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Messages - morganism

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Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: August 01, 2020, 11:49:56 PM »
New study confirms extensive gas leaks in the North Sea

"The positions of the boreholes and the location and extent of the gas pockets indicate that this area of the North Sea alone has the potential to emit 900 to 3700 tonnes of methane every year. 'However, more than 15,000 boreholes have been drilled in the entire North Sea,'

"In the North Sea, about half of the boreholes are at such shallow water depths that part of the emitted methane can escape into the atmosphere."

Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: August 01, 2020, 11:07:13 PM »
Oceanic and atmospheric methane cycling in the cGENIE Earth system model

"we find that simulated atmospheric methane levels and marine dissolved methane distributions are generally in good agreement with empirical constraints for the modern and recent Earth. Finally, we illustrate the model's utility in understanding the time-dependent behavior of the methane cycle resulting from transient carbon injection into the atmosphere, and present model ensembles that examine the effects of oceanic chemistry and the thermodynamics of microbial metabolism on steady-state atmospheric methane abundance."

Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: July 29, 2020, 03:51:00 AM »

The rest / NASA Mars Perseverence video links
« on: July 29, 2020, 03:39:22 AM »

streams and links to FB and YT stories and briefings.

Science / Springer publishing free books-almost over...
« on: July 29, 2020, 03:35:26 AM »
The Sea Floor
An Introduction to Marine Geology

Air-Sea Interactions of Natural Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) in a Changing Climate

top page, not sure what search terms get you to the freebies

Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: July 27, 2020, 03:29:29 AM »

Discovery Of First Active Seep In Antarctica Provides New Understanding Of Methane Cycle

"Antarctica is believed to contain as much as 25 percent of Earth's marine methane. Having an active seep to study gives researchers new understanding of the methane cycle and how that process might differ in Antarctica compared to other places on the planet, Thurber said.

For example, researchers have found that the most common type of microbe that consumes methane took five years to show up at the seep site and even then those microbes were not consuming all of the methane, Thurber said. That means some methane is being released and is likely working its way into the atmosphere. "

An expansive microbial mat, about 70 meters long by a meter across, formed on the sea floor about 10 meters below the frozen ocean surface. These mats, which are produced by bacteria that exist in a symbiotic relationship with methane consumers, are a telltale indication of the presence of a seep, said Thurber.

"The microbial mat is the road sign that there's a methane seep here," Thurber said. "We don't know what caused these seeps to turn on. We needed some dumb luck to find an active one, and we got it."

Consequences / Re: Hurricane Season 2020
« on: July 25, 2020, 08:51:14 PM »
Excellent TX weather forcaster

Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: July 25, 2020, 08:48:22 PM »
In cell studies, seaweed extract outperforms remdesivir in blocking COVID-19 virus

"But the virus could just as easily be persuaded to lock onto a decoy molecule that offers a similar fit. The neutralized virus would be trapped and eventually degrade naturally.

Previous research has shown this decoy technique works in trapping other viruses, including dengue, Zika, and influenza A.

"We're learning how to block viral infection, and that is knowledge we are going to need if we want to rapidly confront pandemics,"

Sulfated polysaccharides effectively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro

Arctic sea ice / Re: Freeform season chatter and light commentary
« on: July 25, 2020, 03:08:10 AM »
Not exactly an aerosol study, but some folks did some studies with satts and ground truth evaporation pans when the air traffic stopped on 9/11.

they found some increases in evap because of clearer skies iirc.

There was also one study done on cloud cover over the ocean from sea shipping traffic "contrails". they showed that the lowering of shipping, caused lower cloud formation. This they attrib to the ships wakes pushing up bio particles from the kelp islands.

I think those kelp islands are all gone now, because of the increased frequency of the ships, and intl trade. Maybe interesting to see if the shipping in the Arctic creates "contrails" above the algal blooms...
(saw that one in a print copy of Science News)

Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2020 melting season
« on: July 14, 2020, 11:04:53 PM »
I think there was a PBS special on Greenland, where for a couple days of the year, the natives could get into an "ice cave" to collect mussels or something, and the rock to ice span was 10-20 meters, and only 1-2 meters at the ceiling level. Could have been a First Nations of Canada special tho...

Atmospheric Erosion by Giant Impacts onto Terrestrial Planets: A Scaling Law for any Speed, Angle, Mass, and Density

"We present a new scaling law to predict the loss of atmosphere from planetary collisions for any speed, angle, impactor mass, target mass, and body compositions, in the regime of giant impacts onto broadly terrestrial planets with relatively thin atmospheres.

To this end, we examine the erosion caused by a wide range of impacts, using 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with sufficiently high resolution to directly model the fate of low-mass atmospheres. Different collision scenarios lead to extremely different behaviours and consequences for the planets.

In spite of this complexity, the fraction of lost atmosphere is fitted well by a power law. Scaling is independent of the system mass for a constant impactor mass ratio. We find no evident departure from the trend at the extremes of the parameters explored. The scaling law can readily be incorporated into models of planet formation."

The politics / Decryption Originalism: The Lessons of Burr
« on: July 04, 2020, 11:45:49 PM »
Decryption Originalism: The Lessons of Burr

"The Supreme Court is likely to rule soon on how the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination applies to compelled decryption of a digital device. When the Court rules, the original understanding of the Fifth Amendment may control the outcome. This Article details an extraordinary case that illuminates the original understanding of the privilege and its application to compelled decryption. During the 1807 treason trial of Aaron Burr, with Chief Justice John Marshall presiding, the government asked Burr’s private secretary if he knew the cipher to an encrypted letter Burr had sent to a co-conspirator. Burr’s secretary pled the Fifth, leading to an extensive debate on the meaning of the privilege and an opinion from the Chief Justice.

The Burr dispute presents a remarkable opportunity to unearth the original understanding of the Fifth Amendment and its application to surprisingly modern facts. The lawyers in Burr were celebrated and experienced advocates. The Chief Justice allowed them to argue the Fifth Amendment question in exhaustive detail. And an attorney recorded the entire argument in shorthand, including dozens of legal citations to the specific pages of the authorities the lawyers invoked. The rich materials allow us to reconstruct for the first time precisely how the privilege was understood by leading lawyers and Chief Justice John Marshall soon after the Fifth Amendment’s ratification. The Article presents that reconstruction, and it concludes by applying Burr’s lessons to the modern problem of compelled decryption of digital devices such as cell phones and computers."

Pretty cool that for the encryption debate to go all the way back to the original impeachment.

Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: July 04, 2020, 11:31:28 PM »
The major genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 is inherited from Neandertals

"Here, we show that the risk is conferred by a genomic segment of ~50 kb that is inherited from Neandertals and occurs at a frequency of ~30% in south Asia and ~8% in Europe."

The rest / Parkinsons neuron degeneration halted in mice
« on: July 02, 2020, 12:22:00 AM »
Reversing a model of Parkinson’s disease with in situ converted nigral neurons

One-time treatment generates new neurons, eliminates Parkinson's disease in mice

"Researchers have discovered that a single treatment to inhibit a gene called PTB in mice converts native astrocytes, brain support cells, into neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. As a result, the mice's Parkinson's disease symptoms disappear. "

"The treatment works like this: The researchers developed a noninfectious virus that carries an antisense oligonucleotide sequence -- an artificial piece of DNA designed to specifically bind the RNA coding for PTB, thus degrading it, preventing it from being translated into a functional protein and stimulating neuron development.

Antisense oligonucleotides, also known as designer DNA drugs, are a proven approach for neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases "


A War Against Climate Science, Waged by Washington’s Rank and File

Efforts to block research on climate change don’t just come from the Trump political appointees on top. Lower managers in government are taking their cues, and running with them.

"survey in 2018 of more than 63,000 federal employees across 16 agencies identified the E.P.A. and Department of Interior as having the least trustworthy leadership in matters of scientific integrity.

Findings published in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS ONE in April on a subset of those agencies found that 631 workers agreed or strongly agreed that they had been asked to omit the phrase “climate change” from their work. In the same paper, 703 employees said they avoided working on climate change or using the phrase."

Policy and solutions / Re: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
« on: June 15, 2020, 11:30:50 PM »
Great paper on easy nano grain CO2 catalyst, made by simple flame pyrosis. Easy and scalable, this can create a flexible syngas product, and you can "dial" in the CO and H quantities to make fuels or plastics.

This could get rid of oil and gas production in a year or so..... especially if we started switching over to methanol and electric right now, and not subsidizing fossil fuel cars and companies anymore.

"It means it can be used industrially, it can be scaled, it’s super quick to make the materials and very effective,” she says.

“We don’t need to worry about complicated synthesis techniques that use really expensive metals and precursors – we can burn it and in 10 minutes have these particles ready to go. And by controlling how we burn it, we can control those ratios of desired syngas building blocks.”

"“The idea is that we can take a point source of CO2, such as a coal fired power plant, a gas power plant, or even a natural gas mine where you liberate a huge amount of pure CO2 and we can essentially retrofit this technology at the back end of these plants. Then you could capture that produced CO2 and convert it into something that is hugely valuable to industry,” says Dr Lovell."

The researchers say in effect, they are closing the carbon loop in industrial processes that create harmful greenhouse gases. And by making small adjustments to the way the nanoparticles are burned by the FSP technique, they can determine the eventual mix of the syngas building blocks produced by the carbon dioxide conversion.

“At the moment you generate syngas by using natural gas – so from fossil fuels,” Dr Daiyan says. “But we’re using waste carbon dioxide and then converting it to syngas in a ratio depending on which industry you want to use it in.”

For example, a one to one ratio between the carbon monoxide and hydrogen lends itself to syngas that can be used as fuel. But a ratio of four parts carbon monoxide and one part hydrogen is suitable for the creation of plastics, Dr Daiyan says.

The rest / Re: Re-using facemasks, anti-viral, with table salt
« on: March 21, 2020, 12:21:31 PM »
this didn't get added, but you can use CPAP , sleep apnea machines as ventilators

The above model would suggest that COVID patients really need positive
pressure more than anything else.  For example, their work of
breathing is often tolerable – so they may not need much mechanical
support for the work of breathing (indeed, mechanical support could
lead to injuriously large tidal volumes).

The best modality to provide lots of positive pressure is simply
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP).  CPAP may not seem
dramatic, but this modality actually provides the greatest amount of
positive pressure to allow for the most powerful recruitment

The rest / Re-using facemasks, anti-viral, with table salt
« on: March 19, 2020, 08:09:49 AM »

Universal and reusable virus deactivation system for respiratory protection

Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 39956 (2017)

Here, we report the development of a universal, reusable virus deactivation system by functionalization of the main fibrous filtration unit of surgical mask with sodium chloride salt. The salt coating on the fiber surface dissolves upon exposure to virus aerosols and recrystallizes during drying, destroying the pathogens. When tested with tightly sealed sides, salt-coated filters showed remarkably higher filtration efficiency than conventional mask filtration layer, and 100% survival rate was observed in mice infected with virus penetrated through salt-coated filters. Viruses captured on salt-coated filters exhibited rapid infectivity loss compared to gradual decrease on bare filters. Salt-coated filters proved highly effective in deactivating influenza viruses regardless of subtypes and following storage in harsh environmental conditions. Our results can be applied in obtaining a broad-spectrum, airborne pathogen prevention device in preparation for epidemic and pandemic of respiratory diseases.

Consequences / Re: Chinese coronavirus
« on: February 04, 2020, 10:16:48 AM »
Universal and reusable virus deactivation system for respiratory protection

"Here, we report the development of a universal, reusable virus deactivation system by functionalization of the main fibrous filtration unit of surgical mask with sodium chloride salt. The salt coating on the fiber surface dissolves upon exposure to virus aerosols and recrystallizes during drying, destroying the pathogens. When tested with tightly sealed sides, salt-coated filters showed remarkably higher filtration efficiency than conventional mask filtration layer, and 100% survival rate was observed in mice infected with virus penetrated through salt-coated filters. Viruses captured on salt-coated filters exhibited rapid infectivity loss compared to gradual decrease on bare filters. Salt-coated filters proved highly effective in deactivating influenza viruses regardless of subtypes and following storage in harsh environmental conditions."

(Don't know if this has held up, or is replicated)

Flu trackers site used to be pretty good, but was abandoned by the original folk. They left it up, and has been used as a central site anyway.

He he....

"It seems that whatever “crap” we put into graphene, electrocatalysis increases.(2) One may exaggerate only a little by saying that if we spit on graphene it becomes a better electrocatalyst. Having 84 reasonably stable elements (apart from noble gases and carbon), one can produce 84 articles on monoelemental doping of graphene; with two dopants we have 3486 possible combinations, with three dopants we can publish 95,284 combinations, and with four elements there are close to 2 × 106 combinations."

"We decided to follow the hyperbole of ever multiplying dopants; however, instead of using expensive and toxic chemicals such as ammonia, fluorine, chlorine, boranes, etc., we took a page from the pre-Haber–Bosch era and sought natural materials for the fertilization of graphene and used guano as a dopant. Guano has a great advantage for doping over using synthetic chemicals. It is available at low cost, it contains a plethora of elements (including N, P, S, Cl, etc.), and its use for graphene doping can be handled by a nonchemist. We show that we can create high-entropy, multiple-element-doped graphene with outstanding electrocatalytic properties for two industrially important reactions: oxygen reduction used in fuel cells and hydrogen evolution used in electrolyzers. If we follow the claims of previously published doped graphene for electrocatalysis articles regarding “metal-free catalysis”, one can envision an era in which guano-doped graphene is used instead of platinum in fuel cells and electrolyzers, with huge societal impact not only in clean energy production and a cleaner environment but also on rural economies as guano once again becomes a valuable and highly sought-after product."

Consequences / Re: Chinese coronavirus
« on: February 01, 2020, 11:14:04 AM »
2019 Corona virus has 4 inserts that match HIV, showing possible bio-hacking.

Uncanny similarity of unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV spike protein to HIV-1

" The  finding  of  4  unique  inserts  in  the  2019-nCoV,  all  of  which  have identity  /similarity  to  amino  acid  residues  in  key  structural  proteins  of  HIV-1  is  unlikely  to  be fortuitous in nature. This work provides yet unknown insights on 2019-nCoV and sheds light on the evolution and pathogenicity of this virus with important implications for diagnosis of this virus.  ".

Unexpectedly, all the insertions got aligned with Human immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1). F

"As none of these 4 inserts are present in any other coronavirus, the genomic region encoding these inserts represent ideal candidates for designing primers that can distinguish 2019-nCoV from other coronaviruses".

"This  indicates  that  these  insertions  have  been  preferably  acquired  by  the  2019-nCoV, providing it with additional survival and infectivity advantage. Delving deeper we found that these insertions were similar to HIV-1. Our results highlight an astonishing relation between the gp120 and Gag protein of HIV, with 2019-nCoV spike glycoprotein. These proteins are  critical for  the viruses  to  identify  and  latch  on  to  their  host  cells  and  for    viral  assembly  (Beniac  et  al.,  2006). Since surface proteins are responsible for host tropism, changes in these proteins imply a change in  host  specificity  of  the  virus.  According  to  reports  from  China,  there  has  been  a  gain  of  host specificity in case 2019-nCoV as the virus was originally known to infect animals and not humans but after the mutations, it has gained tropism to humans as well. "

Permafrost / Re: Toward Improved Discussions of Methane & Climate
« on: January 23, 2020, 10:41:49 AM »
Another clathrate ? of the "strange metal" superconductors. This one is nickle oxide based, with doping of neodyminium. The Nd donates extra charge from its place in the lattice. Pretty cool, and these structures are starting to look like may be common in the lithosphere.

"Furthermore, the intervening layers actually contribute electrons to the nickelate sheets, creating a three-dimensional metallic state that is quite different from what's seen in the cuprates."

This is an entirely new type of ground state for transition metal oxides such as cuprates and nickelates, the researchers said. It opens new directions for experiments and theoretical studies of how superconductivity arises and how it can be optimized in this system and possibly in other compounds."


"the electronic structure of LaNiO2 and NdNiO2, while similar to the cuprates, includes significant distinctions. Unlike cuprates, the rare-earth spacer layer in the infinite-layer nickelate supports a weakly interacting three-dimensional 5d metallic state, which hybridizes with a quasi-two-dimensional, strongly correlated state with \(3d_{x^2-y^2}\) symmetry in the NiO2 layers. Thus, the infinite-layer nickelate can be regarded as a sibling of the rare-earth intermetallics13,14,15, which are well known for heavy fermion behaviour, where the NiO2 correlated layers play an analogous role to the 4f states in rare-earth heavy fermion compounds. This Kondo- or Anderson-lattice-like ‘oxide-intermetallic’ replaces the Mott insulator as the reference state from which superconductivity emerges upon doping."

edit. SLAC news release with diagram

Policy and solutions / Re: Geoengineering, another rush for money?
« on: January 23, 2020, 10:23:07 AM »
TIo2 modified with broken rutile , is the most effective catalyst for direct conversion of CO2, to CO.

"For the efficient artificial photosynthesis for the conversion of CO2 into oxygen and pure CO, IBS researchers aimed to improve the performance of these nanoparticles by combining blue (Ao/Rd) TiO2 with other semiconductors and metals that can enhance water oxidation to oxygen, in parallel to CO2 reduction into CO only. The research team obtained the best results with hybrid nanoparticles made of blue titania, tungsten trioxide (WO3), and 1% silver (TiO2/WO3-Ag). WO3 was chosen because of the low valence band position with its narrow bandgap of 2.6 eV, high stability, and low cost. Silver was added because it enhances visible light absorption, by creating a collective oscillation of free electrons excited by light, and also gives high CO selectivity. The hybrid nanoparticles showed about 200 times higher performance than nanoparticles made of TiO2 alone and TiO2/WO3 without silver.

Starting from water and CO2, this novel hybrid catalyst produced O2 and pure CO, without any side products, such as hydrogen gas (H2) and metane (CH4). The apparent quantum yield that is the ratio of several reacted electrons to the number of incident photons was 34.8 %, and the rate of reacted electrons 2333.44 μmol g−1h−1. The same measurement was lower for nanoparticles without silver (2053.2 μmol g−1h−1), and for nanoparticles with only blue TiO2 (912.4 μmol g−1h−1)."

Highly efficient nanostructured metal-decorated hybrid semiconductors for solar conversion of CO2 with almost complete CO selectivity. Materials Today, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.mattod.2019.11.005

Permafrost / Re: Toward Improved Discussions of Methane & Climate
« on: January 19, 2020, 12:01:56 PM »

Your familiar with the quote that " sufficiantly advanced sciences appear to be magic".

The newer one is that sufficiantly advanced technology appears to be biology.

Check out Helion Energy for a simple and modular fusion engine is in buildout phase. Fits in a boxcar, and uses magneto accelerated plasmas to impact with each other. They then use thermoelects to pull off electricity. You could mount one in a ship. Or a spaceship. 

Luddism is only for 20 something's. Baby's, adults, and old folks need healthcare, lights, heat or cooling. And we will need bio reactors and 3D printing to offset material shipping, and manufacuring foods from algae.

If you want simple tech, change your focus to get rid of patents, and turn to asteroid mining for materials. People will keep inventing tech and med, but we need to optimize on best design, modular construction, and recyclable materials. Asteroid mining and lunar ISRU, can teach us to shovel in mine waste, or river siltation, or even landfill waste, and get back separated base materials.

There is a great group doing open source, simple design, robust and modular farm tech, think it's Open Source Tech, or something. Tech can multiply horsepower, and reduce damage to ecosystems more than simply reducing population back to 500k humans...

Permafrost / Re: Toward Improved Discussions of Methane & Climate
« on: January 19, 2020, 11:35:42 AM »
Graphene is a wonder material, and turns out edges control whether semi or full conductors. Likewise, adding strain, by twisting ribbons, allows you to attach conducting leads.

In ASTRO-geo, it's been found that 10% off all IDP's are nano diamond, and most stony meteorites appear to have same. And in those same dust particles, they have watched graphite re-shuttle molecules across their own structure to rebuild damaged portions, that they disrupted in experiments. They think that the graphite is also converted to diamond from cosmic ray hits.

2d surfaces, and carbon in particular, are pretty amazing.

Arctic sea ice / Re: Arctic Ocean salinity, temperature and waves
« on: January 19, 2020, 11:15:54 AM »
 Ice disc forms in river, not Arctic , but still...

Didn't see this last year.

Permafrost / Re: Toward Improved Discussions of Methane & Climate
« on: January 17, 2020, 10:16:14 PM »
These "strange metals" clathrates, really are going to be interesting to crustal geology too. If these materials can push phonons along on the 2D surface, it could change some basic theory of seismic signals, heat transfer, and even planetary magnetism.

Seems like the "filler" materials in the "cages" could also be usefull for tracking blobs and plumes across boundries too. Signatures of volcanic emissions may be better grouped than the micro glass structures they are using now too.

who knew clathrates were going to end up being classed as "strange metals"?

Gonna be interesting how it works out....

Permafrost / Re: Toward Improved Discussions of Methane & Climate
« on: January 17, 2020, 10:05:32 PM »
and out today in Science...

"With strange metals, there is an unusual connection between electrical resistance and temperature," said corresponding author Silke Bühler-Paschen of TU Wien's Institute for Solid State Physics. "In contrast to simple metals such as copper or gold, this does not seem to be due to the thermal movement of the atoms, but to quantum fluctuations at the absolute zero temperature."

"The hallmark of the quantum critical point that they were advancing with co-workers is that the quantum entanglement between spins and charges is critical.

"At a magnetic quantum critical point, conventional wisdom dictates that only the spin sector will be critical," he said. "But if the charge and spin sectors are quantum-entangled, the charge sector will end up being critical as well."

DOI: 10.1126/science.aag1595

Permafrost / Re: Toward Improved Discussions of Methane & Climate
« on: January 13, 2020, 11:08:07 PM »
A "diamond" cage of carbon and boron create a new type of clathrate.

"The result is a 3D, carbon-based framework with diamond-like bonding that is recoverable to ambient conditions. But unlike diamond, the strontium atoms trapped in the cages make the material metallic—meaning it conducts electricity—with potential for superconductivity at notably high temperature.

What’s more, the properties of the clathrate can change depending on the types of guest atoms within the cages.

“The trapped guest atoms interact strongly with the host cages,” Strobel remarked. “Depending on the specific guest atoms present, the clathrate can be tuned from a semiconductor to a superconductor, all while maintaining robust, diamond-like bonds. Given the large number of possible substitutions, we envision an entirely new class of carbon-based materials with highly tunable properties.”

Developers Corner / Change Detection See changes in the map - hivemapper
« on: December 12, 2019, 11:29:26 AM »
Built in machine intelligence
Augment human analysis with AI built directly into your map.

Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2019/2020 freezing season
« on: November 02, 2019, 10:10:27 PM »
Alaska is having a hell of a time growing sea ice

""It has been a remarkable freeze-season (or lack of) so far," noted Zack Labe, a climate scientist and PhD candidate at the University of California, Irvine. "Overall, the last month has featured large areas of open water north of Alaska and Siberia."

Consequences / Re: Near Term Human Extinction
« on: September 29, 2019, 11:20:43 AM »
Facing Extinction
by Catherine Ingram

Because the subject is so tragic and because it can scare or anger people, this is not an essay I ever wanted to write; it is one I would have wanted to read along the way.  But the words on these pages are meant only for those who are ready for them. I offer no hope or solutions for our continuation, only companionship and empathy to you, the reader, who either knows or suspects that there is no hope or solution to be found. What we now need to find is courage.

Policy and solutions / Re: Electric cars
« on: September 21, 2019, 10:19:39 PM »
I didn't realize the alane hydrogen systems had ratcheted up their density so much. Very nice setups now.

"We are developing a patented, next generation process that greatly reduces the need for the more expensive feedstock components. By recycling spent aluminum back into this process, large quantities of Alane can be produced at extremely low cost. And with that achievement, the full potential of this powerful compound can be unlocked."

Consequences / Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« on: September 20, 2019, 01:15:01 AM »
Peer Reviewed Research on Climate Change by USDA Authors
January 2017-August 2019

Research Tags:
Forestry: Forests, trees, wildfires
Weather: Temperature change,
temperature variability,
drought, storms, and wildfires
Soil: Soil health,
soil carbon content,
and nutrients
Water: Bodies of water,
health of water bodies
grown for human consumption or animal feed
Livestock: Animals raised by humans
Wildlife: Wild, non-domesticated animals
Emissions: Greenhouse gas emissions,
criteria pollution emissions
Energy: Electricity,
renewable energy,
Grassland: Meadows, savannahs, prairies, tundras
Economics: Money, commodity prices,
farm economics
Research: Tools, modeling, designs, other items related to research

Science / Re: The Science of Aerosols
« on: September 19, 2019, 03:22:48 AM »
Dust from a giant asteroid crash caused an ancient ice age

“Our hypothesis is that the large amounts of extraterrestrial dust over a timeframe of at least two million years played an important role in changing the climate on Earth, contributing to cooling,” says Heck.

“Our results show for the first time that such dust, at times, has cooled Earth dramatically,”

Policy and solutions / Re: Oil and Gas Issues
« on: September 19, 2019, 03:03:43 AM »
A new way to convert carbon dioxide into the building block for sustainable liquid fuels was very efficient in tests and did not have the reaction that destroys the conventional device.

" Stripping oxygen from CO2 to make CO gas is the first step in turning CO2 into nearly any liquid fuel and other products, like synthetic gas and plastics. The addition of hydrogen to CO can produce fuels like synthetic diesel and the equivalent of jet fuel. The team envisions using renewable power to make the CO and for subsequent conversions, which would result in carbon-neutral products."

"One advantage sustainable liquid fuels could have over the electrification of transportation is that they could use the existing gasoline and diesel infrastructure, like engines, pipelines and gas stations."

"one with cerium oxide and the other with conventional nickel-based catalysts. The ceria electrode remained stable, while carbon deposits damaged the nickel electrode, significantly shortening the catalyst’s lifetime."

Science / Re: Trump Administration Assaults on Science and the Environment
« on: September 17, 2019, 12:01:47 AM »
Not just Kavanaugh: Another alarming reason to fear the Supreme Court

"A new study offers an alarming answer to that question. It concludes that even if Democrats win the White House and Congress, the high court will likely strike down much of what they do to address the climate change crisis, even as the window for action is closing, perhaps exacerbating the threat of civilizational catastrophe.

The study represents a serious effort — one undertaken by two well-known academics — to develop a realistic projection of how the conservative justices might rule on climate legislation. As such, it may also fuel discussion among the Democratic presidential candidates about their various proposals to expand the court.

“Climate change legislation,” the report starkly concludes, is “unlikely to survive judicial review,” at a time when “leading scientists have concluded that only twelve years remain to avoid planetary climate change catastrophe.”

What makes the study interesting is that it uses the justices’ past rulings, as well as other conservative legal scholarship, to elaborate a picture of the specific legal doctrines they might employ to strike down efforts to legislate against global warming. The study concludes that their records clearly demonstrate they will have many such doctrines to weaponize in this fashion.


Consequences / Re: Pathogens and their impacts
« on: September 15, 2019, 12:59:31 AM »
Rare Mosquito-Borne Disease That Kills 1/3 of The Infected Is Spreading Across The US

"At least a dozen cases of eastern equine encephalitis, a dangerous mosquito-borne illness, have been confirmed across the US so far this season. Two people have died from the disease.

Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: September 15, 2019, 12:46:06 AM »
Microorganisms reduce methane release from the ocean

june 19th

"Here we find the largest oxygen free area in the oceans - an area of more than 1 million square kilometers, where part of the water column is completely oxygen-free. This oxygen-free water contains methane.

Microorganisms remove 80 pct. of the methane produced"

The big question now is which microorganisms are at play and how? The researchers have got a hint that highly specialized bacteria and so-called archaea (bacterial-like organisms) are involved."

Policy and solutions / Re: Direct Air Capture (of Carbon Dioxide)
« on: September 15, 2019, 12:22:25 AM »
2 new catalyst tech coming soon. Catalysts are used to create 35% global GDP.

"So, to contain the reactive nitrene, first-author Carsch built a massive cage in the form of a ligand. The ligand—like organic shrubbery surrounding the copper nitrene pair—keeps the catalyst intact. Cut back that shrubbery and introduce another substance—like a carbon-hydrogen bond—and the fiery nitrene gets to work. "

Synthesis of a copper-supported triplet nitrene complex pertinent to copper-catalyzed amination. Science, 2019 DOI: 10.1126/science.aax4423

and a new nano crystalline structure allows cranks up reactivity, and allows to "re-condition" expensive platinum surfaces.

"The method is a general one; the study shows it works with five monometallic nanoparticles and a library of bimetallic nanoparticles, spanning seven different metals, including platinum, cobalt and nickel."
 “This type of technology is ready to be scaled up and utilized widely in the catalysis community,”

Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: September 03, 2019, 10:06:44 PM »
Prototype Reactor Turns CO2 Into Formic Acid, Pure Liquid Fuel

"With its current reactor, the lab generated formic acid continuously for 100 hours with negligible degradation of the reactor's components, including the nanoscale catalysts. Wang suggested the reactor could be easily retooled to produce such higher-value products as acetic acid, ethanol or propanol fuels."

Actually, they found heat stress causes forests to be carbon emitters, even without fires, IIRC. One paper said that if you lose 20% of a forest, it won't come back.

I would think a farmers almanac would be a pretty hot trade item, along with portable sundials.

Govt will only bring supplies to midsize cities, they want to empty out large ones, but most plans i have seen hav Gov deploying supplies to freeways running into mid size cities near Nat Guard deployments. Keeps folks moving, instead of looting and burning out those cities that are still functional.

Science / Re: A list of missing feedbacks
« on: August 31, 2019, 01:33:35 AM »
x-post from geoengineering thread.

It seems this could explain some of the hydroxyl reduction, and methane concentration spikes. If more open water, then more waves. More waves, more spray. More spray, more hydroxyl reduction from the below H2o2 reaction.

"tests confirmed that water microdroplets spontaneously form hydrogen peroxide, that smaller microdroplets produced higher concentrations of the molecule, and that hydrogen peroxide was not lost when the microdroplets recombined into bulk water.

The researchers ruled out a number of possible explanations before arriving at what they argue is the most likely explanation for hydrogen peroxide's presence. They suggest that a strong electric field near the surface of water microdroplets in air triggers hydroxyl molecules to bind into hydrogen peroxide."

Consequences / Re: Hurricane Season 2019
« on: August 31, 2019, 01:08:51 AM »
With a blocking front headed towards AL/FL, it may stall Dorian long enough for the next 'cane to catch up.
The steering winds for that new one aren't blocked, or looping, so it may blow thru the Keys Gap, and then suck back up behind that blocking high, giving a double hit to NC/SC...

Policy and solutions / Re: Geoengineering, another rush for money?
« on: August 28, 2019, 10:21:30 PM »
"tests confirmed that water microdroplets spontaneously form hydrogen peroxide, that smaller microdroplets produced higher concentrations of the molecule, and that hydrogen peroxide was not lost when the microdroplets recombined into bulk water.

The researchers ruled out a number of possible explanations before arriving at what they argue is the most likely explanation for hydrogen peroxide's presence. They suggest that a strong electric field near the surface of water microdroplets in air triggers hydroxyl molecules to bind into hydrogen peroxide."

Policy and solutions / Re: Geoengineering, another rush for money?
« on: August 25, 2019, 12:15:30 AM »
Enhanced (adsortive) Natural Gas Storage to Help Reduce Global Warming

" Of these 29 distinct chemical structures, COP-150 was particularly noteworthy as it achieved a high deliverable gravimetric methane working capacity when cycled between 5 and 100 bar at 273 K, which is 98% of the total uptake capacity. This result surpassed the target set by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE).

COP-150 is the first ever structure to fulfil both the gravimetric and volumetric requirements of the US DOE for successful vehicular use, and the total cost to produce the COP-150 adsorbent was only 1 USD per kilogram.

COP-150 can be produced using freely available and easily accessible plastic materials, and moreover, its synthesis takes place at room temperature, open to the air, and no previous purification of the chemicals is required. The pressure-triggered flexible structure of COP-150 is also advantageous in terms of the total working capacity of deliverable methane for real applications."

This study, reported in Nature Energy on July 8, was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grants ( NRF-2016R1A2B4011027, NRF-2017M3A7B4042140, and NRF-2017M3A7B4042235

a blog post by one of the authors of the above mentioned "West Antarctic ice loss influenced by internal climate variability and anthropogenic forcing"

"What Figure 1 suggests is that the winds in this region have varied between easterly and westerly from decade to decade, throughout the 20th century. This is the natural variability associated with ENSO, and is no surprise. But in addition, there is a long-term trend. When averaged over several decades, the winds can be seen to have shifted from mean easterly in the 1920s through 1980s, to mean westerly thereafter.

The trend in the winds is small, and easily lost within the variability of individual model ensemble members, but it is robust (it occurs in all the ensemble members) and statistically significant. Moreover, we know its cause (at least in the model experiments): radiative forcing. Although these experiments also include radiative forcing changes resulting from the ozone hole, it’s clear that the trend in the winds begins well before ozone depletion begins in 1970s. Thus, the key forcing is greenhouse gases."

Policy and solutions / Re: Geoengineering, another rush for money?
« on: August 17, 2019, 11:43:16 PM »
Hadn't seen this one- reducing the number of trees in Siberia, to increase its albedo ?

"The core idea is delightfully counterintuitive: Siberia has too many trees. In ages past, Siberia used to be grassland, and today it is mostly forest. Although trees can sequester carbon in their trunks and branches (at least until they burn or decompose), Siberian forests have significant drawbacks with respect to climate change.

First, forests don’t reflect a lot of solar radiation. A treeless, grassy Siberia would increase Earth’s albedo, reflecting more solar energy back into space. Forests absorb more solar radiation and put it into the ground as heat.

Second, forests are poor habitats for snow-trampling herd animals. In the winter, a thick layer of snow acts as an insulator on the permafrost, preventing frigid above-ground temperatures from reaching deep into the Earth’s crust, where they can shore up the frozenness of the permafrost. When large herds of grazing animals trample the snow, its insulating properties are reduced and the permafrost can hard freeze. Forests reduce these snow-trampling grazing populations."

A puffy pink seaweed that can stop cows from burping out methane is being primed for mass farming by Australian researchers.

“If we’re able to work out how to scale up the seaweed to such a level to that can feed all of the cows and the sheep and the goats around the world, then it’s going to have a huge impact on the climate; it’s going to address a whole lot of carbon-neutral agendas that different countries have; and it’s ultimately going to save us all billions of dollars,” he concluded.

This article was reprinted from the University of the Sunshine Coast.

Video interview at site

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