Support the Arctic Sea Ice Forum and Blog

Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.


Messages - ArcticMelt2

Pages: [1] 2 3 ... 12
1
Consequences / Re: World of 2030
« on: Today at 12:06:53 AM »
Or additional numbers. In 2018, the average capacity of installed offshore turbines in Europe almost reached 7 megawatts.

https://windeurope.org/wp-content/uploads/files/about-wind/statistics/WindEurope-Annual-Offshore-Statistics-2018.pdf

Quote
In 2018 the average rated capacity of newly installed turbines was 6.8 MW, 15% larger than in 2017. Since 2014 the average rated capacity of newly installed wind turbines has grown at an annual rate of 16%. The largest turbine in the world was installed in the United Kingdom in 2018. Two V164-8.8 MW from MHI Vestas Offshore Wind, with a rotor diameter of 164 m, were connected at the European Offshore Wind Development Centre (EOWDC) wind farm.

Europe connected 2,649 MW of net offshore wind power capacity (409 turbines) in 2018. This is 15.8 % lower than in 2017, which was a record year. It added 2,660 MW of new (gross) capacity. 7 turbines were fully decommissioned at the Utgrunden I wind farm in Sweden, which was commissioned back in 2000. This accounts for the decommission of 10.5 MW in 2018.


The world of 2030 is a world of giant windmills.

2
Consequences / Re: World of 2030
« on: January 18, 2020, 10:57:24 PM »
Orders for a 12-megawatt model are already thousands of turbine.

https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/ge-wins-lands-first-big-deals-for-12mw-offshore-wind-turbine

Quote
The first orders for GE’s groundbreaking 12-megawatt Haliade-X offshore wind turbine have come from the industrial giant's home country, with developer Ørsted planning to deploy more than 1,200 megawatts of the machines in U.S. waters between 2022 and 2024.

GE on Thursday announced it has secured “preferred turbine supplier” status for Ørsted’s 120-megawatt Skipjack and 1,100-megawatt Ocean Wind projects, scheduled for completion off Maryland and New Jersey in 2022 and 2024. Both projects have offtake contracts in place.

The turbines and blades will be manufactured at GE's facilities in France and transported to the project sites.

https://energyindustryreview.com/renewables/dogger-bank-to-use-12mw-haliade-x-offshore-wind-turbines-from-ge/

Quote
Dogger Bank to Use 12MW Haliade-X Offshore Wind Turbines from GE

Dogger Bank Wind Farms is a 50:50 joint venture (JV) between Equinor and SSE Renewables. The overall wind farm comprises three 1.2 GW projects located in the North Sea, approximately 130km from the UK’s Yorkshire Coast. The projects were recently successful in the latest Contracts for Difference (CfDs) Allocation Round, the UK Government’s auction for renewable power.



In these latest news, they directly write that by 2030 at least 20 megawatt turbines will appear:

https://energyindustryreview.com/renewables/dogger-bank-to-use-12mw-haliade-x-offshore-wind-turbines-from-ge/

Quote
While Haliade-X is the largest turbine for which orders are being placed today, WoodMac expects 16-megawatt machines to be installed in U.S. waters by the end of the 2020s and product lines to include turbines of up to 20 megawatts.

3
Consequences / Re: World of 2030
« on: January 18, 2020, 10:31:50 PM »
I saw this design a couple years ago. I bounced it off a couple aerospace profs i know, they were skeptical. Should follow up, i suppose.

sidd

But over the past two years, technology has not stood. In the United States, General Electric has recently mastered the production of a 12 megawatt turbine with 107 meter blades. The loading factor of this turbine is about 63%. It is likely that by 2030 50 megawatt turbines with 200-meter blades and almost 100% load factor will appear.

This means a complete solution to the problem of energy storage.

4
Consequences / Re: World of 2030
« on: January 18, 2020, 09:46:27 PM »
The first 50 megawatted wind turbines are expected to begin operations in 2030. They will be the height of the Empire State Building and their loading factor close to 100%. This will remove the problem of storing green electricity. In this regard, the threat of climate catastrophe will be removed.

https://www.betterworldsolutions.eu/lockheed-martin-designed-giant-wind-turbine-of-50-mw/

https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/design-for-50mw-offshore-wind-turbine-inspired-by-palm-trees







A small prototype of such a turbine is already being built in the USA:

Quote
Prototype testing planned for late summer in Colorado
The research team will soon put their design concepts to the test in the real world. By late summer, testing will begin on prototype blades built at one-fifth scale to the 105-meter-long blades designed for a 13.2-megawatt SUMR turbine.

The two-bladed rotor, with 21-meter blades, will be installed on a 12-story turbine tower at NREL’s National Wind Technology Center located south of Boulder, Colorado.

An engineering and manufacturing firm based in northern Washington state that specializes in advanced composite materials and exotic metals, Janicki Industries, is building the blades, with delivery expected in early summer.

“We’re doing some things that haven’t been done before in terms of mimicking the loads and dynamics of the full-scale turbine,” said Todd Griffith. “We’re able to bring those characteristics down to the one-fifth scale where we can do the test very cost-effectively.”

Performance data from the prototype testing will be fed back into the team’s design models. The project team is scheduled to complete the design for a 50-megawatt SUMR turbine by next spring.

5
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 18, 2020, 08:23:07 PM »
Recently, a second similar floating wind farm has begun work. With more powerful turbines.

https://www.4coffshore.com/news/third-windfloat-atlantic-turbine-prepped-for-deployment-nid16664.html

Quote
10/01/2020

Global Wind Service and MHI Vestas have installed the last of the three turbines on the WindFloat Atlantic project. Two units have been towed out to their final position, approximately 20 km off the coast of Portugal at Viana do Castelo.

The three V164-8.4 MW turbine project uses Principles Power’s WindFloat, a semi-submersible foundation technology. The platform measures 30 metres in height, with a 50 metre distance between each column. Operations to assemble the turbines were conducted from quayside in Ferrol, in the northern part of Spain.

The floating technology was implemented in a first of its kind prototype, WindFloat 1, near Póvoa do Varzim, which was installed back in 2011. The project was a full life cycle demonstration featuring a Vestas V-80 2 MW turbine, and was decommissioned last year.

A commercial phase of approximately 30 turbines producing 150 MW is planned to follow the 25 MW project. The WindFloat foundation is also due to be deployed on the Golfe du Lion project in the Mediterranean. Project developers anticipate reaching consent this summer, with commercial operations starting in 2021.

6
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 18, 2020, 07:56:50 PM »

It seems that the recent wind crisis in Europe is only temporary. With new giant offshore turbines and a 63% load factor, wind power expects new growth.

Up to this point, a record for the load factor is held by a floating wind farm in Scotland. An average of 56% over two years on 6 MW turbines.

https://www.equinor.com/en/news/2019-11-28-hywind-scotland-data.html

Quote
FACTS ABOUT THE HYWIND SCOTLAND PILOT PARK
The world’s first floating offshore wind farm
Located 25 km east of Peterhead, Scotland, in the UK North Sea
Water depth ranges between 95 m and 120 m
Five floating wind turbines, total installed capacity of 30 MW
Average capacity factor of 56% over the first two years of operation


7
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 18, 2020, 07:50:53 AM »
In other countries, this process is much slower. So Germany returned only in 1954.


8
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 18, 2020, 07:37:43 AM »
I'm actually optimistic about the speed and the ability to transition to renewable sources, but we need to add a sense of scale to the challenge.

This transition in the historical perspective is really very fast.



https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/mar/06/uk-carbon-emissions-drop-to-lowest-level-since-19th-century-study-finds

Quote
The assessment suggests carbon emissions in 2016 were about 381m tonnes, putting the UK’s carbon pollution at its lowest level – apart from during coal mining disputes in the 1920s – since 1894.

https://www.carbonbrief.org/analysis-uk-carbon-emissions-in-2017-fell-to-levels-last-seen-in-1890

Quote
Carbon Brief analysis shows the UK’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuels fell by 2.6% in 2017, driven by a 19% decline in coal use.

This follows on the heels of a larger 5.8% drop in CO2 in 2016, which saw a record 52% drop in coal use. The UK’s total CO2 emissions are currently 38% below 1990 levels and are now as low as emissions were back in 1890 – the year the Forth Bridge opened in Scotland and Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray was published.


https://www.cnbc.com/2019/03/04/uk-co2-emissions-hit-lowest-level-in-almost-a-century-research-says.html

Quote
A report published by research group Carbon Brief on Monday said CO2 emissions in the U.K. fell for the sixth consecutive year in 2018.
Emissions were at their lowest since 1888, with the exception of three years on record: 1893, 1921 and 1926.



It means:

2016 = 1894
2017 = 1890
2018 = 1888

The current decline is about 2 times faster than the industrial growth of the late 19th century. 3 years of decline equals 6 years of growth.

9
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 17, 2020, 11:10:24 PM »
https://www.cnbc.com/2020/01/17/work-starts-on-huge-wind-farm-that-could-power-4point5-million-homes.html

Quote
Work starts on world’s ‘largest offshore wind farm’ that could power 4.5 million homes

Dogger Bank Wind Farms will be made up of three 1.2 gigawatt offshore sites.
The construction work is being carried out by a firm headquartered in North Wales.


By the way, they write that Dogger Bank can ultimately provide energy to 80 million people. To better serve this key wind farm of the future, it is planned to build an artificial island.

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5235101/Crazy-North-Sea-wind-farm-island-set-2027.html






Quote
The world's biggest wind farm? 'Crazy' artificial power island in the North Sea that could supply renewable energy to 80 million people in Europe is set to open in 2027

The 2.3 square mile (6 square km) landmass will be surrounded by fields of offshore wind turbines

It will come come with its own airstrip and harbour as well as a road network and an artificial lake

Island may be built in the North Sea to power six European countries including Britain and Germany

Operations on the landmass could begin from 2027 with offshore wind turbines built later on



Dogger Bank, 78 miles (125 km) off the East Yorkshire coast, has been identified as a potential shallow and windy building site for the £1.3 billion ($1.75 billion) project.

The site would include buildings for staff housing, an airport, a small network of roads, green spaces and even an artificial lake.

Dutch power grid operator TenneT, the project's backer, recently released a report claiming the island will be billions of euros cheaper than conventional windfarms and international power cables.

The project's backers claim it is an innovative way to make offshore wind power cheaper as available space around the coast fills up and turbines are pushed to more expensive spots further out to sea.

Rob van der Hage, who manages TenneT's offshore wind grid development programme, told the Guardian: 'It's crucial for industry to continue with the cost reduction path.

'The big challenge we are facing towards 2030 and 2050 is onshore wind is hampered by local opposition and nearshore is nearly full. It's logical we are looking at areas further offshore.'

Dogger Bank is relatively shallow with depths of between 15 and 36 metres, which is expected to reduce the cost of the ambitious project, which will rely on a vast and expensive network of underwater cables.

The island would take up around 2-2.3 square miles (5-6 square km) to accommodate its equipment.

Addressing the engineering challenge ahead, Mr Van der Hage said: 'Is it difficult? In the Netherlands, when we see a piece of water we want to build islands or land. We've been doing that for centuries. That is not the biggest challenge.'

10
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 17, 2020, 10:41:32 PM »
UK had made a great start to 2020 with wind generating more than 30% of electricity.

Sadly the last few days have seen a hiccup.
On Friday the Western HVDC link between Scotland and North Wales tripped.  With no way of transferring excess wind generation south it's meant idling wind turbines at the very time wind is good.
At the same time North Wales has fallen back to using coal.

Just shows how reliant a renewable future is on having reliable connections
A renewable future does require renewable energy. The UK Government 's record on blah-blahing hot air about the environment is second to none, in contrast with recent (lack of) developments in doing something.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jan/13/just-one-new-onshore-windfarm-started-up-in-uk-in-2019
Just one new onshore windfarm started under current UK policies in 2019
Rollout of new turbines is in decline amid Tory subsidy cuts, jeopardising climate targets

Quote
The sole addition to the UK’s fleet of onshore wind farms under the government’s current energy policy last year – the Withernwick II project, in the East Riding of Yorkshire – has a capacity of 8MW, with just four turbines.

The government’s official climate adviser, the Committee on Climate Change, has suggested that the UK’s onshore wind capacity should increase by almost threefold in the next 15 years to meet climate goals at low cost.

This would require the UK to grow its onshore wind capacity from 13,000 MW now to 35,000 MW by 2035, or an average of more than 1,400MW a year.


Comparing the number of wind farms is incorrect. Marine wind farms are becoming more gigantic - more than a gigawatt each.

11
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 17, 2020, 10:37:08 PM »
Ken,

In the UK, offshore wind is down to 3.965 to 4.1611 p/kWh on a "contract for difference" - developers bid for a floor price, though they can sell for more if they can strike a commercial deal.

It's largely because the turbines are getting bigger, so less capital required for the capacity.

Nuclear, by comparison is 9.25p / kWh on a similar cfd and cannot increase output in winter as wind can, so massive inter-seasonal storage would be required.

Offshore wind is just starting to take off.  The new, larger turbines are making it competitive with onshore wind and solar. 

However, the equipment available to install the turbines is in short supply currently.  Hopefully manufacturers will respond to the demand so the new wind farms can come online quickly.

https://www.spglobal.com/marketintelligence/en/news-insights/latest-news-headlines/56000511

Quote
     S&P Global Market Intelligence 16 Dec, 2019

Global shortage of installation vessels could trouble waters for offshore wind

Towering 260 meters into the ocean skies and boasting generating capacity of a record 12 MW each, General Electric Co.'s Haliade-X wind turbines are set to enter commercial use in 2021. But the deployment of the world's largest machines — and those that will follow — could be hampered by a global shortage of shipping vessels capable of installing the next era of megaturbines out at sea.

Quote
And according to Frederik Colban-Andersen, divisional director for offshore renewables at ship broker Clarksons Platou AS, only a handful will be able to install the new supersize turbines once they become commercially available. "The way we see it is that there are currently three existing vessels and two under construction at shipyards" capable of installing the Haliade-X worldwide, the director told S&P Global Market Intelligence in an interview.

Quote
The vessels required for installing turbines will usually be booked out for several months. Thanks to improvements in efficiency, vessels can install one turbine in under two days, Colban-Andersen said. Hiring costs can be around €150,000 per day, with some reaching €200,000 per day, and the rates are expected to increase in the future.

Quote
Until recently, the vessel fleet used to install smaller turbines in the 6.5 MW to 8 MW range was sufficient for the wind industry. But as the need for larger vessels intensifies, the smaller vessels will likely be displaced into emerging markets, such as Asia, and will be used for servicing jobs.

Industry body WindEurope anticipates at least 10 new vessels will be needed to deal with the fleet of larger turbines, with each able to install up to 100 turbines or foundations each year. "This may include some new heavy-lift floating vessels for deep water sites," it said.



It seems that the recent wind crisis in Europe is only temporary. With new giant offshore turbines and a 63% load factor, wind power expects new growth.

13
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 17, 2020, 10:22:47 PM »
https://www.ge.com/reports/power-up-the-worlds-most-powerful-wind-turbine-generates-first-electrons/
Quote
Power Up: The World’s Most Powerful Wind Turbine Generates First Electrons
Nov 7, 2019 by Scott Woolley

Optimism over the potential for offshore wind power is easy to find: The International Energy Agency expects global offshore wind power —spurred by a new generation of mind-bendingly powerful turbines designed to produce more electricity at a lower cost — to grow 15-fold by 2040, becoming a $1 trillion industry over the next two decades.

This week, the most powerful of those turbines began to generate electricity for the first time. A towering sight visible over the port of Rotterdam, Netherlands, GE’s Haliade-X 12 MW is capable of generating 12 megawatts, which is enough to supply 16,000 European homes. The rotor diameter of the Haliade-X 12 MW spans 220 meters; at 107 meters, the blade of the turbine is so long that it might be one of the largest single machine components ever built.

After the prototype finishes spinning through its tests on land, the Haliade-X 12 MW will be used to build several massive new offshore farms of the sort the IEA expects to see spreading around the globe. Ocean Wind, off the coast of New Jersey, will be capable of generating 1.1 gigawatts, the equivalent of an average nuclear reactor in the U.S. And last month GE landed the contract for Dogger Bank, a 3.6-GW installation located in the North Sea that will be the world’s largest offshore wind project.

While forecasting changes in technology over two decades is always a tricky business, the engine at the heart of the offshore wind trend has proven a predictable source of progress: Larger windmills create cheaper power. The steady growth in the physical size of turbines — GE also makes the Cypress, the largest onshore wind turbine that’s currently installed — has been tracked by increases in their energy output. According to WindEurope, for the last five years, the average rated capacity of new turbines rose 16% per year.

The Haliade-X 12 MW will accelerate that already impressive growth rate, and bring with it a wide range of benefits that come from larger rotors. It’s simple math: Because the laws of geometry dictate that the area of a circle increases with the square of its radius, lengthening turbine blades significantly increases the amount of wind energy captured.

In addition to the prototype now up and running in Rotterdam, a second Haliade-X 12 MW nacelle is currently being assembled in Saint-Nazaire, France, and will soon be shipped to the U.K. for indoor testing. The stresses put on the blades grow in proportion to their size, increasing the importance of thorough testing of the nacelle and the blades. Other test blades will undergo static and fatigue testing to demonstrate their ability to handle peak winds and years at sea in the U.K. and the U.S. In fact, one Haliade-X blade just arrived in Boston for testing.

The rapid deployment of the Haliade-X 12 MW will be critical to meeting the IEA’s optimistic forecasts. Not only does it see global offshore wind capacity rising 15-fold by 2040, the analysis also found offshore wind will become “a $1 trillion industry over the next two decades — matching capital spending on gas- and coal-fired capacity over the same period.”

Full-scale production of the Haliade-X 12 MW is set to begin during the second half of 2021.

14
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 17, 2020, 10:17:59 PM »
https://www.cnbc.com/2020/01/17/work-starts-on-huge-wind-farm-that-could-power-4point5-million-homes.html

Quote
Work starts on world’s ‘largest offshore wind farm’ that could power 4.5 million homes

Dogger Bank Wind Farms will be made up of three 1.2 gigawatt offshore sites.
The construction work is being carried out by a firm headquartered in North Wales.

Construction work for a huge offshore wind farm in the North Sea is underway.

In an announcement Friday, energy firm SSE said that onshore work for the 3.6 gigawatt (GW) Dogger Bank Wind Farms project had begun near Ulrome, a coastal village in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.

Dogger Bank Wind Farms – which SSE described as “the world’s largest offshore wind farm” – will be made up of three 1.2 GW offshore sites: Creyke Beck A, Creyke Beck B and Teesside A. The project is a joint venture between SSE Renewables and Norwegian energy major Equinor.

The construction work is being carried out by Jones Bros Civil Engineering U.K., a firm headquartered in North Wales.

The scheme is set to use GE’s Haliade-X wind turbine, which has a 12 megawatt generator and stands 260 meters tall. According to SSE, the project will have the capability to produce enough renewable energy for more than 4.5 million homes per year.

“Getting the first spade in the ground is a significant milestone on any project, but for what will be the world’s largest offshore wind farm, this is a major moment for a project that has already been over a decade in the making,” Steve Wilson, who is managing director of Dogger Bank Wind Farms, said in a statement.

The U.K. is a major player in the offshore wind sector. It is home to projects such as the 659 megawatt Walney Extension facility, in the Irish Sea, which was officially opened in 2018.

The scale of that project is considerable: it is capable of powering more than 590,000 homes, has 87 turbines and covers an area of around 20,000 soccer pitches, according to Danish energy company Orsted.

Europe as a whole is home to a significant offshore wind sector. According to industry body WindEurope, 409 wind turbines were connected to the grid in 2018. The average size of offshore turbines in 2018 was 6.8 MW, which represents a 15% rise compared to 2017.


https://www.ge.com/renewableenergy/wind-energy/offshore-wind/haliade-x-offshore-turbine

Quote
Haliade-X 12 MW offshore wind turbine platform



Introducing Haliade-X 12 MW, the most powerful offshore wind turbine in the world.  GE is investing to develop the Haliade-X, the industry’s first 12 MW offshore wind turbine. In addition to being the most powerful wind turbine in the world, the Haliade-X is also the most efficient ocean-based wind platform, with a leading capacity factor of 63%. GE’s investment in the Haliade-X will help make offshore wind a more cost-effective and competitive source of clean energy.

ENGINEERED FOR PERFORMANCE
Key features from the Haliade-X 12 MW offshore wind turbine
The Haliade-X offshore turbine features a 12 MW capacity, 220-meter rotor, a 107-meter blade, and digital capabilities.

The Haliade-X 12 MW is not only the most powerful wind turbine in the world but also features a 63% capacity factor—five to seven points above industry standard. Capacity factor compares how much energy was generated against the maximum that could have been produced at continuous full power operation during a specific period of time. Each incremental point in capacity factor represents around $7 million in revenue for our customers over the life of a windfarm.

Power meets efficiency
Bottom line impact
Digital tools   
Power meets efficiency
The combination of a bigger rotor, longer blades and higher capacity factor makes Haliade-X less sensitive to wind speed variations, increasing predictability and the ability to generate more power at low wind speeds. The Haliade-X can capture more Annual Energy Production (AEP) than any other offshore wind turbine even at low wind conditions.

One Haliade-X 12 MW turbine can generate up to 67 GWh* of gross annual energy production, providing enough clean energy to power 16,000* European households and save up to 42,000 metric tons of CO2, which is the equivalent of the emissions generated by 9,000 vehicles* in one year.

*According to wind conditions on a typical German North Sea site.




15
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 17, 2020, 09:29:10 PM »
Here's another graphic showing additions of renewable power capacity from 2012 to 2018.



Good comparison. From this it follows that solar energy is becoming cheaper, while wind energy is becoming more expensive. Most likely due to the construction of a large number of marine windmills.

16
Policy and solutions / Re: Nuclear Power
« on: January 17, 2020, 08:25:57 PM »
https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/current-and-future-generation/plans-for-new-reactors-worldwide.aspx#ECSArticleLink0

Plans For New Reactors Worldwide(Updated January 2020)

Quote
Nuclear power capacity worldwide is increasing steadily, with about 50 reactors under construction.
Most reactors on order or planned are in the Asian region, though there are major plans for new units in Russia.
Significant further capacity is being created by plant upgrading.
Plant lifetime extension programmes are maintaining capacity, particularly in the USA.

Quote
Today there are about 450 nuclear power reactors operating in 30 countries plus Taiwan, with a combined capacity of about 400 GWe. In 2018 these provided 2563 TWh, over 10% of the world's electricity.About 50 power reactors are currently being constructed in 15 countries (see Table below), notably China, India, Russia and the United Arab Emirates.Each year, the OECD's International Energy Agency (IEA) sets out the present situation as well as reference and other – particularly carbon reduction – scenarios in its World Energy Outlook (WEO) report. In the 2019 edition (WEO 2019), the IEA's 'Stated Policies Scenario' sees installed nuclear capacity growth of over 15% from 2018 to 2040 (reaching about 482 GWe). The scenario envisages a total generating capacity of 13,109 GWe by 2040, with the increase concentrated heavily in Asia, and in particular China (34% of the total). In this scenario, nuclear's contribution to global power generation is about 8.5% in 2040.The IEA's Stated Policies Scenario (formerly named 'New Policies Scenario') is based on a review of policy announcements and plans, reflecting the way governments see their energy sectors evolving over the coming decades. The IEA estimates in WEO 2019 that the cumulative impact of the stated policies would result in growth in global carbon dioxide emissions from the power sector through to 2040.The IEA has produced energy transition scenarios since 2009, beginning with the '450 Scenario', which was consistent with the narrow aim of keeping CO2 concentrations below 450 ppm (parts per million) – the level associated with a 50% likelihood of keeping the average global temperature rise below 2 °C. In 2017, the IEA introduced the 'Sustainable Development Scenario' (SDS), which "portrays an energy future which emphasises co-benefits of the measures needed to simultaneously deliver energy access, clean air and climate goals." In WEO 2019, the SDS projects nuclear capacity to increase to 601 GWe by 2040 .Nuclear plant constructionOver 100 power reactors with a total gross capacity of about 120,000 MWe are on order or planned, and over 300 more are proposed. Most reactors currently planned are in the Asian region, with fast-growing economies and rapidly-rising electricity demand.Many countries with existing nuclear power programmes either have plans to, or are building, new power reactors. Every country worldwide that has operating nuclear power plants, or plants under construction, has a dedicated country profile in the Information Library. About 30 countries are considering, planning or starting nuclear power programmes (see information paper on Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries).

Quote
Power reactors under construction
Start †       Reactor   Model   Gross MWe
2020   Belarus, BNPP   Ostrovets 1   VVER-1200   1194
2020   Belarus, BNPP   Ostrovets 2   VVER-1200   1194
2020   China, CGN   Fangchenggang 3   Hualong One   1180
2020   China, CGN   Fangchenggang 4   Hualong One   1180
2020   China, China Huaneng   Shidaowan   HTR-PM   210
2020   China, CNNC   Fuqing 5   Hualong One   1150
2020   China, CNNC   Fuqing 6   Hualong One   1150
2020   China, CNNC   Tianwan 5   ACPR-1000   1118
2020   India, Bhavini   Kalpakkam PFBR   FBR   500
2020   Japan, Chugoku   Shimane 3   ABWR   1373
2020   Korea, KHNP   Shin Hanul 1   APR1400   1400
2020   Russia, Rosenergoatom   Leningrad II-2   VVER-1200   1170
2020   Slovakia, SE   Mochovce 3   VVER-440   471
2020   UAE, ENEC   Barakah 1   APR1400   1400

2021   Argentina, CNEA   Carem25   Carem   29
2021   China, CGN   Hongyanhe 5   ACPR-1000   1080
2021   China, CNNC   Tianwan 6   ACPR-1000   1118
2021   Finland, TVO   Olkiluoto 3   EPR   1720
2021   Korea, KHNP   Shin Hanul 2   APR1400   1400
2021   Pakistan   Karachi/KANUPP 2   ACP1000   1100
2021   Slovakia, SE   Mochovce 4   VVER-440   471
2021   UAE, ENEC   Barakah 2   APR1400   1400
2021   USA, Southern   Vogtle 3   AP1000   1250

2022   China, CGN   Hongyanhe 6   ACPR-1000   1080
2022   India, NPCIL   Kakrapar 3   PHWR-700   700
2022   India, NPCIL   Kakrapar 4   PHWR-700   700
2022   India, NPCIL   Rajasthan 7   PHWR-700   700
2022   India, NPCIL   Rajasthan 8   PHWR-700   700
2022   Pakistan   Karachi/KANUPP 3   ACP1000   1100
2022   Russia, Rosenergoatom   Kursk II-1   VVER-TOI   1255
2022   UAE, ENEC   Barakah 3   APR1400   1400
2022   USA, Southern   Vogtle 4   AP1000   1250
                
2023   Bangladesh   Rooppur 1   VVER-1200   1200
2023   China, CNNC   Xiapu 1   CFR600   600
2023   France, EDF   Flamanville 3   EPR   1750
2023   Korea, KHNP   Shin Kori 5   APR1400   1400
2023   Russia, Rosenergoatom   Kursk II-2   VVER-TOI   1255
2023   Turkey   Akkuyu 1   VVER-1200   1200
2023   UAE, ENEC   Barakah 4   APR1400   1400
                
2024   Bangladesh   Rooppur 2   VVER-1200   1200
2024   China, Guodian & CNNC   Zhangzhou 1   Hualong One   1150
2024   Iran   Bushehr 2   VVER-1000   1057
2024   Korea, KHNP   Shin Kori 6   APR1400   1400
                
2025   India, NPCIL   Kudankulam 3   VVER-1000   1050
2025   UK, EDF   Hinkley Point C1   EPR   1720
                
2026   India, NPCIL   Kudankulam 4   VVER-1000   1050
2026   Japan, EPDC   Ohma 1   ABWR   1383
† Latest announced/estimated year of commercial operation
Note: units where construction is currently suspended are omitted from the above Table.

Quote
Increased capacity


Increased nuclear capacity in some countries is resulting from the uprating of existing plants. This is a highly cost-effective way of bringing on new capacity. Numerous power reactors in the USA, Switzerland, Spain, Finland, and Sweden, for example, have had their generating capacity increased.In the USA, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has approved more than 140 uprates totalling over 6500 MWe since 1977, a few of them 'extended uprates' of up to 20%.In Switzerland, all operating reactors have had uprates, increasing capacity by 13.4%.Spain has had a programme to add 810 MWe (11%) to its nuclear capacity through upgrading its nine reactors by up to 13%. Most of the increase is already in place. For instance, the Almarez nuclear plant was boosted by 7.4% at a cost of $50 million.Finland boosted the capacity of the original Olkiluoto plant by 29% to 1700 MWe. This plant started with two 660 MWe Swedish BWRs commissioned in 1978 and 1980. The Loviisa plant, with two VVER-440 reactors, has been uprated by 90 MWe (18%).Sweden's utilities have uprated three plants. The Ringhals plant was uprated by about 305 MWe over 2006-14. Oskarshamn 3 was uprated by 21% to 1450 MWe at a cost of €313 million. Forsmark 2 had a 120 MWe uprate (12%) to 2013.

Plant lifetime extensions and retirements

Most nuclear power plants originally had a nominal design operating lifetime of 25 to 40 years, but engineering assessments have established that many can operate longer. By the end of 2016, the NRC had granted licence renewals to over 85 reactors, extending their operating lifetimes from 40 to 60 years. Such licence extensions at about the 30-year mark justify significant capital expenditure needed for the replacement of worn equipment and outdated control systems.In France, there are rolling ten-year reviews of reactors. In 2009 the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) approved EDF's safety case for 40-year operation of its 900 MWe units, based on generic assessment of the 34 reactors. There are plans to take reactor lifetimes out to 60 years, involving substantial expenditure.The Russian government is extending the operating lifetimes of most of the country's reactors from their original 30 years, for 15 years, or for 30 years in the case of the newer VVER-1000 units, with significant upgrades.The technical and economic feasibility of replacing major reactor components, such as steam generators in PWRs, and pressure tubes in CANDU heavy water reactors, has been demonstrated. The possibility of component replacement and licence renewals extending the lifetimes of existing plants is very attractive to utilities, especially in view of the public acceptance difficulties involved in constructing replacement nuclear capacity.On the other hand, economic, regulatory and political considerations have led to the premature closure of some power reactors, particularly in the USA, where reactor numbers have fallen from a high of 110 to 97, as well as in parts of Europe and likely in Japan.It should not be assumed that a reactor will close when its existing licence is due to expire, since operating licence extension is now common. However, new units coming online have more or less been balanced by the retirement of old units in recent years. Over 1998-2018, 89 reactors were retired as 98 started operation. There are no firm projections for retirements over the next two decades, but the World Nuclear Association's 2019 edition of The Nuclear Fuel Report has 154 reactors closing by 2040 in its reference scenario, using conservative assumptions about licence renewal, and 289 coming online.Notes & referencesGeneral sourcesInternational Energy Agency World Energy Outlook 2019
World Nuclear Association, World Nuclear Performance Report 2019e

17
Policy and solutions / Re: Nuclear Power
« on: January 17, 2020, 08:16:16 PM »
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/preliminary-nuclear-power-facts-and-figures-for-2019

Quote
Based on data reported to the IAEA by 31 December 2019, 450 nuclear power reactors were in operation worldwide, totalling 398.9 GW(e) in net installed capacity, an increase of 2.5 GW(e) since the end of 2018. Nuclear power generated around 10% of the world’s electricity in 2019, or almost one third of all low carbon electricity, and was set to remain the second largest source of low carbon electricity after hydro power.



Quote
In 2019, 30 countries generated nuclear power and 28 were considering, planning, or actively working to include it in their energy mix. Four of these countries, Bangladesh, Belarus, Turkey and United Arab Emirates, were building their first nuclear plants, with the plants in Belarus and the UAE nearing completion.

The IAEA’s projections for global nuclear power capacity in the decades to come, depend in part on whether significant new capacity can offset potential reactor retirements.

In the low projections to 2030, net installed nuclear capacity gradually decreases and then rebounds to 371 GW(e) by 2050, a 6% decline from today’s level. In the high projections, capacity increases by 25% over current levels to 496 GW(e) by 2030, and by 80% to 715 GW(e) by 2050. The share of nuclear electricity generating capacity in the world total electrical capacity will be about 3% in the low case and about 5% in the high case by the middle of the century, compared with 5.5% today.



Quote
New nuclear power reactor connections to the electricity grid in 2019

22 April            SHIN-KORI-4                   (1340 MW(e), PWR, South Korea)
1 May               NOVOVORONEZH 2-2   (1114 MW(e), PWR, Russia)
23 June             TAISHAN-2                      (1660 MW(e), PWR, China)
29 June             YANGJIANG-6                 (1000 MW(e), PWR, China)
19 December  AK. LOMONOSOV-2      (32 MW(e), PWR, Russia)



Quote
Construction starts in 2019

15 April                  KURSK 2-2           (1115 MW(e), PWR, Russia)
27 September      BUSHEHR-2         (915 MW(e), PWR, Iran)
16 October           ZHANGZHOU-1   (1126 MW(e), PWR, China)



Quote
Permanent shutdowns of nuclear power reactors in 2019

14 January          BILIBINO-1            (11 MW(e), LWGR, Russia)
9 April                 GENKAI-2               (529 MW(e), PWR, Japan)
31 May                PILGRIM-1             (677 MW(e), BWR, United States)
16 July                 CHINSHAN-2         (604 MW(e), BWR, Taiwan, China)
20 September    3 MILE ISLAND-1  (819 MW(e), PWR, United States)

18
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 17, 2020, 07:33:16 PM »



Good news. This means that investments in wind energy are growing steadily, and solar energy is experiencing a slight decline.

It is bad that in general 2017 remains the year with the most investments in green energy.

19
Policy and solutions / Re: Oil and Gas Issues
« on: January 17, 2020, 04:50:31 PM »
Ken Feldman, and for natural gas in the USA when is peak production expected?

There is even faster growth.

https://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9050us2M.htm

20
Policy and solutions / Re: Oil and Gas Issues
« on: January 16, 2020, 12:56:13 PM »
A new record for US oil production - exactly 13 million barrels per day.

https://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=PET&s=WCRFPUS2&f=W

21
Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2019/2020 freezing season
« on: January 14, 2020, 09:10:44 AM »
https://twitter.com/CinderBDT907/status/1216839830400913410

Quote
Ponds nearshore today. And this is before the increase in insolation that will come at the end of the month when the sun comes up.
https://seaice.alaska.edu/gi/observatories/barrow_webcam/



https://twitter.com/AlaskaWx

Quote
Shorefast #seaice broke off at Utqiaġvik a couple days ago. In mid-January. Tough to work on this ice. #akwx

22
Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2019/2020 freezing season
« on: January 12, 2020, 11:10:34 PM »
https://twitter.com/AlaskaWx

Quote
Bering Sea ice extent growth in @NSIDC data has slowed in recent days as winds have turned more southerly. Extent is just above 2019 and just below the 1981-2020 median. Weather upcoming week will not be favorable for much #seaice extent change. #akwx #Arctic @Climatologist49


23
Consequences / Re: Wildfires
« on: January 05, 2020, 11:55:03 PM »
I'm confused.
Did you mean the southeastern part?

Yes, sorry.

24
Consequences / Re: Wildfires
« on: January 05, 2020, 09:28:58 PM »
Was Australia's record-breaking warmest year only in the southwestern part?



https://twitter.com/zlabe

Quote
Just to reiterate, 2019 was the hottest (and driest) year on record for Australia... 📈


25
Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2019/2020 freezing season
« on: January 05, 2020, 09:24:53 PM »
https://twitter.com/AlaskaWx

Quote
Bering Sea ice extent has expanded significantly with sustained north winds. Currently at 83% of 1981-2010 average extent from @NSIDC data, but a bit behind 2019. Change in the weather pattern is likely later this week that will slow #seaice growth. #akwx #Arctic @Climatologist49


26
Science / Re: Water availability
« on: January 05, 2020, 12:24:35 PM »
The graph above shows that in some years, due to the construction of hydroelectric power plants and filling reservoirs, mankind has reduced the ocean level by 1 mm per year. Now the ocean level is growing at a speed of 4-5 mm per year. So we have to build many times more hydropower plants.

While we are losing. This is also evidenced by the comparison of the area of new land and new lakes over the past 30 years.

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2016/09/water-land-sea-levels-shift-map/

Quote
Using satellite images from Landsat’s four decades of continuous global coverage and Google Earth Engine, scientists mapped which parts of Earth’s surface have been covered in water, and which are now dry land. The results, shown in the map above, revealed that between 1985 and 2015 around 173,000 square kilometers (67,000 square miles) of water were transformed into land and 115,000 square kilometers (44,000 square miles) of water shifted to dry land. That’s a net gain of land area the size of Lake Michigan.

The changes are spread across the globe and are both natural and man-made. Many of them are well known, like the shrinking of the Aral Sea. But some changes had never been mapped before, such as the damming of the Rimjin River in North Korea just north of the border with South Korea. The areas with the most land converted to water were the Amazon River Basin and the Tibetan Plateau, which you can see in blue in the image above. Surprisingly, coastal areas across the globe had a net gain of more than 13,000 square kilometers (5,000 square miles) of land, largely due to human construction that has outpaced natural erosion.

Unfortunately, continents lose water too quickly.

27
Science / Re: Water availability
« on: January 05, 2020, 12:19:25 PM »
And of course all that water taken from inland lakes ultimately ends up increasing sea level slightly.

You can try to fill the deep basins with the ocean to stop the growth of the ocean. There is a project to fill the Dead Sea.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Sea%E2%80%93Dead_Sea_Water_Conveyance

Quote
The decline of the Dead Sea level is creating major environmental problems, including sink holes and receding sea shores. Other routes for a conduit for the same objectives as the Red - Dead Conduit, the Mediterranean–Dead Sea Canal, were proposed in Israel in the 1980s, but were discarded. The project costs $10 billion in all of its phases, with the first phase, which is slated to begin construction in 2021, will cost $1.1 billion. The Jordanian government is currently in the process of shortlisting consortiums and waiting for the final feasibility study, for which international funding would follow.

Another solution could be the construction of a large number of hydropower plants. This will stop rising ocean levels and increase the share of renewable energy. But such a path will lead to flooding of large territories. Although it is not as dangerous as the flooding of coastal areas with ports and millionaire cities.

It is believed that by 2007, through the construction of artificial dams, we were able to restrain the rise in ocean level by 3 centimeters.


ftp://ftp.soest.hawaii.edu/coastal/Climate%20Articles/Chao_2008%20Water%20impoundment.pdf


28
Consequences / Re: Global Surface Air Temperatures
« on: January 04, 2020, 09:48:05 PM »
https://twitter.com/Climatologist49/status/1213187889409986561

Quote
The first look at global temps for all 2019 shows the Earth had it's 2nd warmest year since record keeping began. Only 2016 was warmer. @AlaskaWx @IARC_Alaska


29
Science / Re: Water availability
« on: January 04, 2020, 09:30:36 PM »
More details.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South%E2%80%93North_Water_Transfer_Project

Quote
The South–North Water Transfer Project, also translated as the South-to-North Water Diversion Project[1] (Chinese: 南水北调工程; pinyin: Nánshuǐ Běidiào Gōngchéng; literal meaning: Project of diverting the south water to the north) is a multi-decade infrastructure mega-project in the People's Republic of China. Ultimately it aims to channel 44.8 billion cubic meters of fresh water annually[2] from the Yangtze River in southern China to the more arid and industrialized north through three canal systems:[3]
- The Eastern Route through the course of the Grand Canal;
- The Central Route flowing from the upper reaches of the Han River (a tributary of Yangtze River) to Beijing and Tianjin;
- The Western Route which goes from three tributaries of Yangtze River near the Bayankala Mountain to provinces like Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia.[4]

Mao Zedong discussed the idea for a mass engineering project as an answer to China's water problems as early as 1952. He reportedly said, "there's plenty of water in the south, not much water in the north. If at all possible; borrowing some water would be good."[5][6] The complete project was expected to cost $62 billion – more than twice as much as the Three Gorges Dam.[7] By 2014, more than $79 billion had been spent, making it one of the most expensive engineering projects in history.[8]

Quote
Project controversy
The project required resettling at least 330,000 people in central China.[19] Critics have warned the water diversion will cause environmental damage and some villagers said officials had forced them to sign agreements to relocate.[19]

In the summer of 2013, complaints arrived from the fish farmers on the Dongping Lake, on the project's Eastern Route, in Shandong, reporting that the polluted Yangtze River water entering the lake was killing their fish.[20]

Government officials and defenders of the project claim the Yangtze River has a plentiful supply of water, with 96% of the water currently flowing into the Pacific Ocean. They argue that transferring one portion to the poorly irrigated areas of the north could solve the north's water scarcity issue.[16]

30
Science / Re: Water availability
« on: January 04, 2020, 09:19:04 PM »
To solve the problem of water hunger, huge costs will be required for desalination and river turning. Similar programs exist on the Arabian Peninsula and in China. Actually change the river.






31
Science / Re: Water availability
« on: January 04, 2020, 09:05:38 PM »
Over the past 15 years alone, the continents have lost about a trillion tons of liquid water! And then the situation will only get worse.

32
Science / Re: Water availability
« on: January 04, 2020, 09:03:11 PM »
Human civilization now take so much water for their needs that as a result, on average, all continents outside the glaciers lose liquid water.

https://phys.org/news/2018-11-scientists-reveal-substantial-loss-global.html



Quote
This illustration shows terrestrial water storage changes in global endorheic basins from GRACE satellite observations, April 2002 to March 2016. In the top image, terrestrial water storage trends -- in millimeters of equivalent water thickness per year -- for each endorheic unit are highlighted, followed by animated monthly terrestrial water storage anomalies, also in millimeters. The bottom image shows monthly net terrestrial water storage anomalies in gigatonnes, in global endorheic and exorheic systems -- excluding Greenland, Antarctica and the oceans -- and linkage to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, right axis. Terrestrial water storage anomalies are relative to the time-mean baseline in each unit or system, with removal of seasonality. For comparison, 360 gigatonnes of terrestrial water storage equals 1 millimeter of sea level equivalent. Courtesy of Jida Wang. Credit: Kansas State University

33
Science / Re: Water availability
« on: January 04, 2020, 08:52:18 PM »
Now let's move from satellite altimetry to satellite gravitymetry.

https://www.ft.com/content/c2f6ab6a-5915-11e8-b8b2-d6ceb45fa9d0



This suggests that artificial irrigation leads to a huge increase in evaporation and that the interior of the continents extremely quickly lose water. Groundwater has been accumulating for thousands of years, and it is a non-renewable resource. Their quick loss exacerbates the situation.

These processes are especially evident in the Middle East, in the Caspian region, in the southern part of the USA, in the northern part of India and China.

34
Science / Re: Water availability
« on: January 04, 2020, 08:36:37 PM »
Lake Salton Sea in Southern California. A drop of 4 meters over the past 30 years.

35
Science / Re: Water availability
« on: January 04, 2020, 08:32:11 PM »
The level of the largest lake in Iran - Urmia lake. A drop of 8 meters in 30 years. The population of Iran has grown over this period from 60 to 80 million.

36
Science / Re: Water availability
« on: January 04, 2020, 08:25:24 PM »
Wow! People living in a desert have little water after they used it for irrigation. How amazing

This suggests that people are becoming the main consumer of water on the planet. The level of the largest lakes objectively shows that human civilization is approaching the limit of available fresh water. The population of the planet is growing, more and more food products are needed, as well as biofuels. The situation is getting worse. Water wars may soon begin.

Another striking example is the water level in the largest lake on the planet - the Caspian Sea.



The level of the Caspian Sea fell throughout the 20th century, until the 1980s. In order to slow down the fall, the hottest gulf with high evaporation was blocked in the USSR. The consequences were unpredictable: sea level began to rise rapidly. In this regard, the dam was blown up in 1991. After that, the sea level began to fall again with even greater speed. Recent satellite measurements show that sea level has reached a 1980 low. Further it will be even worse.



37
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 04, 2020, 07:41:14 PM »
I've questions about biomass as an environmental solution, but that's another discussion.[/size]

Biofuel production rests on the need for large areas of arable land and large volumes of fresh water. In the next topic, I have already cited the facts that there are a lot of problems. In many regions of the world, water consumption is already so great that huge sea-lakes dry up. It is likely that wars for water will begin soon.

And at the same time, biofuel now replaces only a few percent of the world's energy.

Therefore, biofuels are a weak alternative to wind and sun.

38
Science / Re: Water availability
« on: January 04, 2020, 06:58:36 PM »
Another graph:

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/11/2/113/htm



Quote
Figure 3. Fluctuations of the Aral Sea level (after [30]–before 1993 and after [33,34,35]–in 1993–2018). 1–Aral Sea (1960–1986); 2–North Aral Sea (1986–2018); 3–South Aral Sea (1986–2006); 4–East Aral Sea (2007–2018); 5–West Aral Sea (2007–2018).

39
Science / Re: Water availability
« on: January 04, 2020, 06:55:36 PM »
Why is title 'water hunger' rather than thirst/drinking water availability?

Renamed the topic.

After the Dead Sea, the situation with the Aral Sea became a major water accident.

Now the water level in 2 out of 3 of its residues continues to decline steadily.





https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/11/2/113/htm

40
Science / Water availability
« on: January 04, 2020, 03:10:30 PM »
The world's population is growing rapidly, and by 2100 will exceed 10 billion.

As a result, the shortage of drinking water is increasing.

The clearest example of this was the situation in the Dead Sea region.

https://isramar.ocean.org.il/isramar2009/DeadSea/DS_Level_Stability_1991-2019.gif

http://icl-group-sustainability.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/graph-new.png

41
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 03, 2020, 08:34:43 PM »

AM2

Is lowering the price of wind or solar advisable when in two of the three examples you've given the providers either can't find backers, or are facing bankruptcy?


Terry



It is necessary to look at the final world numbers for 2019 according to the sun and wind. Maybe the situation was reversed.

In Germany, the final figures for 2019 are published.


https://www.reuters.com/article/us-germany-power-outputmix/renewable-energys-share-of-german-power-mix-rose-to-46-last-year-research-group-idUSKBN1Z21K1

Quote
Renewable energy's share of German power mix rose to 46% last year: research group

FRANKFURT (Reuters) - Renewable energy’s share of Germany’s overall power supply mix rose by 5.4 percentage points last year to 46%, data from Europe’s biggest state-funded research and development service showed.

Europe’s biggest economy is aiming for renewables to provide 65% of its power mix by 2030. It says it will abandon nuclear energy by 2022 and is devising plans for an orderly long-term exit from coal.

Out of last year’s total power production of 515.6 terawatt hours (TWh), solar, wind, biomass and hydroelectric generation together produced 237.4 TWh, according to data from the Fraunhofer organization of applied science.

Green power output was up 7% year-on-year, and increased its share of total production from 40.6% in 2018 and 38.2% in 2017, helped by ongoing capacity expansion.

Coal burning accounted for 150.9 TWh last year, a 29% share of the overall market, down from 38% in 2018.

Electricity generation from fossil fuels has dropped as green power is given priority entrance to Germany’s grid system, and as power demand has declined due to mild weather and ongoing efficiency drives.

The cost of mandatory carbon emissions allowances covering coal-to-power output has also risen by 57% to 24.8 euros a ton.

Last year wind power, both onshare and offshore, produced 127.2 TWh, taking a 24.6% share of the total mix.

That was up 15.7% year-on-year, overtaking domestically mined brown coal - which yielded 102.2 TWh, or 19.7% of the total - as the biggest single power source.

Solar panels produced 46.5 TWh, 1.7% more than a year earlier, to give solar a 9% market share. Biomass producers generated 44.4 TWh or 8.5% of the market, while hydropower plants produced 19.2 TWh, or 3.8%.

Green power skeptics say higher output reflects favorable weather patterns and does not fully prove the sector’s contribution to secure energy supplies.

In the conventional energy mix, plants run on imported hard coal generated 48.7 TWh or 9.4% of the total, gas-to-power generation amounted to 54.1 TWh or 10.5% of the market, and nuclear energy 71.1 TWh, or 13.8% of the mix.

A small remainder came from oil and waste burning.

Germany was a net exporter of 30 TWh of power in 2019, sharply down from a surplus of 48 TWh a year earlier as neighbors used low gas prices to boost generation, the institute said.

42
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 02, 2020, 11:03:55 PM »
In addition, there was information that many windmills in Spain exceeded the warranty period of 15 years. This means that the price of green electricity may decline in the future.

https://www.evwind.es/2019/10/27/spain-will-reach-34-generation-thanks-to-wind-energy-by-2030/71529

Quote
For wind power to supply 34% of the demand for electricity, as provided for in the Spanish Government’s plans, it is necessary to “double the generation park, move from the current 24,000 megawatts installed to 50,000 megawatts in 2030 ”, Says José María González Moya, general director of the Association of Renewable Energies (Appa). In this sense, González Moya warns that “in the last year 550 megawatts of the 4,600 megawatts of the energy auctions of the years 2016 and 2017 have been launched, so that for now we are far from complying with the state plans”.
Wind turbine towers are getting taller and more powerful. But not only because of this it is a renewable energy of high flights. Its role in the supply of electricity could be nine times greater in the year 2040, to supply around 34% of the world’s electricity demand (compared to the current 4%), according to a recent study on this energy source by KPMG on request from manufacturer Siemens Gamesa.
As for the existing park, more than 8,000 megawatts have exceeded 15 years of useful life and about 2,000 megawatts are close to exceeding them, which could be said that the sector has reached maturity 20 years after the start of the first wind farms in the country. 20 years is precisely the warranty time offered by the manufacturers, although its real useful life may be another decade, says the CEO of PREPA.
At this point, there are two options, according to the experts consulted: extend their useful life by investing in maintenance or opt for repowering, which consists in replacing the old wind turbines with new ones and of greater power. The person in charge of Appa affirms that, “in general, the Spanish parks are well conserved and there are less cases in which the repowering is chosen due to their greater complexity and the few existing incentives”.

Achieving generation objectives would also be a boost for the economy as a whole. González Moya estimates that jobs related to the sector would double up to 50,000, while the KPMG study forecasts an additional GDP growth of 0.3%.

43
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 02, 2020, 10:49:48 PM »
However, I found good latest news about Spain.

https://www.evwind.es/2019/12/19/wind-energy-totals-1600-mw-in-2019-in-spain-and-reaches-25200-mw/72625
Quote
Wind energy totals 1,600 MW in 2019 in Spain, and reaches 25,200 MW

December 19, 2019 reve

The Spanish power generation park is increasingly renewable. During 2019, the non-polluting installed capacity has experienced a growth of 10% with the entry into operation of almost 5,000 new “green” MWs. In this way, renewable energies already represent 49.3% of the generation capacity in Spain, which has more than 108,000 MW, according to the information estimated by Red Eléctrica de España in its forecast for the end of 2019.

Photovoltaic solar energy, which closes 2019 with more than 7,800 MW of installed power, has been this year the technology that has increased its presence in the Spanish generation park, with an increase of 66% compared to 2018.

For its part, wind power, which has added more than 1,600 new wind farm MW to its generator park, will end the year above the 25,200 MW wind energy installed in our country. This 2019 has also meant the Spanish premiere in offshore wind power, with the entry into service of the first offshore wind turbine in Spain, on the island of Gran Canaria, with a generation capacity of 5 MW that is accounted for within the wind.

The decarbonization in our country has also advanced not only by the installation of new renewable power but also by the closure of the Anllares coal power plant in León, which subtracts 347 MW of installed power from polluting generation.

On the other hand, the demand for electricity in Spain during this year was 264,843 GWh, 1.5% lower than in 2018. If the effects of labor and temperatures are taken into account, its decrease is 2 , 5% over the previous year.

For electrical systems, the peninsular demand was 249,398 GWh, 1.6% less than in 2018. Once the effects of the calendar and the weather have been applied, this demand decreases 2.7%. On the other hand, the electrical demand of the Balearic and Canary Islands experienced increases of 1.8% and 0.2% compared to the previous year.
 

Technologies that do not emit CO2 generate 58.6% of electricity in Spain

In 2019, 261,020 GWh of electricity were produced in Spain, of which 36.8% were generated from renewable technologies. In addition, 58.6% of the electricity produced during the year in Spain has come from technologies that do not emit CO2 into the atmosphere.

The combined cycle, with 21.9% of the total, has been the technology that has contributed most this year to the generation mix, followed by nuclear (21.2%), wind (20.6%), cogeneration (11.4%) and hydraulics (9%). Behind is the coal that, with 5% of the total national generation that scores the lowest participation of this technology since Red Eléctrica has registered.

In addition, December 14 was the first day in which coal was not used for electricity generation in the peninsula. With respect to 2018, coal production in the peninsula has fallen by 68.2%. In the national group, the decrease in 2019 was 64.8%.

As for international exchanges, the peninsular electricity system closes 2019 with an import balance for the fourth consecutive year. On this occasion, the figure amounts to 6,538 GWh, 41.1% lower than that registered in 2018. 18,758 GWh of electricity were imported and 12,219 GWh were exported.

In this context, Red Eléctrica continues to put all its efforts to develop a robust and meshed transport network. In this sense, 202 km of new line circuits have been put into service this year, reaching 44,457 km in total. In addition, the company’s transport network has 33,700 km of optical fiber for data transport.

44
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 02, 2020, 09:44:37 PM »
Quote
Germany wind power industry in crisis
December 17, 2019 reve
One of the biggest hopefuls of the energy revolution has been the wind energy industry. But now in Germany, it’s facing a major setback. First Senvion, and then Enercon have both folded. It’s a huge crisis for the German wind industry.

Hermann Albers, the president of the German Wind Energy Association (BWE), is quite conviced that the government has made a “fatal mistake” with the introduction of a minimum distance for wind turbines of 1,000 meters (1,093 yards) from residential areas. And German consultancy group Prognos believes that the German onshore wind power’s  “success story is currently in danger” amid growing pressure on the sector.

As the warning signs for the German wind power industry are flashing red, the recent meeting between industry and government officials at least created a “better understanding” of the problems BWE said, but key issues remain unresolved.

The share of renewable energy in Germany’s energy consumption reached a record of 43% in the first nine months of 2019, figures from utilities association BDEW and research foundation ZSW show.

But the headline figure conceals the fact that nationwide only 35 new windmills with a combined output of 290 megawatts (MW) were installed in the first half of 2019, down 80% from the same period of 2018 and the lowest in two decades. The last six onshore wind power auctions have also been undersubscribed. In September, bids were submitted for only 35% of the 500 megawatts (MW) on the block. 


I found the exact link how many German wind turbines were installed for the whole of 2019.

https://www.windpowermonthly.com/article/1668716/confidence-hits-new-low-germany

Quote
Confidence hits new low in Germany
13 December 2019 by David Weston

A survey of industry professionals in Germany has seen the mood in the market fall to its lowest point yet.

According to onshore wind agency FA Wind, just 689MW of new capacity has been added in Germany, compared to nearly 2.5GW in 2018 and almost 5.5GW in 2017.

The impact of this decline on the manufacturing sector has been well-documented.

WindEnergy Hamburg’s biannual survey, now in its fourth edition, found a reduction in confidence in the onshore wind industry in all markets, but only Germany scored negatively.

There was also a negative response in the outlook for the onshore wind market in Germany over the next two years

"Germany must not fall behind – we are currently observing a loss of substance in the wind energy industry, which is a key sector for the country’s energy future," said Wolfram Axthelm of the German wind energy association (BWE) and Matthias Zelinger managing director of engineering group VDMA Power Systems in a joint statement.

"We call upon the Federal Government to return to a common-sense industrial and climate policy, accelerate the permitting processes and expand site eligibility criteria for land-based wind energy projects, and to offer a short and long-term perspective to offshore wind," they added.

45
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 02, 2020, 07:27:19 PM »
But the worst news last year was a complete failure with technology that could produce a steady stream of solar energy 24 hours a day, 356 days a year.

https://pv-magazine-usa.com/2019/10/07/will-doe-take-the-crescent-dunes-solar-project-into-bankruptcy/

Are all the hopes for solar energy turned out to be in vain?

46
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 02, 2020, 05:45:16 PM »
Global investment is even worse.

https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2019/09/05/the-world-is-investing-less-in-clean-energy



Is this a recognition that human civilization cannot replace fossil fuels?

47
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 02, 2020, 05:37:23 PM »
The situation in the world is also alarming. The maximum installation of new windmills was passed in 2015, since then a steady decline. And even solar power plants in 2018 for the first time showed a halt to growth.

https://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/gsr_2019_full_report_en.pdf

48
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 02, 2020, 05:26:37 PM »
But overall, renewable energy seems close to its limit. A prime example of this is Spain. After the abolition of subsidies in 2012, the construction of new green power plants almost stopped.

https://www.aeeolica.org/en/about-wind-energy/wind-energy-in-spain/installed-power


49
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 02, 2020, 04:21:28 PM »
https://renews.biz/57195/german-solar-grows-30-in-2019/

Quote
German solar grows 30% in 2019
Industry association says lower prices for PV, higher power prices, electromobility and the climate debate behind the increase
The solar market grew by about 30% in 2019 with almost 4GW of new projects installed, according to initial analysis by the German solar industry association BSW.

https://www.evwind.es/2019/12/17/germany-wind-power-industry-in-crisis/72559



Quote
Germany wind power industry in crisis
December 17, 2019 reve
One of the biggest hopefuls of the energy revolution has been the wind energy industry. But now in Germany, it’s facing a major setback. First Senvion, and then Enercon have both folded. It’s a huge crisis for the German wind industry.

Hermann Albers, the president of the German Wind Energy Association (BWE), is quite conviced that the government has made a “fatal mistake” with the introduction of a minimum distance for wind turbines of 1,000 meters (1,093 yards) from residential areas. And German consultancy group Prognos believes that the German onshore wind power’s  “success story is currently in danger” amid growing pressure on the sector.

As the warning signs for the German wind power industry are flashing red, the recent meeting between industry and government officials at least created a “better understanding” of the problems BWE said, but key issues remain unresolved.

The share of renewable energy in Germany’s energy consumption reached a record of 43% in the first nine months of 2019, figures from utilities association BDEW and research foundation ZSW show.

But the headline figure conceals the fact that nationwide only 35 new windmills with a combined output of 290 megawatts (MW) were installed in the first half of 2019, down 80% from the same period of 2018 and the lowest in two decades. The last six onshore wind power auctions have also been undersubscribed. In September, bids were submitted for only 35% of the 500 megawatts (MW) on the block. 

50
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: January 02, 2020, 04:10:39 PM »
https://www.rechargenews.com/wind/denmark-got-50-of-power-from-wind-and-solar-in-2019/2-1-731183

Quote
Denmark got 50% of power from wind and solar in 2019
New record share for green electricity hailed as milestone of ambitious energy transition plans

Denmark got half its power from wind and solar last year in what its grid operator hailed as an important milestone in its hugely ambitious energy transition push.

Wind accounted for more than 47% of Danish electricity in 2019, with solar taking green power to the 50% mark, said Energinet.

The wind share beats a previous 43% record set in 2017, and comes as Denmark pursues an emissions reductions goal of 70% by 2030 that was enshrined in law late last year.

Denmark – historically a leader in the global wind sector – has recently announced major initiatives in offshore wind and green hydrogen production as it attempts to hit that goal, and push its energy transition into harder-to-decarbonise areas like heating and transport.

Energinet said of the 2019 record: “Once we thought that the power system could handle the maximum of 5% of the power being produced as the wind blew and the sun was shining. Fortunately, we have become smarter!”

Pages: [1] 2 3 ... 12