered quantum physics and we realized that everything was a field of probabilities and it wasn’t actually physical objects. That was the second wave in Wheeler’s career.

The third wave in his career was the discovery that at the core level, everything is information, everything is based on bits. So Wheeler came up with a famous phrase called “it from bit,” which is the idea that anything we see as physical is really the result of bits of information. He didn’t live to see quantum computers come into reality, but it’s looking more like that.

So I would say that if the world isn’t really physical, if it’s based on information, then a simpler explanation might in fact be that we are in a simulation that is generated based on computer science and information.

Sean Illing
If we were living in a simulation as convincing as The Matrix, would there be any discernible difference between the simulation and reality? Why would it matter ultimately whether our world was real or illusory?

Rizwan Virk

Probably the most important question related to this is whether we are NPCs (non-player characters) or PCs (player characters) in the video game. If we are PCs, then that means we are just playing a character inside the video game of life, which I call the Great Simulation. I think many of us would like to know this. We would want to know the parameters of the game we’re playing so that we could better understand it, better navigate it.

If we are NPCs, or simulated characters, then I think it’s a more complicated answer and more frightening. The question is, are all of us NPCs in a simulation, and what is the purpose of that simulation? A knowledge of the fact that we’re in a simulation, and the goals of the simulation and the goals of our character, I think, would still be interesting to many people — and now we’re back to the case of the holodeck character from Star Trek that discovers that there is a world “out there” (outside the holodeck) that he can’t go to, and perhaps some of us would rather not know in that case.

Sean Illing
How close are we to having the technological capacity to build an artificial world that’s as realistic and plausible as The Matrix?

Rizwan Virk
I lay out 10 stages of technology development that a civilization would have to go through to get to what I call the simulation point, which is the point at which we can create a hyperrealistic simulation like this. We’re at about stage five, which is around virtual reality and augmented reality. Stage six is about learning to render these things without us having to put on glasses, and the fact that 3D printers now can print 3D pixels of objects shows us that most objects can be broken down as information.

But the really difficult part — and this is something not a lot of technologists have talked about — is in The Matrix, the reason they thought they were fully immersed was they had this cord going into the cerebral cortex, and that’s where the signal was beamed. This brain-computer interface is the area that we haven’t yet made that much progress in, but we are making progress in it. It’s in the early stages.

So my guess is within a few decades to 100 years from now, we will reach the simulation point.


5
The politics / Re: The Trump Presidency
« on: October 25, 2020, 11:01:16 PM »



6
Consequences / Re: Places becoming less livable
« on: October 25, 2020, 07:12:34 PM »
Geology’s human footprint is enough to spur rage

LONDON, 21 October, 2020 − The human footprint has left its mark on Earth, in every sense. The United States alone is scarred by 500,000 abandoned mines and quarries.

Right now, worldwide, there are more than 500,000 active quarries and pits, employing 4 million people, excavating the sand and gravel needed for new roads, new homes and new megacities.

Humans have not simply pitted the face of the Earth, they have paved it. In 1904, beyond the cities, the US had just 225 km of sealed highway. Now it has 4.3m km of asphalt or concrete roadway, consuming more than 20 billion tonnes of sand and gravel.

By comparison, the Great Wall of China, the biggest and most enduring construction in early human history, contains just 0.4bn tonnes of stone.

Humans have changed the face of the waters. In 1950, trawlers, long-liners and purse seiners fished just 1% of the high seas beyond territorial waters. No fish species of any kind was considered over-exploited or depleted.

Extinction threat widens

Less than one human lifetime on, fishing fleets roam 63% of the high seas and 87% of fish species are exploited, over-exploited or in a state of collapse. Meanwhile somewhere between 5m and almost 13 million tons of discarded plastics flow each year into the sea.

Humans and human livestock now far outweigh all other mammalian life. At least 96% of the mass of all mammals is represented by humans and their domesticated animals. Domestic poultry makes up 70% of the mass of all living birds. The natural world is now endangered, with a million species at risk of extinction.
...

https://climatenewsnetwork.net/geologys-human-footprint-is-enough-to-inspire-rage/

Living beyond our means...

7
The politics / Re: The Alt Right
« on: October 25, 2020, 05:11:41 PM »
How about all of the revolutions of 1989 (except the Romanian)?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutions_of_1989

8
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 25, 2020, 04:58:04 PM »
Quote
The coronavirus is damaging kidneys. Doctors worry that some survivors will need dialysis forever

Now imagine this very hardy, very contagious virus lying around everywhere, all the time waiting for your antibodies level drop low enough to attack. Every time there is susceptibility it will damage vital tissue, each time over older people, who become more susceptible to each cycle that passes.

That's what endemic might look like. A chance for a car accident every year, with the speed of the vehicle at the time of the accident increasing with each year that passes. With a chance of accumulative damage to the brain and internal organs.


9
Well, this Oct 23 is 80º F in Twinsburg, which is kinda weird.

And snow is forecast in Texas this weekend.

10
The forum / Re: Forum Decorum
« on: October 22, 2020, 01:19:13 PM »
'I don´t really see the point of diaries.' .. thank goodness the early explorers and others thought otherwise . This forum is little more than a modern diary . And I'm sure you won't be forced to write one or read anyone else's ..   :) b.c.
"Dear Diary,
Today I woke up and got up out of bed earlier than usual. Not only did I have a shower but also had a shave. This lunchtime I am going to. the local town to have a coffee with a friend

etc... etc...."

Most diaries are bloody boring.
Not many of us are a Samuel Johnson.

11
Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2020/2021 freezing season
« on: October 21, 2020, 12:19:18 AM »
I didn't see this posted here yet...

12
The forum / Re: Arctic Sea Ice Forum Humor
« on: October 19, 2020, 10:10:18 AM »

13
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 18, 2020, 09:47:04 PM »

14
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 15, 2020, 03:41:56 PM »
Assaults On Science Causing Alarming and Avoidable Deaths In the U.S.
https://phys.org/news/2020-10-assaults-science-alarming-deaths.html



In a commentary published online in EClinicalMedicine, researchers from Florida Atlantic University's Schmidt College of Medicine and collaborators state that "pandemic politics" is causing assaults on science, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as the health of the public.

As an example, the authors point out that the FDA, a world renowned regulatory authority issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for hydroxychloroquine in the absence of any reliable data from large-scale randomized trials, all of which later showed no benefit and some showed clear harm. According to the authors, what is even more disturbing is the escalation of the politicization of the CDC, formerly a role model for disease control and prevention activities worldwide. They state that during COVID-19, the CDC issued reopening guidelines after initial lockdowns that lasted only until the epidemic curve flattened, violating their own principles to continue until cases and deaths drastically fell. On Aug. 25, the CDC apparently updated guidelines excluding exposed but asymptomatic individuals from testing. Then, on Sept. 17, it was revealed that White House officials edited and published guidelines despite CDC objections.

Finally, with respect to the health of the U.S. public, the authors note that while the president of the United States publicly issued repeated denials while calling the pandemic a "hoax," he privately stated in a recorded interview that COVID-19 "was more deadly than even your strenuous flu."

"Unfortunately and tragically, the U.S. had been judged in early 2016 to have been best prepared for the existential threat of a pandemic, but turned out to be the least prepared for the actual threat in early 2020," said Scott M. Alter, M.D., M.B.A., first author, an emergency medicine physician, and an assistant professor in the Department of Integrated Medical Sciences in FAU's Schmidt College of Medicine.

"The anticipated number of deaths from COVID-19 may become comparable to the most lethal epidemic of influenza in U.S. history, which occurred from 1918 to 1919 when approximately 675,000 Americans died," said Charles H. Hennekens, M.D., Dr.PH, senior author, first Sir Richard Doll Professor and senior academic advisor in FAU's Schmidt College of Medicine. "In stark contrast to both the current U.S. epidemic of COVID-19 and the Spanish Flu of 1918-19, the 2018-19 flu season affected about 42.9 million Americans, of which about 61,200 died."

The authors underscore that the U.S. has become and will very likely remain the epicenter of the pandemic worldwide. They say that if the past is prolog then pandemic politics concerning vaccine development will potentially lead to another premature EUA by the FDA in the absence of reliable evidence. They further state that it is more imperative than ever that the U.S. abandon pandemic politics and focus solely on effective public health strategies.

Scott M. Alter et al. The menacing assaults on science, FDA, CDC, and health of the US public, EClinicalMedicine (2020).
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/eclinm/article/PIIS2589-5370(20)30325-4/fulltext

--------------------------------------



--------------------------------------

Popularity of COVID-19 Conspiracies and Links to Vaccine 'Hesitancy' Revealed by International Study
https://phys.org/news/2020-10-popularity-covid-conspiracies-links-vaccine.html

A new study of beliefs and attitudes toward COVID-19 in five different countries—UK, US, Ireland, Mexico and Spain—has identified how much traction some prominent conspiracy theories have within these populations.

The research reveals "key predictors" for susceptibility to fake pandemic news, and finds that a small increase in the perceived reliability of conspiracies equates to a larger drop in the intention to get vaccinated.

While a large majority of people in all five nations judged the misinformation to be unreliable, researchers found that certain conspiracy theories have taken root in significant portions of the population.

The conspiracy deemed most valid across the board was the claim that COVID-19 was engineered in a Wuhan laboratory. Between 22-23% of respondents in the UK and United States rated this assertion as "reliable". In Ireland this rose to 26%, while in Mexico and Spain it jumped to 33% and 37% respectively.

This was followed by the idea that the pandemic is "part of a plot to enforce global vaccination", with 22% of the Mexican population rating this as reliable, along with 18% in Ireland, Spain and the US, and 13% in the UK.

... "Numeracy skills are the most significant predictor of resistance to misinformation that we found," said Dr. Jon Roozenbeek, lead author and Postdoctoral Fellow in Cambridge's Department of Psychology.

Moreover, and despite 'boomer' memes, the team found that being older is actually linked to lower susceptibility to COVID-19 misinformation in all nations except Mexico (where the opposite is true).

Identifying as more right-wing or politically conservative is associated with higher likelihood of believing COVID-19 conspiracies and falsehoods in Ireland, Mexico and Spain—but less so in the UK or US.

Exposure to information about the virus on social media is linked to misinformation susceptibility in Ireland, the UK and US.

Susceptibility to misinformation about COVID-19 around the world, Royal Society Open Science (2020)
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsos.201199

---------------------------------------


15
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 14, 2020, 09:58:05 PM »
SH, I think the focus on IFR is important because it allows  for a sanity check. Using a very simple  IFR as the criteria, is it worth doing anything about C19?


Let's assume an absolutely best-case scenario that IFR of C19 was 0.1% for eveyone. Then the chance of dying of C19 would be about the same as dying in a car accident. 

From a personal perspective, that's not bad, if you don't mind having car accidents.

From a social perspective, a person having a car accident is perfectly normal. But 100,000 accidents a day, when there were none before?

I'll attach an image from a paper posted upthread.

My asumption about of being 0.1% for everyone is way off. It is an order of magnitude worse than that.

So yes, we must certainly do something about it based on the simplest assesment using best case scenarios.

Want to talk long term? For all we know this virus repeats and gets worse with every iteration. It could be a real mankind killer and we wouldn't know it until 2 or 3 years from now.

The answer is erradication like the advance countries in the world have done.

16
Antarctica / Re: Ice Apocalypse - MULTIPLE METERS SEA LEVEL RISE
« on: October 14, 2020, 04:19:08 AM »
While the linked videos selected from the WAIS Workshop 2020 may seem academic to most people; I provide them for those who are interested:

Title: "WAIS Workshop 2020: Session 5 - Grounding Zones & Ice Shelves 1"



I think that the talk starting around 58:30, regarding the Thwaites Eastern Ice Shelf and tidal pumping at its grounding line, is interesting even though I am more concerned about the Thwaites Ice Tongue.

&

Title: "WAIS Workshop 2020: Session 6 - Grounding Zones & Ice Shelves 2"



I think that the talk by Bassis starting near 1:30 is interesting; however, he focuses on cases ice cliff failures that do not lead to MICI behavior, while he does show that a critical ice thickness gradient can lead to a rapid retreat/collapse of the Thwaites Glacier (see the attached image).

&

Title: "WAIS Workshop 2020: Session 7 - Grounding Zones & Ice Shelves 3:



I think that the talk starting near 1:30 about the TARSAN project for Thwaites is interesting


To access all of the YouTube WAIS Workshop 2020 videos you can use the following link"

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-nSFKCeciZh5KQtEgrJqmg


17
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 12, 2020, 10:31:02 PM »

18
The rest / Re: Astronomical news
« on: October 12, 2020, 05:55:41 PM »
Death by Spaghettification: Scientists Record Last Moments of Star Devoured by Black Hole
https://phys.org/news/2020-10-death-spaghettification-scientists-moments-star.html



A rare blast of light, emitted by a star as it is sucked in by a supermassive black hole, has been spotted by scientists using telescopes from around the world.

The phenomenon, known as a tidal disruption event, is the closest flare of its kind yet recorded, occurring just 215 million light-years from Earth. It is caused when a star passes too close to a black hole and the extreme gravitational pull from the black hole shreds the star into thin streams of material—a process called 'spaghettification'. During this process some of the material falls into the black hole, releasing a bright flare of energy which astronomers can detect.

... Using the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope and New Technology Telescope, the Las Cumbres Observatory global telescope network, and the Neil Gehrel's Swift Satellite, the team was able to monitor the flare, named AT2019qiz, over a six-month period as it grew brighter and then faded away.

"The observations showed that the star had roughly the same mass as our own Sun, and that it lost about half of that to the black hole, which is over a million times more massive," said Nicholl, who is also a visiting researcher at the University of Edinburgh.

"Because we caught it early, we could actually see the curtain of dust and debris being drawn up as the black hole launched a powerful outflow of material with velocities up to 10 000 km/s," said Kate Alexander, NASA Einstein Fellow at Northwestern University in the US. "This unique 'peek behind the curtain' provided the first opportunity to pinpoint the origin of the obscuring material and follow in real time how it engulfs the black hole."

An outflow powers the optical rise of the nearby, fast-evolving tidal disruption event AT2019qiz, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2020)
https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article/499/1/482/5920142


19
Consequences / Re: Places becoming less livable
« on: October 12, 2020, 02:42:45 PM »
Fifth of Countries at Risk of Ecosystem Collapse, Analysis Finds
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/oct/12/fifth-of-nations-at-risk-of-ecosystem-collapse-analysis-finds

One-fifth of the world’s countries are at risk of their ecosystems collapsing because of the destruction of wildlife and their habitats, according to an analysis by the insurance firm Swiss Re.

Natural “services” such as food, clean water and air, and flood protection have already been damaged by human activity.

More than half of global GDP – $42tn (£32tn) – depends on high-functioning biodiversity, according to the report, but the risk of tipping points is growing.

Countries including Australia, Israel and South Africa rank near the top of Swiss Re’s index of risk to biodiversity and ecosystem services, with India, Spain and Belgium also highlighted. Countries with fragile ecosystems and large farming sectors, such as Pakistan and Nigeria, are also flagged up. ...



Those countries with more than 30% of their area found to have fragile ecosystems were deemed to be at risk of those ecosystems collapsing. Just one in seven countries had intact ecosystems covering more than 30% of their country area.

Among the G20 leading economies, South Africa and Australia were seen as being most at risk, with China 7th, the US 9th and the UK 16th.

... “If the ecosystem service decline goes on [in countries at risk], you would see then scarcities unfolding even more strongly, up to tipping points,” said Oliver Schelske, lead author of the research.

Report: https://www.swissre.com/dam/jcr:4793a2c3-b50a-47c0-98df-ed6d5549fde8/nr-20200923-swiss-re-biodiversity-ecosystem-index-en.pdf

https://www.swissre.com/media/news-releases/nr-20200923-biodiversity-and-ecosystems-services.html

20
Consequences / Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« on: October 12, 2020, 02:37:47 PM »
Fifth of Countries at Risk of Ecosystem Collapse, Analysis Finds
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/oct/12/fifth-of-nations-at-risk-of-ecosystem-collapse-analysis-finds

One-fifth of the world’s countries are at risk of their ecosystems collapsing because of the destruction of wildlife and their habitats, according to an analysis by the insurance firm Swiss Re.

Natural “services” such as food, clean water and air, and flood protection have already been damaged by human activity.

More than half of global GDP – $42tn (£32tn) – depends on high-functioning biodiversity, according to the report, but the risk of tipping points is growing.

Countries including Australia, Israel and South Africa rank near the top of Swiss Re’s index of risk to biodiversity and ecosystem services, with India, Spain and Belgium also highlighted. Countries with fragile ecosystems and large farming sectors, such as Pakistan and Nigeria, are also flagged up. ...



Those countries with more than 30% of their area found to have fragile ecosystems were deemed to be at risk of those ecosystems collapsing. Just one in seven countries had intact ecosystems covering more than 30% of their country area.

Among the G20 leading economies, South Africa and Australia were seen as being most at risk, with China 7th, the US 9th and the UK 16th.

... “If the ecosystem service decline goes on [in countries at risk], you would see then scarcities unfolding even more strongly, up to tipping points,” said Oliver Schelske, lead author of the research.

Report: https://www.swissre.com/dam/jcr:4793a2c3-b50a-47c0-98df-ed6d5549fde8/nr-20200923-swiss-re-biodiversity-ecosystem-index-en.pdf

https://www.swissre.com/media/news-releases/nr-20200923-biodiversity-and-ecosystems-services.html

21
The politics / Re: Elections 2020 USA
« on: October 11, 2020, 10:50:41 PM »
To those on this forum from America: please be kind and respectful to those on the other side of the political divide, whether your guy wins or loses. At the end of the day, politics isn't worth doing wrong by your neighbour. 

22
Pope Urges Investors to Pull Capital from Companies Not Committed to Environment
Quote
...
“One way to encourage this change is to lead companies towards the urgent need to commit to the integral care of our common home, excluding from investments companies that do not meet (these) parameters ... and rewarding those that (do),” he said.

Pope Francis spoke in a video message for an online event “Countdown Global Launch, A Call to Action on Climate Change,” according to Reuters. He said the pandemic highlighted the need to tackle the climate crisis and related, social challenges.

“The current economic system is unsustainable. We are faced with a moral imperative ... to rethink many things,” he said, listing means of production, consumerism, waste, indifference to the poor, and harmful energy sources.

“Science tells us, every day with more precision, that we need to act urgently ... if we are to have any hope of avoiding radical and catastrophic climate change,” he said.

Pope Francis said that we need to act in 3 directions:
  • better education about the environment,
  • sustainable agriculture and
  • access to clean water, and a transition away from fossil fuels.
...

23
The forum / Re: Arctic Sea Ice Forum Humor
« on: October 11, 2020, 09:43:43 PM »
Flori, who made that?
It's brilliant. Very apt.

The Lincoln Project is a group of very prominent Republicans (and now, ex-Republicans) who have been horrified by what Hair Furor has done to their party and to the country.  Their work is exceptionally pointed and biting.  Very effective, in my opinion--far more effective than what Biden's campaign has produced.

Other examples are a simple YouTube search away.

More humorous and satirical are works by thejuicemedia:


They usually focus on Australia, but American fans were apparently asking for their inimitable contribution.

24
The rest / Re: Good music
« on: October 11, 2020, 05:52:17 PM »
Thanks, nan!

Tom, 4th street is an actual street just a few blocks from where I live in Minneapolis. After leaving Hibbing, Dylan (Zimmerman) spent time developing his style in Minneapolis, part of the West Bank scene. There are still folk singers in the area who were major influences on his style.

He ended up feeling quite bitter about how he was treated by various people here, and this is kind of middle finger to 'Minnesota Nice' people who don't really support you when you most need it

25
The rest / Re: Wildlife
« on: October 10, 2020, 10:46:45 PM »



26
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 10, 2020, 05:27:19 PM »

27
Science / Re: Where are we now in CO2e , which pathway are we on?
« on: October 10, 2020, 10:41:55 AM »
The only problem is that the planet is not in energy balance, and the herd of cows helps maintain methane levels that lead to further warming until the new balance is reached.
While the GWP of methane assume a pulse of methane being absorbed and decayed rather quickly, in truth the level of methane has been stable or rising. As humanity's problem is short-term and not just long-term, it should be realized that methane will help push the planet above 2C and into huge positive feedbacks, and then it will not help much that the methane decayed at some point when we stopped maintaining (and even increasing) its atmospheric level.
Thus the downplaying of methane using RF and GWP justifications is IMHO very wrong. IMHO Co2eq of methane should be calculated by the short-term warming it induces. I think this is what Stephan does.
However, emission of methane should be evaluated in comparison not to the resulting growth in methane concentrations over a year, but compared to the baseline where methane should have decayed from a year ago. I think this is where some posters are missing the issue. However the emission part is probably off-topic here, so I'll avoid further discussion.

28
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 09, 2020, 03:37:02 PM »

29
Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2020/2021 freezing season
« on: October 08, 2020, 02:25:37 PM »
This article pretty much ignore clouds or overall atmospheric circulation, or anything else, and is just saying that if you remove sea ice, a lot, lot, lot of energy will be radiated to space in winter. Yes of course, nothing new. But it is likely that things will not proceed as linearly. Studies and measures are showing that it seems likely that open water during fall and winter is going to destabilize the PBL. Implying more clouds and moisture, which is going to limit the amount of heat lost to space. And atmospheric circulation, and oceanic circulation, and etc... are also going to respond to an ice free Arctic and establish a new equilibrium which is definitively not going to be the same that "all else equal excepted for sea ice".

30
Policy and solutions / Re: Batteries: Today's Energy Solution
« on: October 02, 2020, 06:47:31 PM »
Physicists Build Circuit that Generates Clean, Limitless Power from Graphene
https://phys.org/news/2020-10-physicists-circuit-limitless-power-graphene.html
https://news.uark.edu/articles/54830/physicists-build-circuit-that-generates-clean-limitless-power-from-graphene



A team of University of Arkansas physicists has successfully developed a circuit capable of capturing graphene's thermal motion and converting it into an electrical current.

"An energy-harvesting circuit based on graphene could be incorporated into a chip to provide clean, limitless, low-voltage power for small devices or sensors," said Paul Thibado, professor of physics and lead researcher in the discovery.

The findings, published in the journal Physical Review E, are proof of a theory the physicists developed at the U of A three years ago that freestanding graphene—a single layer of carbon atoms—ripples and buckles in a way that holds promise for energy harvesting.

The idea of harvesting energy from graphene is controversial because it refutes physicist Richard Feynman's well-known assertion that the thermal motion of atoms, known as Brownian motion, cannot do work. Thibado's team found that at room temperature the thermal motion of graphene does in fact induce an alternating current (AC) in a circuit, an achievement thought to be impossible.

In the 1950s, physicist Léon Brillouin published a landmark paper refuting the idea that adding a single diode, a one-way electrical gate, to a circuit is the solution to harvesting energy from Brownian motion. Knowing this, Thibado's group built their circuit with two diodes for converting AC into a direct current (DC). With the diodes in opposition allowing the current to flow both ways, they provide separate paths through the circuit, producing a pulsing DC current that performs work on a load resistor.



Additionally, they discovered that their design increased the amount of power delivered. "We also found that the on-off, switch-like behavior of the diodes actually amplifies the power delivered, rather than reducing it, as previously thought," said Thibado. "The rate of change in resistance provided by the diodes adds an extra factor to the power." ...  "In proving this power enhancement, we drew from the emergent field of stochastic thermodynamics and extended the nearly century-old, celebrated theory of Nyquist," said coauthor Pradeep Kumar, associate professor of physics and coauthor.

The team's next objective is to determine if the DC current can be stored in a capacitor for later use, a goal that requires miniaturizing the circuit and patterning it on a silicon wafer, or chip. If millions of these tiny circuits could be built on a 1-millimeter by 1-millimeter chip, they could serve as a low-power battery replacement.

P. M. Thibado, et.al, Fluctuation-induced current from freestanding graphene, Physical Review E, (2020)
https://journals.aps.org/pre/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevE.102.042101

31
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: October 02, 2020, 06:46:35 PM »
Physicists Build Circuit that Generates Clean, Limitless Power from Graphene
https://phys.org/news/2020-10-physicists-circuit-limitless-power-graphene.html
https://news.uark.edu/articles/54830/physicists-build-circuit-that-generates-clean-limitless-power-from-graphene



A team of University of Arkansas physicists has successfully developed a circuit capable of capturing graphene's thermal motion and converting it into an electrical current.

"An energy-harvesting circuit based on graphene could be incorporated into a chip to provide clean, limitless, low-voltage power for small devices or sensors," said Paul Thibado, professor of physics and lead researcher in the discovery.

The findings, published in the journal Physical Review E, are proof of a theory the physicists developed at the U of A three years ago that freestanding graphene—a single layer of carbon atoms—ripples and buckles in a way that holds promise for energy harvesting.

The idea of harvesting energy from graphene is controversial because it refutes physicist Richard Feynman's well-known assertion that the thermal motion of atoms, known as Brownian motion, cannot do work. Thibado's team found that at room temperature the thermal motion of graphene does in fact induce an alternating current (AC) in a circuit, an achievement thought to be impossible.

In the 1950s, physicist Léon Brillouin published a landmark paper refuting the idea that adding a single diode, a one-way electrical gate, to a circuit is the solution to harvesting energy from Brownian motion. Knowing this, Thibado's group built their circuit with two diodes for converting AC into a direct current (DC). With the diodes in opposition allowing the current to flow both ways, they provide separate paths through the circuit, producing a pulsing DC current that performs work on a load resistor.



Additionally, they discovered that their design increased the amount of power delivered. "We also found that the on-off, switch-like behavior of the diodes actually amplifies the power delivered, rather than reducing it, as previously thought," said Thibado. "The rate of change in resistance provided by the diodes adds an extra factor to the power." ...  "In proving this power enhancement, we drew from the emergent field of stochastic thermodynamics and extended the nearly century-old, celebrated theory of Nyquist," said coauthor Pradeep Kumar, associate professor of physics and coauthor.

The team's next objective is to determine if the DC current can be stored in a capacitor for later use, a goal that requires miniaturizing the circuit and patterning it on a silicon wafer, or chip. If millions of these tiny circuits could be built on a 1-millimeter by 1-millimeter chip, they could serve as a low-power battery replacement.

P. M. Thibado, et.al, Fluctuation-induced current from freestanding graphene, Physical Review E, (2020)
https://journals.aps.org/pre/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevE.102.042101

32
The rest / Funny
« on: October 01, 2020, 08:25:08 PM »
Let's have a laugh from time to time...

33
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: September 29, 2020, 03:25:26 PM »
blu_ice:
So they are using obsolete data?
Below is what the US EIA say about these subsidies. They exist and will reduce over time.
The 80 USD cost per MWH figure is from years ago.

Meanwhile...
https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesellsmoor/2019/06/15/united-states-spend-ten-times-more-on-fossil-fuel-subsidies-than-education/#17d3ad9d4473
United States Spend Ten Times More On Fossil Fuel Subsidies Than Education


______________________________________________________________
https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/pdf/electricity_generation.pdf
Quote
AEO2020 representation of tax incentives for renewable generation
Federal tax credits for certain renewable generation facilities can substantially reduce the realized cost of these facilities.

Production Tax Credit (PTC):
New wind, geothermal, and closed-loop biomass plants receive $24 per megawatthour (MWh) of generation; other PTC-eligible technologies receive $12/MWh. The PTC values are adjusted for inflation and applied during the plant’s first 10 years of service. Plants that were under construction before the end of 2016 received the full PTC. After 2016, wind continues to be eligible for the PTC but at a $/MWh rate that declines by 20% in 2017, 40% in 2018, 60% in 2019, and expires completely in 2020. Based on documentation released by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), EIA assumes that wind plants have four years after beginning construction to come online and claim the PTC. As a result, wind plants entering service in 2021 will receive $19.20/MWh, and those plants entering service in 2023 will receive $9.60/MWh (inflation adjusted).

Investment Tax Credit (ITC):
In June 2018, the IRS issued Notice 2018-59, a beginning of construction guidance for the ITC. Based on the guideline, EIA assumes all solar projects coming online before January 1, 2024 will receive the full 30% ITC. Solar projects include both utility-scale solar plants—those with capacity rating of 1 megawatt (MW) or greater—and small-scale systems—those systems with a capacity
rating of less than 1 MW. All commercial and utility-scale plants with a construction start date on or after January 1, 2022, or those plants placed in service after December 31, 2023, receive a 10% ITC. The ITC, however, expires completely for residential-owned systems starting in 2022. Results in this levelized cost report only include utility-scale solar facilities and do not include small-scale solar facilities.

Both onshore and offshore wind projects are eligible to claim the ITC in lieu of the PTC. Although EIA expects that onshore wind projects will choose the PTC, EIA assumes offshore wind projects will claim the ITC in lieu of the PTC because of the relatively higher capital costs for those projects.

34
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: September 29, 2020, 02:39:11 PM »
I don’t believe in sticking my head in the sand. I will post arguments against renewables for rebuttal.
Edit: whether renewables are economic is not cut and dried, unlike whether AGW exists.

There aren't really worthwhile arguments against renewables, though there are challenges worthy of discussion.

What I read of the American Thinker piece was odious.  Complaining about subsidies for renewables when fossil fuels are intensely subsidized.  And that's before bringing in the granddaddy of all subsidies...

Every gallon of gasoline carries a very large subsidy consisting of the ability to produce CO2 and other pollutants while paying none of the cost of damage to our world.  Put this cost rationally on those responsible, and fossil fuel use will plummet.

35
Science / Re: Where are we now in CO2e , which pathway are we on?
« on: September 28, 2020, 08:47:29 PM »
I found the data for the RCP scenario assumptions on the IPCC website.

https://www.ipcc-data.org/observ/index.html

At that webpage, click on the top link, "Climate System Scenario Tables (Annex II of IPCC 5th Assessment Report, WG1 -- as Excel workbook"

This will open a large Excel spreadsheet with many tabs.  The tabs showing greenhouse gas concentrations by year are 4-1 (CO2), 4-2 (CH4), etc...

Here is the table for CO2:
Quote
Table AII.4.1 | CO2 abundance (ppm)                                 
Year   Observed   RCP2.6   RCP4.5   RCP6.0   RCP8.5   A2   B1   IS92a   Min   RCP8.5&   Max
PI   278 ± 2   278   278   278   278   278   278   278         
2011 obs   390.5 ± 0.3                              
2000      368.9   368.9   368.9   368.9   368   368   368         
2005      378.8   378.8   378.8   378.8               378.8   
2010      389.3   389.1   389.1   389.3   388   387   388   366   394   413
2020      412.1   411.1   409.4   415.8   416   411   414   386   425   449
2030      430.8   435.0   428.9   448.8   448   434   442   412   461   496
2040      440.2   460.8   450.7   489.4   486   460   472   443   504   555
2050      442.7   486.5   477.7   540.5   527   485   504   482   559   627
2060      441.7   508.9   510.6   603.5   574   506   538   530   625   713
2070      437.5   524.3   549.8   677.1   628   522   575   588   703   810
2080      431.6   531.1   594.3   758.2   690   534   615   651   790   914
2090      426.0   533.7   635.6   844.8   762   542   662   722   885   1026
2100      420.9   538.4   669.7   935.9   846   544   713   794   985 ± 97   1142

Here is the table for CH4:

Quote
Table AII.4.2 | CH4 abundance (ppb)                                                         
Year   RCP2.6   RCP4.5   RCP6.0   RCP8.5   A2   B1   IS92a      RCP2.6&         RCP4.5&         RCP6.0&         RCP8.5&   
PI   720   720   720   720            722   ±   25   722   ±   25   722   ±   25   722   ±   25
2011 obs                        1803   ±   4   1803   ±   4   1803   ±   4   1803   ±   4
2000   1751   1751   1751   1751   1760   1760   1760                                    
2010   1773   1767   1769   1779   1861   1827   1855   1795   ±   18   1795   ±   18   1795   ±   18   1795   ±   18
2020   1731   1801   1786   1924   1997   1891   1979   1716   ±   23   1847   ±   21   1811   ±   22   1915   ±   25
2030   1600   1830   1796   2132   2163   1927   2129   1562   ±   38   1886   ±   28   1827   ±   28   2121   ±   44
2040   1527   1842   1841   2399   2357   1919   2306   1463   ±   50   1903   ±   37   1880   ±   36   2412   ±   74
2050   1452   1833   1895   2740   2562   1881   2497   1353   ±   60   1899   ±   47   1941   ±   48   2784   ±   116
2060   1365   1801   1939   3076   2779   1836   2663   1230   ±   71   1872   ±   59   1994   ±   61   3152   ±   163
2070   1311   1745   1962   3322   3011   1797   2791   1153   ±   78   1824   ±   72   2035   ±   77   3428   ±   208
2080   1285   1672   1940   3490   3252   1741   2905   1137   ±   88   1756   ±   87   2033   ±   94   3624   ±   250
2090   1268   1614   1819   3639   3493   1663   3019   1135   ±   98   1690   ±   100   1908   ±   111   3805   ±   293
2100   1254   1576   1649   3751   3731   1574   3136   1127   ±   106   1633   ±   110   1734   ±   124   3938   ±   334

36
Consequences / Re: Places becoming less livable
« on: September 28, 2020, 07:01:53 PM »
Quote
City of Fort Lauderdale taking action as high tides continue to cause flooding issues

Long-time readers of this thread will have noticed the shift in attitudes in Florida.  Early on it was, “What sea level rise?  We’re building these new condos!”

Then it was, “Nuisance flooding.  Meh, deal with it.”

Then, “Here’s the very expensive infrastructure changes we’re making to solve the problem.”

And now, “It’s only expected to get worse.”

37
Policy and solutions / Re: Robots and AI: Our Immortality or Extinction
« on: September 26, 2020, 10:52:29 PM »
As blumenkraft once said ...

... Remember, the S in IoT stands for security!
...

When Coffee Makers are Demanding a Ransom, You Know IoT Is Screwed
https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2020/09/how-a-hacker-turned-a-250-coffee-maker-into-ransom-machine/

With the name Smarter, you might expect a network-connected kitchen appliance maker to be, well, smarter than companies selling conventional appliances. But in the case of the Smarter’s Internet-of-things coffee maker, you’d be wrong.

As a thought experiment, Martin Hron, a researcher at security company Avast, reverse engineered one of the $250 devices to see what kinds of hacks he could do. After just a week of effort, the unqualified answer was: quite a lot. Specifically, he could trigger the coffee maker to turn on the burner, dispense water, spin the bean grinder, and display a ransom message, all while beeping repeatedly. Oh, and by the way, the only way to stop the chaos was to unplug the power cord. Like this:



When Hron first plugged in his Smarter coffee maker, he discovered that it immediately acted as a Wi-Fi access point that used an unsecured connection to communicate with a smartphone app. The app, in turn, is used to configure the device and, should the user choose, connect it to a home Wi-Fi network. With no encryption, the researcher had no problem learning how the phone controlled the coffee maker and, since there was no authentication either, how a rogue phone app might do the same thing.

He then examined the mechanism the coffee maker used to receive firmware updates. It turned out they were received from the phone with—you guessed it—no encryption, no authentication, and no code signing.

... With the ability to disassemble the firmware, the pieces started to come together. Hron was able to reverse the most important functions, including the ones that check if a carafe is on the burner, cause the device to beep, and—most importantly—install an update.

... In any event, Hron said the ransom attack is just the beginning of what an attacker could do. With more work, he believes, an attacker could program a coffee maker—and possibly other appliances made by Smarter—to attack the router, computers, or other devices connected to the same network. And the attacker could probably do it with no overt sign anything was amiss.

... as noted at the top of this post, the hack is a thought experiment designed to explore what’s possible in a world where coffee machines, refrigerators, and all other manner of home devices all connect to the Internet. One of the interesting things about the coffee machine hacked here is that it’s no longer eligible to receive firmware updates, so there’s nothing owners can do to fix the weaknesses Hron found.

Hron also raises this important point:

Additionally, this case also demonstrates one of the most concerning issues with modern IoT devices: “The lifespan of a typical fridge is 17 years, how long do you think vendors will support software for its smart functionality?” Sure, you can still use it even if it’s not getting updates anymore, but with the pace of IoT explosion and bad attitude to support, we are creating an army of abandoned vulnerable devices that can be misused for nefarious purposes such as network breaches, data leaks, ransomware attack and DDoS.

Hron’s write-up linked below provides more than 4,000 words of rich details, many of which are too technical to be captured here. It should be required reading for anyone building IoT devices.

https://decoded.avast.io/martinhron/the-fresh-smell-of-ransomed-coffee/

38
The politics / Re: Elections 2020 USA
« on: September 26, 2020, 09:18:42 PM »
The debates could decide. If Biden looks senile, then that could blow it.

It's probably going to be a contest of who looks least senile out of the pair of them.

39
Consequences / Re: The Holocene Extinction
« on: September 25, 2020, 08:21:55 PM »

40
Consequences / Re: Drought 2020
« on: September 24, 2020, 06:30:23 PM »
Newly Identified 'Landfalling Droughts' Originate Over Ocean
https://phys.org/news/2020-09-newly-landfalling-droughts-ocean.html

Researchers have identified a new kind of "landfalling drought" that can potentially be predicted before it impacts people and ecosystems on land. They found that these droughts, which form over the ocean and then migrate landward, can cause larger and drier conditions than droughts that occur solely over the land. Of all the droughts affecting land areas worldwide from 1981 to 2018, roughly one in six were landfalling droughts, according to the study published Sept. 21 in Water Resources Research.

... In order to pinpoint the large-scale landfalling droughts that originated over the ocean, the researchers used an object tracking algorithm to identify and follow clusters of moisture deficits all over the world, going back decades in time. They found that the landfalling droughts grew about three times as fast as land-only droughts, and usually took several months to reach a continent. ... "there is something about the droughts that start over the ocean that makes them more likely to turn into large, intense events."

The researchers analyzed the physical processes of landfalling droughts in western North America, where a high frequency of them occur. They found that droughts that make landfall in the region have been associated with certain atmospheric pressure patterns that reduce moisture, similar to the "Ridiculously Resilient Ridge" pattern that was one of the primary causes of the 2012-2017 California Drought.

The authors state that further analyses may reveal similar or new explanations for the landfalling droughts that they identified in other areas of the world, including Chile, Argentina, New Zealand and Eastern Australia.

... "Because they usually take a number of months to migrate onto land, there is a potential that tracking moisture deficits over the ocean could provide advance warning to help protect against at least some of the most severe droughts."



Julio E. Herrera‐Estrada et al, Landfalling Droughts: Global Tracking of Moisture Deficits From the Oceans Onto Land, Water Resources Research (2020).
https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2019WR026877


41
Consequences / Re: Drought 2020
« on: September 24, 2020, 06:16:51 PM »
Frequency of Combined Droughts and Heatwaves Has Substantially Increased In Western U.S. Over Past 50 Years
https://phys.org/news/2020-09-frequency-combined-droughts-heatwaves-substantially.html



Researchers from Canada, Iran and the U.S. have found that the frequency of combined droughts and heatwaves has increased substantially in the western U.S. over the past half-century. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the group describes their analysis of weather data going back to 1896 and what they learned from it.



Mohammad Reza Alizadeh et al. A century of observations reveals increasing likelihood of continental-scale compound dry-hot extremes, Science Advances (2020).
https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/39/eaaz4571


42
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: September 24, 2020, 02:39:30 PM »
Elimination by social measures doesn't work because not everyone is the same. There is a big variation in how many potentially infectious contacts people have.

Imagine a society in which the normal behaviour results in R=2. That is not a society in which every infected person infects two others. Its a society in which 10,000 infected people infect 20,000 others, but the distribution of infections is extremely skewed, a small fraction of those 10k are infecting a large fraction of those 20k. For the purpose of this illustration, assume 1k people infect 11k and 9k infect 9k.

Impose social restrictions that drop the number of contacts by 75%. If everyone was the same, R would now be 0.5, and the virus would eventually be driven extinct, but it would still take a long time. There's one halving to get from 20k infections to 10k infections, but another 13 to get from 10k down to 1.

However while there are now 10k people infecting 5k others, thats made up of 1k infecting 2.75k and 9k infecting  2.25k. The infection dies out fast among the less connected section of the population buts its still expanding in the more connected segment.

Lockdowns concentrate the infection into the superspreadee segment of the population, and when they are relaxed, those superspreadees become superspreaders. It takes really extreme measures to stop the infection in superspreadees, so extreme that a lot of societies that thought they had done it have found COVID epidemics breaking out again when they relaxed. Singapore, New Zealand, Australia, Israel, South Korea can all trace large outbreaks/epidemics back to what they thought were reasonable exemptions to those extreme requirements. European second waves are showing a general pattern of lockdown having concentrated infection into a cohort of well connected young adults and it then expanding out from them into the less connected cohorts of the population with relaxation.

It takes far, far more severe restrictions on typical 20 year olds to eliminate the virus from them than it does on typical 40 year olds and those restrictions have to be kept to long after there is obvious sign of the virus circulating. Exponentials build up a lot faster than people expect, but they also die down a lot slower than people expect.

43
Science / Re: 2020 Mauna Loa CO2 levels
« on: September 24, 2020, 12:25:35 PM »

44
Policy and solutions / Re: Robots and AI: Our Immortality or Extinction
« on: September 24, 2020, 12:09:43 AM »
... it's all clear now ...

Kaiju, colossal sea monsters have emerged from an interdimensional portal on the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. To combat the monsters, humanity has united to create the Gundam [Jaegers], gigantic humanoid mechas, each controlled by two co-pilots as part of a last-ditch effort to defeat the Kaiju.

... Oh, no, they say he's got to go
Go, go, Godzilla (yeah)
Oh, no, there goes Tokyo
Go, go, Godzilla (yeah)



https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Rim_(film)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gundam

45
Consequences / Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« on: September 23, 2020, 11:45:03 PM »
Amazonia Racing Toward Tipping Point, Fueled by Unregulated Fires
https://phys.org/news/2020-09-amazonia-fueled-unregulated.html

In a new paper published today in the Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Florida Tech biology professor Mark Bush describes how the vast Amazonian rainforest could be replaced by savanna, which is a grassland with few trees, within our lifetime.

One of the key points of the paper, "New and repeating tipping points: the interplay of fire, climate change and deforestation in Neotropical ecosystems," is that while no individual government can control climate change, fire can be regulated through policy. Almost all fires in Amazonia are set deliberately by people and have become much more frequent in the last two years, because of altered policy, than over the previous decade.

Bush's data show that the tipping point is likely to be reached if temperatures rise by another 2 to 3 degrees Fahrenheit (1-1.5°C). Anthropogenic warming would bring those temperatures by the end of this century, but increased burning creates hotter, drier, less shaded landscapes that could hasten that transition.

"Warming alone could induce the tipping point by mid-century, but if the present policies that turn a blind eye to forest destruction aren't stopped, we could reach the tipping point much sooner," Bush said.

He added, "Beyond the loss of wildlife, the cascading effects of losing Amazonian rainforest would alter rainfall across the hemisphere. This is not a remote problem, but one of global importance and critical significance to food security that should concern us all."

Mark B. Bush, New and Repeating Tipping Points: The Interplay of Fire, Climate Change, and Deforestation in Neotropical Ecosystems, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
https://annals.mobot.org/index.php/annals/article/view/565
https://annals.mobot.org/index.php/annals/article/view/565/537

... Past tipping points are identified to have occurred within ca. 1°C–1.5°C of modern conditions. The recent climatic instability in both Amazonia and the Andes is viewed in the context of ecological flickering, while the drought-induced and fire-induced tree mortality are aspects of critical slowing down; both possibly portending an imminent tipping point.

46
The politics / Re: The Trump Presidency
« on: September 23, 2020, 08:28:33 PM »
I agree that it is a hot topic button.  However, if anyone should bring it up, Tom should have every opportunity to express his views on it.  Too much censorship occurs here already.

47
Policy and solutions / Re: Robots and AI: Our Immortality or Extinction
« on: September 23, 2020, 05:37:41 PM »
BREAKING - Life-sized giant Gundam robot in Japan's Yokohama comes alive and is now in testing mode.
Video clip:  https://twitter.com/disclosetv/status/1308532427523067905
Image below.

Sure. Because in 2020, what could possibly go wrong?

48
Consequences / Re: The Climatic Effects of a Blue Ocean Event
« on: September 23, 2020, 01:43:16 PM »
The "growing season" does not equal summer or "not winter". Growing anything requiere many more variables than just temperatures or the variability of temperatures. All these variables are changing faster as the world warms ( entropy increases) AND as the arctic melts these variables change even faster in the NH.

That sounds like religion to me ("temperature and precipitation volatility does not matter, a longer growing season does not matter, because there MUST be some variables that portend tragedy for agriculture, although I don't know what"). 

Last time I checked the Eemian probably did have only seasonal ice (BOE!), yet Europe was heavily forested even in Northern Scandinavia where we currently have tundra, and the Sahara was green, so somehow this must have been beneficial for life there. If trees grew very well, it must not have been that terrible I guess.

And no, this is not denialism, this is science. Let's see what happened the last (few times) when we had BOE. Then we can have an idea about the climatic effects of BOE, the title of this thread.

A BOE by itself will not destroy mankind. A hothouse Earth might. That's why we must stop AGW as fast as we can, because we are not just going towards BOE, we are actually rushing towards hothouse Earth. There is a huge difference between the two!

49
This is why it's important to stand up to the muzzling of people like Alex Jones etc on Facebook and YouTube, instead of cheering it on. Because eventually it will lead to much harsher and more widespread crackdowns on leftist groups (who are a real threat to the system).

Same goes for Russiagate. Cheer that stuff on, and you end up with having to explain how Bernie Sanders isn't a Kremlin stooge. And a New Cold War.

50
Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2020 melting season
« on: September 22, 2020, 06:51:04 PM »
How is "melting" defined? When a storm destroys the ice, do we still call that melting? To me real melting means an input of energy into the system that raises the ocean temperature and makes the ice go away.

In 2012 the ice went away because of a storm. In 2020 the ice went away because of the input of solar energy.

There is a difference, no?

And 2020 was a year with a La Nina and a solar minimum. So now we wait for the next El Nino and solar maximum?

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