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Messages - kassy

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1
Policy and solutions / Re: Tesla glory/failure
« on: December 01, 2020, 08:27:42 PM »
You are missreading it.

Musk has a factory. That he wants it open instead of closed is a no brainer.

But that does not really matter to Tesla the company.

I approved the messages to balance some views on Musk but both versions of Musk (saint or satan) are not relevant to the company.

In fact if the addition to the S&P does not crash the world economy we should probably just call is a succes.

2
Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: December 01, 2020, 02:35:41 PM »
Doesn´t methane mix too well to be able to show it that way? The gas does not aggregate locally.


3
The forum / Re: How do I change the time?
« on: December 01, 2020, 02:10:00 PM »
Why would you even look at forum time when you have a clock in the bottom right of the screen?

4
Policy and solutions / Re: Tesla glory/failure
« on: December 01, 2020, 02:03:55 PM »
So first you project way too much on him and then you have to adjust that because a car maker also needs to fight Covid... This is very much your obsession.

I am pretty sure most investers only care about tweets that get him slapped by the SEC.

PS: NeilT declining permissions over tweets strikes me as very un German.

I think KiwiGriff sums it up pretty well.

5
Quote
De uitstoot van broeikasgassen in de Europese Unie is in 2019 met 3,7 procent gedaald. Dat meldt de Europese Commissie maandag. De emissies zijn inmiddels met 24 procent teruggedrongen ten opzichte van het niveau van 1990. Het doel is om de uitstoot voor 2030 met 55 procent terug te dringen.
https://www.nu.nl/economie/6093687/uitstoot-van-broeikasgassen-daalde-in-eu-vorig-jaar-met-37-procent.html

2019 GHG emissions in the EU down 3,7%

Of course that is created and not used emissions but whatever.

6
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: November 30, 2020, 02:22:35 PM »
Yes, like Spanish Flu kept mutating.... or, wait, did it?

Are you a hysterical secular fundamentalist? Your posts would argue, "YES". Secular fundamentalism is the general populace's newfound love for science in place of religion,

1 Yes it kept mutating a bit. It became the standard seasonal flu.

2 With virusses jumping into humans over time the more efficient mutations win out which means decreased virulence.

7
The rest / Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« on: November 30, 2020, 02:00:59 PM »
That looks great. Would be nice if they film it so you can look at them via the net.

8
Policy and solutions / Re: Tesla glory/failure
« on: November 30, 2020, 01:50:29 PM »
You can discuss Covid in the covid thread.

Investor confidence is important so don´t use it as a lame excuse to go off topic.

9
The forum / Re: Arctic Sea Ice Forum Humor
« on: November 29, 2020, 10:01:01 PM »
The medieval ass was not quite what i expected but i should have known (even Chaucer had some).

10
Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: November 29, 2020, 09:50:05 PM »
[The underwater sources are likely to increase in number and provide more emissions with further warming. However, the pycnocline, increased stratification, anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and more productive phytoplankton are likely to result in more of a steady feedback than a huge pulse

The pycnocline/stratification means nothing to methane bubbles.
In really deep waters the methane gets dissolved but in shallow arctic waters the bigger bubbles go straight up.

There is no steady feedback there but the important question is how much can come out and what is actually happening inside. It´s a huge pile of ice and frozen and not so frozen organic matter combining with whatever bacteria and viri can do down there.

We do not actually know how big the problem is and it will grow with however much we will grow our carbon pulse.

11
Antarctica / Re: Ice Apocalypse - MULTIPLE METERS SEA LEVEL RISE
« on: November 28, 2020, 12:00:03 AM »
Also invoking the heat capacity of the entire ocean is a fallacy. That did not matter for meltwater pulse 1A etc.

The meaningful exchange is at the surfaces.

12
Developers Corner / Re: Test space
« on: November 27, 2020, 11:20:59 PM »
For the sort of data that is about as clear as you can get it.

The records also follow an absolute trend so there should be a way to colour code that?

13
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: November 27, 2020, 09:08:42 PM »
I don’t know how bexit affects Covid but it seems rule of law provisos from Brussels are having some pushback by Hungary and Poland on Covid funding ?
 I’d like to hear more on European politics because I am hoping for some diversion from Trump 24 seven.

 https://www.dw.com/en/eu-agrees-to-link-rule-of-law-to-budget-fund-access/a-55512303

El CID ?

It´s basically off topic here since it is not really related to Covid. It´s just the regular EU fight over  money. Just make a thread for EU politics below since it is an interesting subject.


14
Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: November 27, 2020, 02:09:06 PM »
Cool so someone is keeping count of them.

I suggest dropping the bomb metaphor because it is not accurate.
It´s a gas leak. And yes sometimes they explode as with these pingos.

The ones underwater don´t but it will be interesting how much they grow over time.

This won´t stop until it freezes over so rate of change is interesting.

15
The rest / Re: When will post-pandemic normalcy return?
« on: November 27, 2020, 01:36:00 PM »
I suggest dropping the economy part because that takes more time then the important stuff.

There will be a vaccine somewhere early next year hopefully and then we have all summer to roll it out.

And then we will see if it takes us through next winter... so i hope halfway next year.

Aside: i wonder if we (the richer western countries) will also help the poor nations getting everyone vaccinated...

16
The politics / Re: The Trump Presidency
« on: November 27, 2020, 12:35:17 PM »
Ah crap forgot about that...

Of course that one has not legally been tested. With Nixon it was a way to get out of a situation.
I think he will just forget about it anyway.

The german bank that is the main lender for Trump want to get rid of him in the next few years so that could be interesting.

17
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: November 26, 2020, 06:03:04 PM »
You cannot merge polls so we will just skip the second one.

Since you can remake them in no time i suggest you make one in The Rest and link it here.

18
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: November 26, 2020, 05:37:26 PM »
Just another heads up...
when I award the 10k post prize I will lock this thread and start a new one, with a poll on when normalcy will return. Put on your thinking caps and estimate date of normalcy.

Another heads up.

There are no such things as 10k post prizes. As long as we have Covid we have a covid thread and it is this thread. Do not lock this thread for BS reasons, thank you.

I think the forum software allows adding polls.

19
The politics / Re: The Trump Presidency
« on: November 26, 2020, 01:31:48 PM »
I think there would be a slight technical hiccup since Trump has not actually been convicted of anything there is nothing to pardon.

20
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: November 25, 2020, 07:07:27 PM »
It obviously is. Closed spaces are bad but in summer you can be out and about (within limits).

21
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: November 24, 2020, 04:26:27 PM »
We do know that China and the WHO intentionally did not shut down international flights to and from China after the initial clusters in Wuhan, however.

A whole lot else kept flying.

Initially covid tests were not done for patients with no link to China which slowed the detection of the earlier cases. Then we did not cancel the winter holidays either and it moved all over the world.

Lots of the first measures were cosmetic. Only screening symptomatic people etc. It´s just one big mess.

22
The politics / Re: Elections 2020 USA
« on: November 22, 2020, 11:50:11 PM »
Perfection is not a goal. Fair could be but usually is not.

The Georgia run off still rewards the winner whereas when the top two are forced too negotiate you get some common policy.

And as a side note what is the actual worth of an election where everyone votes on some vague issues but no one votes one technical shit like should your government allow nice succesful business people to poison your water or air etc.

23
British billionaire to force ‘hundreds’ of companies into climate action

British billionaire Chris Hohn is aiming to force hundreds of U.S. and European companies to slash their greenhouse gas emissions by enlisting global investors to demand an annual vote on their climate plans at shareholder meetings.

Hohn, who has emerged as a major investor voice on climate change, set a precedent last month by using a shareholder resolution to force Spanish airports operator Aena AENA.MC to draft a new climate plan and submit it to an annual vote.

Hohn, founder of the TCI hedge fund, aims to replicate that model at many more companies in the next two years by mobilising investors to sponsor similar resolutions as part of his new Say on Climate www.sayonclimate.org campaign.

...

Under Hohn’s plan, shareholders submit a resolution requesting companies to disclose their greenhouse gas emissions, present a plan to reduce them, and give shareholders an annual nonbinding advisory vote on that plan.

Rather than push for specific action by groups of high-emitting companies, such as oil and gas majors, Hohn aims to drive a systemic shift so that it becomes standard practice for all major companies to submit climate plans for annual scrutiny.

“We think we need an annual general meeting shareholder vote to create an accountability mechanism for the execution of the plan – otherwise companies will do as little as they can get away with,” Hohn said.

https://cyprus-mail.com/2020/11/22/billionaire-companies-climate/


24
Consequences / Re: Weird Weather and anecdotal stories about climate change
« on: November 22, 2020, 04:21:52 PM »
That looks pretty nasty. Thanks for reporting and welcome.

25
It also relates to declining siberian land ice cover declining.

Wayne from EH2R (and frequent ASIB commenter) used to write a lot about cold poles and how they move about. They used to be on the arctic ice or move over it and that does not happen any more.

The american side is near the Greenland cold spot and where some remnant ice usually is so usually it is colder then siberia. This sets up a pattern. There is a cold spot there now but it is weaker then Greenland/NA.

In the summer season you now see lots of weather/clouds just shoot over the asian continent.
In the old days it would have ran into the cold, maybe come down as snow but that is happening later and later.

I think the teleconnection works because it is a good proxy for setting up the cold poles on the american side which pulls relatively more heat from the siberian side.





26
The politics / Re: Elections 2020 USA
« on: November 21, 2020, 08:29:57 PM »
Well if you want to simplify then you have to count peoples votes in a meaningful way.

This means that you get rid of the winner takes all systems so you can have multiple parties on a local level and build from there.

It would not be a solution for the positions like governor or president but over time it might and what if 2 and 3 can combine votes which would combine votes from center + left or right with some meaningful program?

27
Probably not a coincidence more like patterns establishing.

I would love to see the years for your dots on both graphs.

And since maybe you looked at it how does it correlates with the beasts from the east...there was one DEC 2016 and FEB 2018. First one should correlate better then the second?

29
Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: November 21, 2020, 05:16:58 PM »
It will be interesting to see the growth rate.

30
The politics / Re: Biden’s Presidency
« on: November 21, 2020, 05:05:51 PM »
It´s still the better turd...

31
Since you wrote ´since 2007´ is this a pattern that does not hold in the years before 2007 or have you only looked at from that date?

32
Permafrost / Re: Permafrost general science thread
« on: November 20, 2020, 05:05:16 PM »
The large lakes are an established ecosystem so it makes sense that the bacteria over time evolve to take advantage of the extra methane higher in the watercolumn (the research does not strike me as new but it could be for these specific lakes).

All new lakes are shallow thermokarst lakes so it does not mean that much.

33
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: November 19, 2020, 08:19:00 PM »
But he can veto that so it´s more for the political narrative (although it probably does not help things).

34
India only G20 nation to meet its climate change mitigation goal

New Delhi: India is the only country on track among the G20 nations to meet its climate change mitigation commitments, according to a the 2020 Climate Transparency report published on Wednesday.

Climate Transparency, an international partnership of 14 research and non-governmental organisations, examined efforts to combat climate change among the G20 nations — examining their climate goals and actions taken.

The report found that India's "fair share" climate targets that it set under the 2015 Paris Agreement as well as the actions it's taken in the years since make it "compatible" with the upper goal of curbing global warming by 2 degrees Celsius by the end of the century.

India has promised to reduce its emissions intensity by 33-35 per cent by 2030 and took actions in its energy, waste, industry, transport and forestry sectors, the report said.

However, the report noted that India continues to not be on track to reach the Paris Agreement's long-term 1.5 C target. It added that India could be a "global leader" if it didn't build new coal fired power and phased out the use of coal by 2040.

...

According to the report, other nations and the European Union's targets do not go far enough to curb global warming between 1.5 to 2 C, and their actions have fallen short of the targets set when the Paris agreement was ratified. Projected temperature increases under these commitments are now expected to be more than 2.7 C of warming by 2100.

No country, barring Japan, has submitted new targets until now — although the report noted that Japan has made no changes to its original target.

...

The use of natural gas in the EU was also flagged as a threat for a potential "carbon lock-in." The EU is currently co-funding 32 new gas infrastructure projects worth €29 billion ($34.3 billion)

https://timesofoman.com/article/india-only-g20-nation-to-meet-its-climate-change-mitigation-goal

So that´s all going much slower then pledged...

Report:
https://www.climate-transparency.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Climate-Transparency-Report-2020.pdf

35
Policy and solutions / Re: Oil and Gas Issues
« on: November 19, 2020, 08:00:39 PM »
Noorwegen geeft concessiegebieden voor oliewinning in Arctisch gebied vrij

Noorwegen zal 136 nieuwe concessiegebieden voor oliewinning aanbieden, zo hebben het ministerie van Petroleum en Energie en het Noorse Petroleum Directoraat donderdag bekendgemaakt. Het gros van de concessiegebieden, 125 in totaal, ligt in de Barentszzee.

https://www.nu.nl/economie/6091528/noorwegen-geeft-concessiegebieden-voor-oliewinning-in-arctisch-gebied-vrij.html

Norway will open 136 oil concessions of which 125 are in the Barentz.

There is also a pending court case relating to 2016 concessions due soon. Not sure if that is another test of a governments internal coherence in policy. If you profess to be green these things just should not be done.

See https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,1364.msg293755.html#new for a (maybe) similar case in France.


36
The rest / Re: Astronomical news
« on: November 19, 2020, 07:53:34 PM »
Where are the Thunderbirds when you need them?  :(

37
The rest / Re: Good music
« on: November 19, 2020, 07:52:28 PM »
Triples are easy?  :)

Motorhead playing the song Motorhead from the critically acclaimed album Motorhead.



Last triple wins...

38
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: November 19, 2020, 07:44:02 PM »
We can easily use what we have and do not want to use to plug gaps in such emergencies.
How much gas plants would be needed?

39
Policy and solutions / Re: Coal
« on: November 19, 2020, 02:08:33 PM »
Controversial Kenyan Coal Plant’s Future In Jeopardy As Major Chinese Bank Pulls Funding

The future of one of Africa’s biggest fossil energy projects looks bleak following reports that the main financial backer for the 1050 megawatt Lamu coal power plant in Kenya is pulling out of the project.

The US$2 billion plant, to be operated by Amu Power, was set to be built in Lamu, a UNESCO World Heritage Site along Kenya's coast. The move by the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) to withdraw its financing could potentially end the controversial project — welcome news for environmental campaigners who are cautiously optimistic about the development.

According to a statement by Save Lamu, one the groups at the forefront in opposing it, the ICBC had decided not to finance the plant due to the environmental and social risks associated with it. DeSmog was unable to reach ICBC for comment.


...

The ICBC is the latest major partner to pull out of the project, according to Ninteretse. The move comes after the African Development Bank pulled out in 2019, followed by General Electric withdrawing its support this past September.


https://www.desmog.co.uk/2020/11/19/controversial-kenyan-coal-plant-s-future-jeopardy-major-chinese-bank-pulls-funding

40
Court gives France three months to fulfil climate change commitments

In a ruling hailed by campaigners as "historic", France's top administrative court on Thursday gave the government a three-month deadline to show it is taking action to meet its commitments on climate change.

The government of France, which brokered the landmark 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change, was hauled before the Council of State by Grande-Synthe, a low-lying northern coastal town which is particularly exposed to the effects of climate change.

The Council, which rules on disputes over public policies, noted that "while France has committed itself to reducing its emissions by 40% in 2030 compared to 1990 levels, it has, in recent years, regularly exceeded the 'carbon budgets' it had set itself."

It also noted that President Emmanuel Macron's government had, in a decree in April, deferred much of the reduction efforts beyond 2020.

Despite Macron's headline 2017 promise to "make our planet great again" -- a swipe at climate denialist US President Donald Trump who vowed to "make America great again" -- France is far off track to meet its commitments under the 2015 treaty.

Before issuing a final ruling on the matter, the Council of State gave the government three months to justify "how its refusal to take additional measures is compatible with the respect of the reduction path chosen in order to achieve the targets set for 2030."

Corinne Lepage, lawyer for the town of Grande Synthe, hailed the decision as "historic".

The ruling means that "policies must be more than nice commitments on paper," she said.

and more on:
https://uk.news.yahoo.com/court-gives-france-three-months-112920700.html

Well that was something i did not expect.

41
NGOs call on the European Central Bank to stop funding fossil fuels

NGOs 350.org, SumOfUs, Reclaim Finance as well as Greenpeace have written to the European Central Bank (ECB) to demand that it stops supporting fossil fuel companies as part of its developing response to COVID-19. The letter comes three weeks ahead of the ECB governing council meeting of 10 December,  where governors are expected to ramp up the Bank’s economic stimulus measures.

350.org campaigner Nick Bryer said: “It’s ridiculous that the European Central Bank talks about tackling the climate crisis, while supporting some of the world’s worst polluters. With its existing €1.47 trillion COVID-related asset purchase programme, the Bank may have already pumped up to €220 billion into high-carbon emitters like Shell and Total. And on the 10th of December the bank might double-down and channel billions more euros towards fossil fuel companies - unless they take deliberate steps to exclude them”

ECB President Christine Lagarde (pictured) has promised to “explore every avenue” in the fight against climate change, including considering using the Bank’s €2.8tn asset purchase schemes to pursue green objectives. Yet, in December, the central bank is likely to opt for additional asset purchases with no green strings attached.

Reclaim Finance campaigner Paul Schreiber said: “Next month’s meeting will demonstrate whether or not the ECB is truly committed to integrating climate into its operation. The central bank cannot be credible if it continues to support fossil fuel companies, that have no intention to respect the Paris-Agreement and aggressively plan to develop new fossil fuel projects.”

The open letter - also signed by Positive Money Europe, New Economics Foundation, Oil Change International and others - calls for the ECB to take two immediate steps in line with its commitments and while waiting for the results of its strategy review:

1) Exclude fossil fuel companies from corporate asset purchases, and

2) Pilot a green targeted long-term refinancing operations (TLTRO) programme to incentivize private banks to lend more money for green investments.

SumOfUs campaigner Leyla Larbi said: “Funding a “green” recovery and also funding the most climate-destructive companies around makes no sense at all. The European Commission’s Green Deal action plan is clearly being undermined by its own Central Bank, and that’s why more than 166,000 people across Europe are petitioning the ECB to change. The ECB can end all support to fossil fuel companies and support green investments with a green TLTRO programme.”

The letter echoes the voice of more than 160,000 people that signed a petition calling on the ECB to stop supporting polluters through its monetary policy.

https://www.eureporter.co/health/2020/11/19/ngos-call-on-the-european-central-bank-to-stop-funding-fossil-fuels/

42
Science / Re: Satellite News
« on: November 19, 2020, 01:51:11 PM »
Sentinel-6 satellite: Watching the sea level rise

New offspring for the Copernicus family! The Earth observation satellite Sentinel-6 is scheduled to be launched on November 21. Its superpower: Sentinel-6 can monitor the ocean with millimeter precision.

...

The Earth observation satellite is intended to measure our oceans and chart the sea level. And this is likely to be a rather depressing sight from space. After all, it is no secret that the sea level is tending to rise  with growing rapidity. While it increased by only 2 centimeters (0.79 inches) in the entire 18th century, it already went up by 6 centimeters in the 19th century and a whole 19 centimeters in the 20th. Industrialization and human-made global warming certainly have had something to do with this.

...

Sentinel-6 is the first of two identical satellites that are to be launched into space. Sentinel-6B, the twin satellite, is scheduled for launch in 2025. The two satellites are meant to collect data for at least five years.

...

It will scan 95% of the global sea surface within 10 days — from an altitude of more than 1,300 kilometers (800 miles) and to an accuracy of less than 1 millimeter.

In addition, it is also to collect precise data on atmospheric temperature and humidity, which can help improve weather forecasts and climate models.

The satellite sends out radar impulses that are reflected from the sea surface and then received again by the spacecraft. "Nobody can do anything with this data at first. It has to be converted into a high-precision distance measurement," says Manfred Lugert, head of Copernicus Mission Development and Jason-CS/ Sentinel 6 program manager at EUMETSAT. He said wave heights and atmospheric influences would also have to be taken into account when measuring distances.

Two independent navigation systems are also on board for determining the location. The satellite's orbit is regularly measured with a laser.

By working together with other satellites, Sentinel-6 will also help to make inferences about the density and thickness of ice. This is important, says Josef Aschbacher, ESA's director for Earth observation programs. The Greenland ice sheet is currently melting  at three times the rate in the 1990s, he says. "We will now get a global measurement every 10 days — in other words, a picture of what the momentary situation is like," says Aschbacher. "The satellite will provide data that has not been available in this detail before."

What's so special about Sentinel-6?
Earth observation satellites as such have been around for decades — for example, TIROS-1, the first experimental weather satellite, was launched on April 1, 1960.

The Copernicus Earth Observation Program launched the Sentinel-1A satellite on April 3, 2014, followed by 1B on April 25, 2016. Since then, other types of Sentinel satellites have been added.

...

The Sentinel-1 satellites provide detailed radar images of the planet's surface in all types of weather, day and night. Sentinel-2's  specialty is to detect changes in vegetation and do things like provide crop forecasts, chart forests and monitor the growth of wild and agricultural plants. Sentinel-3 provides temperature measurements of land and ocean.

Sentinel-4, whose launch is planned for 2022, will collect data on the concentration of pollutants in the air. Sentinel-5 is a mission to measure atmospheric gases worldwide. Sentinel-5P  analyzes the composition of the atmosphere.

But Aschbacher says there is still a lot to be done and still parameters that need to be measured more accurately. For example, he says, the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is still not being measured precisely and comprehensively enough.

...

https://www.dw.com/en/sentinel-6-satellite-watching-the-sea-level-rise/a-55659812

43
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: November 18, 2020, 09:13:41 PM »
We have a project researching antibodies in blood donors.

Up to 5,1% in october
June 4,5%
April 2,8%

94% of people in the study retained antibodies over 6 months.

https://www.nu.nl/coronavirus/6091325/ruim-5-procent-van-nederlanders-beschikt-over-corona-antistoffen.html

44
Policy and solutions / Re: Nuclear Power
« on: November 18, 2020, 08:53:16 PM »
Quote
Each plant would produce 440 megawatts of electricity - roughly enough to power Sheffield - and the hope is that, once the first few have been made, they will cost around £2bn each.

The consortium says the first of these modular plants could be up and running in 10 years, after that it will be able to build and install two a year.

By comparison, the much larger nuclear plant being built at Hinkley Point in Somerset is expect to cost some £22bn but will produce more than 3 gigawatts of electricity - over six times as much.

They do not seem cheaper especially if you factor in the usual extra costs.

45
Consequences / Re: Pathogens and their impacts
« on: November 18, 2020, 08:27:19 PM »
Quote
The mystery virus was discovered to be a member of the arenavirus family, a group of viruses that commonly infect rodents and sometimes humans. Its relatives include the more well-known Lassa virus and other viruses first found in South America, such as Machupo virus in Bolivia and Junin virus in Argentina. Many of these viruses can cause hemorrhagic fever in people.

So ebola-like is a shorthand for hemorrhagic fever.

46
Science / Re: Ocean oxygen levels
« on: November 18, 2020, 12:48:48 PM »
Article
Open Access
Published: 16 November 2020
Potential virus-mediated nitrogen cycling in oxygen-depleted oceanic waters

Abstract
Viruses play an important role in the ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Beyond mortality and gene transfer, viruses can reprogram microbial metabolism during infection by expressing auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) involved in photosynthesis, central carbon metabolism, and nutrient cycling. While previous studies have focused on AMG diversity in the sunlit and dark ocean, less is known about the role of viruses in shaping metabolic networks along redox gradients associated with marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Here, we analyzed relatively quantitative viral metagenomic datasets that profiled the oxygen gradient across Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) OMZ waters, assessing whether OMZ viruses might impact nitrogen (N) cycling via AMGs. Identified viral genomes encoded six N-cycle AMGs associated with denitrification, nitrification, assimilatory nitrate reduction, and nitrite transport. The majority of these AMGs (80%) were identified in T4-like Myoviridae phages, predicted to infect Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria, or in unclassified archaeal viruses predicted to infect Thaumarchaeota. Four AMGs were exclusive to anoxic waters and had distributions that paralleled homologous microbial genes. Together, these findings suggest viruses modulate N-cycling processes within the ETSP OMZ and may contribute to nitrogen loss throughout the global oceans thus providing a baseline for their inclusion in the ecosystem and geochemical models.

...

Earth’s biogeochemical cycles are driven by microbial interaction networks, with significant contributions from the oceans [1, 2]. These networks and the distribution of metabolic pathways within them are modulated by environmental factors, grazing, and viral infections. Ocean viruses are abundant, kill ~20–40% of microbial cells per day,

...

Earth’s biogeochemical cycles are driven by microbial interaction networks, with significant contributions from the oceans [1, 2]. These networks and the distribution of metabolic pathways within them are modulated by environmental factors, grazing, and viral infections. Ocean viruses are abundant, kill ~20–40% of microbial cells per day,

...

In summary, understanding how viruses alter N-related biogeochemical cycling in OMZs is critical, considering the expansion of these suboxic and anoxic water masses and their effects in surface primary production, greenhouse gas emission, and fixed-nitrogen loss [32,33,34]. Our findings imply that OMZ viruses impact N cycling not only through lysis of key N-cycling microbes but also by modulating diverse N-metabolisms during infection. Such infected “virocells” [10] would be drastically altered in their metabolic capacity and biogeochemical outputs as has been shown now in several environmental model virus–host systems [10, 12, 129]. With these N-related virus AMGs now uncovered, future OMZ virus work can evaluate virocell-impacted nitrogen cycling, as well as develop primer sets for “viral” vs “cellular” versions to differentially quantify the biogeochemical impacts of viruses in OMZ N-cycling genes and transcripts. As standardized practices emerge for viral ecogenomics [130,131,132], they are enabling the development of global maps of ocean viruses [30, 49, 133] that can be integrated into multi-organism ecological studies [134]. Together these efforts to understand virus-mediated nutrient cycling in climate-critical environments, along with parallel efforts on land (e.g., thawing permafrosts [135, 136]), are now providing quantitative information needed to incorporate viruses into predictive models [137].

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41396-020-00825-6

47
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: November 18, 2020, 12:26:08 PM »
Thing is, the Western world screwed up big time. Just look at the Netherlands: they imposed a lockdown some time ago, but now, that the numbers start to get a little better they immediately start "reopening". Unbelievable.

A lot of the covid measures are symbolic and not really consistent.
I don´t really have the impression we are reopening. Basically they are trying to figure out how not to ruin christmas. Also we have an election next year so that figures into that. They wanted to go to a regional approach where the mayors would be the bogeyman and not the central government but that idea tripped over the recent rise in cases.

48
The politics / Re: Elections 2020 USA
« on: November 18, 2020, 12:13:33 PM »
Nice pro bono rate...  ::)


49
Policy and solutions / Re: Aviation
« on: November 18, 2020, 12:05:03 PM »
Since it is about aviation emissions i have merged this thread into the aviation thread.

50
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: November 18, 2020, 11:11:35 AM »
OK, so some posters don't believe the Chinese numbers. The Party lies. OK. What about South Korea, What about Taiwan?  Or even Japan?

They must all be lying I guess. COVID is a sort of natural disaster and nothing can be dome about it, right?!

Thing is, the Western world screwed up big time. Just look at the Netherlands: they imposed a lockdown some time ago, but now, that the numbers start to get a little better they immediately start "reopening". Unbelievable.
Europe lost this battle during the summer when we were unable to bulid on the success of the first, very serious lockdown and during summer everybody was partying like there was no tomorrow.

What a shame. Developed world my ass!
They have no fat people. So maybe obesity is worse than age re: death. EU and US are pretty much equal.

I had another sexy time tonight! Oh boy. I wonder if all the sexy time in Japan and SK is how they stay fit and why they don't have COVID.

The no fat people claim is not correct. It is quite a problem in urban China, Taiwan is the nation with most obesity in the region.

As for your ´sexy time for science´ the Melbourne cluster started off that way.

PS: For people wondering about the last line. There was more which i deleted.

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