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Topics - OldLeatherneck

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1
I am so appreciative of this forum for providing an “Off Topic” category.  In light of what I am about to post, in the next few paragraphs, I think that everyone will understand why my state and locale of residence, in the U.S., have been removed from my profile on this Forum.  I live in a community that has many residents that believe socialists, many Hispanics, many African-Americans and almost all Muslims should be killed, many of whom are immediate neighbors.  Were I to post the below statements on most major media platforms, my real name and location would be too easy to identify, which would not only risk my life but that of my wife.  It’s not that I have great fear of being shot at.  It’s happened twice before: once of the streets of Chicago and only once while serving in Vietnam.  However, since I’m approaching the age of 70, I’d prefer dying of natural causes.
 
I am posting this here, on this forum, with the sincere hope that someone can take what I am about to say and get it disseminated in one or more of the major social media forums.  If you choose to share what I am about to write, please don’t use that it came from “OldLeatherneck”.  You may refer to my being a former Marine and Vietnam Vet.  I’m willing to take some risks, but not be stupid about it.  I would request that any quotes be verbatim, although correcting spelling or grammatical errors such as too many/few comas are welcome.  You can editorialize before and after anything I wrote.  With any good fortune, within the next 12 months my wife and I will be moving to a different state, in the U.S.,or a certain undisclosed country in Europe.

Here Goes:

Late yesterday, 7-14-2016, a French resident of Tunisian descent wreaked havoc upon the city of Nice, France.  This horrific incident resulted in more than 80 deaths and multiple life threatening injuries.  Certainly, incidents like this must be decried as barbaric and every step should be taken to prevent future incidents like this in every country on earth.  Yet, it would be equally reprehensible to blame or punish every practitioner of one of the world’s major religions.

Within hours of the slaughter in Nice, Newt Gingrich, former Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, was on FOX News recommending that every resident of America, who is of Muslim descent should be deported if they believe in Sharia law.  Rather than getting into the constitutional issues ,what are some of the hurdles in determining what constitutes a firm belief in Sharia law?
By Newt Gringrich’s new proclamation, the daughters of President Barack Obama must be evaluated for “Religious Purity” because their paternal grandfather was a Muslim born in Kenya, although their mother and father were born in the United States and are practicing Christians.   Conversely, there are many professional athletes in the U.S. who have converted to Islam. Since they are of Christian descent, will they be exempt from Newt Gingrich’s “Religious Purity” test.  However, their offspring may or may not be subject to the test depending which religions their birth parents practiced at the time of their birth. Of course time of conception may be more important than time of birth.  Does the “Gingrich Standard” identify whether to be classified as of Muslim descent requires only one birth parent or two?  What about adoptive parents?

Can or will the GOP leadership ever stop pandering to the least educated, informed, intelligent and rational thinking members of their base??

2


Dr. Ricky Rood just posted this on the Wunderground this morning.  Below is a brief quote from his description of the book:

Quote
“Climate model users are practitioners in many fields who desire to incorporate information about climate and climate change into planning and management decisions. Users may be scientists and engineers in fields such as ecosystems or water resources. These scientists are familiar with models and the roles of models in natural science. In other cases, the practitioners are engineers, urban planners, epidemiologists, or architects. Though not necessarily familiar with models of natural science, experts in these fields use quantitative information for decision-making. These experts are potential users of climate models. We hope in the end that by understanding climate models and their uncertainties, the reader will understand how climate models are constructed to represent the earth’ s climate system. The book is intended to help the reader become a more competent interpreter or translator of climate model output.”

Dr. Rood is looking for comments and reviews of this book.  I'm looking forward to reading it and quite sure that many members of this forum will find it informative.

https://www.wunderground.com/blog/RickyRood/demystifying-climate-and-its-all-free

3
Donald Trump is a well renowned "Climate Change Denier" and I fear that if he were to be elected, there would be no  chance that the US would take any actions to mitigate AGW/CC.

As an American, I'm embarrassed that one of our major political parties has stooped so low as to nominate him to be their candidate!!

If you really want to know what I think about "The Donald", here it is:


4
Consequences / Will Climate Change Lead to Genocide?
« on: September 15, 2015, 11:33:26 PM »
The Next Genocide
by: By TIMOTHY SNYDER, New York Times Sunday Review, SEPT. 12, 2015

LINK to full article: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/13/opinion/sunday/the-next-genocide.html?_r=0

Selected quotes: - My Highlights
Quote

Today we think of the Nazi Final Solution as some dark apex of high technology. It was in fact the killing of human beings at close range during a war for resources.....................

The Holocaust may seem a distant horror whose lessons have already been learned. But sadly, the anxieties of our own era could once again give rise to scapegoats and imagined enemies, while contemporary environmental stresses could encourage new variations on Hitler’s ideas,...............

The quest for German domination was premised on the denial of science. Hitler’s alternative to science was the idea of Lebensraum. Germany needed an Eastern European empire because only conquest, and not agricultural technology, offered the hope of feeding the German people. ..........

The pursuit of peace and plenty through science, he claimed in “Mein Kampf,” was a Jewish plot to distract Germans from the necessity of war......................................

As exotic as it sounds, the concept of Lebensraum is less distant from our own ways of thinking than we believe. Germany was blockaded during World War I, dependent on imports of agricultural commodities and faced real uncertainties about its food supply. Hitler transformed these fears into a vision of absolute conquest for total security. Lebensraum linked a war of extermination to the improvement of lifestyle. The chief Nazi propagandist, Joseph Goebbels, could therefore define the purpose of a war of extermination as “a big breakfast, a big lunch and a big dinner.” He conflated lifestyle with life.

....................................................................

Climate change threatens to provoke a new ecological panic. So far, poor people in Africa and the Middle East have borne the brunt of the suffering.

The mass murder of at least 500,000 Rwandans in 1994 followed a decline in agricultural production for several years before. Hutus killed Tutsis not only out of ethnic hatred, but to take their land, as many genocidaires later admitted.

In Sudan, drought drove Arabs into the lands of African pastoralists in 2003. The Sudanese government sided with the Arabs and pursued a policy of eliminating the Zaghawa, Masalit and Fur peoples in Darfur and surrounding regions.

Climate change has also brought uncertainties about food supply back to the center of great power politics. China today, like Germany before the war, is an industrial power incapable of feeding its population from its own territory, and is thus dependent on unpredictable international markets.

............................................................

How might such a scenario unfold? China is already leasing a tenth of Ukraine’s arable soil, and buying up food whenever global supplies tighten. During the drought of 2010, Chinese panic buying helped bring bread riots and revolution to the Middle East. The Chinese leadership already regards Africa as a long-term source of food. Although many Africans themselves still go hungry, their continent holds about half of the world’s untilled arable land. Like China, the United Arab Emirates and South Korea are interested in Sudan’s fertile regions — and they have been joined by Japan, Qatar and Saudi Arabia in efforts to buy or lease land throughout Africa.

Nations in need of land would likely begin with tactfully negotiated leases or purchases; but under conditions of stress or acute need, such agrarian export zones could become fortified colonies, requiring or attracting violence.

Hitler spread ecological panic by claiming that only land would bring Germany security and by denying the science that promised alternatives to war. By polluting the atmosphere with greenhouse gases, the United States has done more than any other nation to bring about the next ecological panic, yet it is the only country where climate science is still resisted by certain political and business elites. These deniers tend to present the empirical findings of scientists as a conspiracy and question the validity of science — an intellectual stance that is uncomfortably close to Hitler’s.

.................................

The full consequences of climate change may reach America only decades after warming wreaks havoc in other regions. And by then it will be too late for climate science and energy technology to make any difference. Indeed, by the time the door is open to the demagogy of ecological panic in the United States, Americans will have spent years spreading climate disaster around the world.

THE European Union, by contrast, takes global warming very seriously, but its existence is under threat. As Africa and the Middle East continue to warm and wars rage, economic migrants and war refugees are making perilous journeys to flee to Europe. In response, European populists have called for the strict enforcement of national borders and the end of the union. Many of these populist parties are supported by Russia, which is openly pursuing a divide-and-conquer policy with the aim of bringing about European disintegration.

Russia’s 2014 intervention in Ukraine has already shattered the peaceful order that Europeans had come to take for granted. The Kremlin, which is economically dependent on the export of hydrocarbons to Europe, is now seeking to make gas deals with individual European states one by one in order to weaken European unity and expand its own influence. Meanwhile, President Vladimir V. Putin waxes nostalgic for the 1930s, while Russian nationalists blame gays, cosmopolitans and Jews for antiwar sentiment. None of this bodes well for Europe’s future — or Russia’s.

When mass killing is on the way, it won’t announce itself in the language we are familiar with. The Nazi scenario of 1941 will not reappear in precisely the same form, but several of its causal elements have already begun to assemble.

It is not difficult to imagine ethnic mass murder in Africa, which has already happened; or the triumph of a violent totalitarian strain of Islamism in the parched Middle East; or a Chinese play for resources in Africa or Russia or Eastern Europe that involves removing the people already living there; or a growing global ecological panic if America abandons climate science or the European Union falls apart.

Today we confront the same crucial choice between science and ideology that Germans once faced. Will we accept empirical evidence and support new energy technologies, or allow a wave of ecological panic to spread across the world?

Denying science imperils the future by summoning the ghosts of the past.



In Bangladesh, millions of people have been displaced by floods and the rising sea level.
Credit Kadir van Lohuizen/NOOR, for The New York Times



In Sudan, drought led to conflict and the displacement of many civilians.
Credit Lynsey Addario for The New York Times

I found this article to be very informative in that it shows an eery parallel between the lead up to the Holocaust and current conditions in many regions of the world today.  As others have expressed in other threads, the earth can not provide a sustainable standard of living for the current population, even without the threat of AGW/CC.
 
At this time climate change is a threat multiplier which only exacerbates the problems in nations that are currently in a failing or failed state.  As time progresses, climate change will be the direct cause of many deaths.

Most of us who are aware and concerned about climate change or have previously been involved in movements to protect the environment or wildlife are also the type of individuals who have humanitarian instincts.  It is very difficult to imagine how many 100s of thousands even millions will die this century by mean other than natural causes.  It is even more painful to accept that many of those deaths will be at the hands of brutal tyrants and armed thugs.

I don't believe that any social structure is immune from being co-opted by "patriotic zealots" who will demand that anyone who does not follow their ideology will either be expelled or murdered.

5
Arctic sea ice / The 2015/2016 freezing season
« on: August 26, 2015, 11:55:12 PM »
There has been a lot of chatter on several of the other  topics about whether the building El Nino or other factors might extend 2015's melt season, thereby delaying the start of the 2015/2016 re-freeze. Therefore, I decided to open a topic where we can start talking about the many factors that can either inhibit or facilitate the growth of sea ice during the dark months.

What will the impact of El Nino be?
Will the warm blob stay in the North Pacific and what impact might that have?
Will the fractured jet stream direct more or less heat from the continents?

I'm sure there are many commenters on this forum, who are smarter than me (the majority), that will pose better questions andor be able to provide good information as the fall and winter months approach.

6
The rest / A “BABY BOOMER’S” Apology to Future Generations
« on: August 12, 2015, 12:54:48 AM »
Having been born in 1946, I’m one of the original “Baby Boomers” born in the immediate aftermath of WWII.  What an exciting time it was to grow up and begin the learning process.  The future seemed limitless, with promises of technological developments that would solve most, if not all of the world’s problems.  Medical technology had developed a vaccine for polio.  Nuclear technology had been harnessed to provide electrical power.  Electronic technology had developed the transistor. Drilling and mining technology had enabled the exploitation of natural resources.   It seemed that almost anything was possible.  Advancement continued for decades, with massive infrastructure development.  It wasn’t long until the world was connected, via satellite communications and extended transportation networks.

All of these “wonderful” advances have allowed the world’s population to grow exponentially, which has placed a burden on not just the world’s ecosystems, but on the world’s infrastructure, economic systems and governing bodies.  In our race to develop the world, we forgot to plan for a sustainable future.  In large part, this may be attributed to lack of awareness about how fragile the ecosystem was or how limited the finite resources were.  However, we can’t absolve the world’s leaders for allowing greed and corruption to dominate their agendas.

I’m sorry that the world my generation is passing on to those of you who are much younger, is not as healthy as the one we inherited.  We are giving you a fragile worldwide economic system, dysfunctional governmental systems and a biosphere about to be destroyed by rapid climate change.
 
It is my hope, in my waning years, that those of you who are a part of changing the future will make wise decisions and select wise leaders to implement the changes that are needed.  The only thing that gives me some glimmer of hope is that there is a growing sense of awareness, globally, of the severity of the multiple imminent threats that mankind is facing, be it overpopulation, climate change, critical resource depletion or income inequality.  Not only that, many of you are aware that these threats are interconnected and must be addressed as such. By definition the world you pass on to future generations will not be the same world my generation has created for you.  The climate will be more hostile, there will be insufficient natural resources to provide infrastructure, food and shelter for the current global population, let alone a growing population. The decisions your generation is facing will not be popular, nor will they be easily implemented. My life’s experiences have taught me that major global transitions are never accomplished bloodlessly. Yet you must keep in mind that every life lost, in every conflict, causes a ripple effect locally and regionally that lasts for generations, if not centuries and often leads to future conflicts.

Again, please accept an apology from a member of a “Failed Generation”.

7
Science / The Great Victorian Weather Wars
« on: August 09, 2015, 05:33:03 PM »
Fascinating article in the New York Times Sunday Review by Peter Moore about Professor John Tyndall's significant contributions to the understanding of heat trapping gases.  This article also gives a brief introduction into early days of Meteorology and one of it's early proponents, Robert FitzRoy, a veteran of the Royal Navy who first coined the term "forecast" when predicting near-term weather events:

Full article here: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/09/opinion/sunday/the-great-victorian-climate-debate.html?action=click&pgtype=Homepage&version=Moth-Visible&module=inside-nyt-region%C2%AEion=inside-nyt-region&WT.nav=inside-nyt-region

Quote
ThE history of today’s climate change debate may have begun on Feb. 7, 1861. That day, an Irish physicist named John Tyndall, a professor of natural philosophy, delivered the annual Bakerian Lecture to the Royal Society in London.


John Tyndall studied subjects that were new in the 1800s, like glaciation, radiation and sound.

Credit Science & Society Picture Library, via Getty Images

Quote
His experiments had shown that gases like oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen retained very little heat. But others, particularly carbon dioxide, absorbed surprising amounts of radiation — “nearly 100 times as much as oxygen,” he said.

For the sharp minds in the hall, the implication of Tyndall’s discovery was clear. The higher the concentrations of absorptive gases in the atmosphere, the higher atmospheric temperatures would be. Thus was laid the theoretical foundation for climate science — though few could have envisioned that, more than 150 years later, Tyndall’s discovery would be one of the great political debates of the day.

Tyndall’s was not the only contribution that year to our understanding of earth’s climate and its threats. That bleak winter week in 1861 was a stormy one. As Tyndall spoke, Atlantic gales were tearing across England, from the Irish coast to the North Sea. A 10-minute walk from where Tyndall was giving his lecture in London, a veteran of the Royal Navy, Robert FitzRoy, was embarking on an audacious meteorological experiment.

Tyndall knew FitzRoy. They mixed in London’s intellectual circles and had served on the same British Association committee. For the previous seven years, too, FitzRoy had been making a name for himself, as head of the British government’s new Meteorological Department.

NOTE:  I could have just as easily posted this in the Science category, however, since the title included Weather Wars" I chose to post it here.  As always, Neven is more than welcome to move this topic as he sees fit.

8
Policy and solutions / US Military Basing and Climate Change
« on: April 07, 2015, 06:47:34 AM »
It's personal when I've spent time at the 5 most vulnerable, to Climate Change, US Military Facilities in the world!!


                Diego Garcia Atoll, IndianOcean

I just happened upon the following report by Catherine Foley, Adjunct Fellow at the American Security Project, in 2012: https://www.americansecurityproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Military-Basing-and-Climate-Change.pdf

While this report certainly highlights the threats of Climate Change to US military infrastructure worldwide, what hit me very personally was that I have spent much time during my career at each one of the 5 facilities considered most vulnerable to Climate Change. What incenses me most is that the "War Hawks" in the US Congress who must depend on these facilities for further military campaigns of US Agression seem to claim that Climate Change is a Hoax! 

Below are a few quotes from the  report, then I will follow with  selected quotes about the 5  most vulnerable US military facilities followed by my personal experiences and observations:

Quote
Climate change not only affects our security through its impacts on the economy and our
physical infrastructure (roads, bridges, airports, etc.); it also can also affect domestic and
international military bases as flooding, drought and extreme weather events intensify.
Physical changes to the environment may disrupt U.S. military capabilities and facilities,
such as military training ranges or bases.

According to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review,
there are a number of US military installations that are already at risk. The report says:

Quote
“In 2008, the National Intelligence Council [NIC] judged that more than 30 U.S. military
installations were already facing elevated levels of risk from rising sea levels. DoD’s operational
readiness hinges on continued access to land, air, and sea training and test space.”

Although sea-level rise is a major concern, other environmental threats must be taken into
consideration in order to keep our military installments safe and secure. We tend to look at
environmental threats on an individual, case-by-case basis, which does not take the plethora
of threats into account.

The 5 Most Vulnerable US Facilities in he order depicted in the article:

1.  Diego Garcia

On my first of 4 visits to Diego Garcia en route to/from US Battlegroups deployed in the Indian Ocean, I  thought Diego Garcia was the most beautiful island I'd ever seen. Nothing more beautiful than a sunrise through the windstrept  trees along the miles of pristine beaches.  On a subsequent visit, while enjoying the camaraderie of the Officers Club, I became a charter member of the Diego Garcia Yacht Club although my only previous experience on a sailboat was a small "sunfish" in a protected harbor in the Persian Gulf. 

Quote
Diego Garcia is a critical logistics hub for the US and UK militaries in the Middle East. However, the island is a coral atoll encompassing 67 square miles, of which only 10 square miles is dry land........The highest point above sea-level is 22 feet, but the island’s mean height above sea-level is 4 feet.........A sea level rise of a several feet would force the US military to undertake a costly and difficult military relocation process; in addition, the military would lose a
geographically strategic outpost in the Indian region.

2. Bahrain.

I spent many nights in Bahrain during Gulf War I (Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm).  I loved the friendly locals and enjoyed visiting many of the historic sites, some of which predated the  Islamic era.

Quote
Military installations out of Bahrain, including U.S. “floating bases”- The U.S. military has built up military reinforcements into the Persian Gulf, many based out of Bahrain, to deter Iranian military from any possible attempt to shut the Strait of Hormuz (a key oil shipping route for the U.S.).

3. Guam.

I've only been there twice.  However, in addition to being strategically vital to the US, it is a major destination for Japanese "newlyweds" on their company sponsored honeymoons.

Quote
The military installation on the island of Guam is one of the most strategically important US bases in the Western Pacific Ocean. Military presence on Guam allows the US access to China and the rest of East Asia by air and sea to the West and Hawaii and North America to the East.9

4. Eglin AFB, Florida.

Quote
Located on the Gulf of Mexico, Eglin Air Force Base is the largest Air Force base in the world. It encompasses 724 square miles of land and occupies the majority of the northwest Florida panhandle. It serves as the focal point for all Air Force armaments and is home to the Air Force Armament Center (AAC), one of three product centers in the Air Force Material Command.
The AAC develops, tests and deploys many critical air-delivered weapons. It is a very important base not only for the US military but also for the local Florida economy. Since it is located on the coast in the Gulf of Mexico, it faces storm surges, sea-level rise and saltwater infiltration, which causes problems with freshwater resources in the area. With the increase of extreme weather, Eglin Air Force Base may face costly damages in the future

One of the few times I had to work with the Air Force, in my last over 30 years in the Defense Industry, was when I had  the opportunity to take a prototype Air-to-Air missile through all the final test protocols for the Air Force at Eglin AFB.  Since retirement I've enjoyed going back to the area to enjoy the  seafood and am hoping to be back there in a few weeks to do some fishing.

5. Norfolk Naval Base, VA.

Quote
Naval Base Norfolk is one of the largest naval complexes in the world, situated on the southern coast of Virginia in an area commonly known as Hampton Roads. The Naval Station houses US Atlantic Fleet, Commander Navy Region Mid-Atlantic and the Navy’s largest supply center.

The nearby Newport News shipyard is also the only yard in the U.S. that builds aircraft
carriers. Because of its location on the southern tip of Virginia, it is at risk of sea-level rise and storm surge, but it may also face threats from hurricanes in the Atlantic.

As the effects of climate change become more pronounced, Norfolk Naval Air Station may be effected more acutely, putting strategic naval resources at risk.

I can't begin to enumerate the number of times I've worked on naval vessels in the Norfolk area, be it Little Creek, Norfolk, Newport News, Portsmouth or Dam Neck (Training  Center).  Not only was that US Navy vessels it also included a number of Royal Saudi Navy vessels during a major expansion program in the early 80s. The US Navy is already constructing Double-decker piers at the Norfolk Naval Station in anticipation of predicted elevated sea levels, in spite of concerns by members of the GOP Congressional Delegation that AGW/CC is a hoax.

In Conclusion

My engineering expertise, in technical terms, was mostly related to shipboard anti-missile radar performance in varying electromagnetic, sea clutter, land clutter and battle group environments. My real-world experience with naval warfare is in the Persian Gulf.  I understand the threats, I know the concerns of naval commanders related to threats to our forces due to the current  escalation of tensions in the Middle East.

As an American, Vietnam veteran and an on sight-observer of Gulf War I, I am embarrassed  my countries elected officials lack of concern for the known impacts of AGW/CC on National Security and the associated critical infrastructure.














c

9
This Can’t Be Happening – 04.01.15

From the "This Can't Be happening Website"http://prn.fm/this-cant-be-happening-04-01-15/
Full interview with Professor Harold Wanless
http://s51.podbean.com/pb/05e6598d0751116c9b644450178e9822/5522f463/data1/blogs18/661545/uploads/ThisCantBeHappening_040115.mp3

Quote
Harold Wanless, a leading climatologist and geologist based at the University of Miami, returns to the “This Can’t Be Happening!” program after a year to revisit his claim that global warming and sea level rise are going to be much more dramatic than the consensus predictions of the UN Climate Committee, NASA, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and other groups. With recent reports of faster melting on Greenland and in both the Eastern and Western Antarctic, Wanless tells host Dave Lindorff we are now facing a catastrophe that could see sea levels rising by more than 20 feet by the end of the century, and perhaps, if methane begins seriously erupting from the Arctic seafloor, even reduced oxygen levels that could threaten mammals, including humans.

My thanks to ColoradoBob1 for posting this on the Wunderground Climate Blog http://www.wunderground.com/blog/RickyRood/comment.html?entrynum=330, Comment 552.

It is very seldom that I have, or take, the time to read every article, watch every video or listen to every interview that is posted here on the Forum or other reputable climate websites.. This was an exception in that I listened to the full hour long interview and was captivated, alarmed and educated all at the same time. This interview ran the full gamut from rising seal levels in Florida to melting ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica to the slowing of the Gulf Stream to the melting of the permafrost in all of the Arctic regions. Professor Wanless also describes his personal discussions with Florida Governor Scott as well as with Senator Marco Rubio. Needless to say, he does not feel very kindly to their current lack of action on Climate Change, although he manages to inject some humor from time to time.

This interview could have been posted under any number of categories here on the Forum, since professor Wanless has pertinent comments that would add value to current discussions on many open topics in multiple categories.  I found the hour listening to this interview to be well worth my time.

It is imperative that this interview be shared with as many residents of Florida and the entire Gulf Coast as possible.

If only half of what he says comes true in the next few decades, we are headed for disaster!!

10
Quote
5. Dr. Ricky Rood, Professor
2:23 PM GMT on March 15, 2014    +2   
Quote
Quoting 4. OldLeatherneck:
Dr. Rood,

.................................Not many elected leaders are going to publicly declare that they are willing to risk another depression just to mitigate a problem that too many influential people refuse to admit is an even greater threat to civilization.

I am certain that AGW/CC is an Existential Threat to Humanity!!


Hi,

I'd be interested in knowing what you and yours think of this piece:

Climate Change: A fundamental shift of our place in the world. In the Michigan Journal of Sustainability
http://graham.umich.edu/mjs/2014/03/the-conversation-climate-change-a-fundamental-shift-of-our-place-in-the-world/#comment-1092

This morning I provided a rather lengthy response to Dr. Ricky Rood's latest Climate Blog entry "No Energy Policy and Even Less Climate Policy" http://www.wunderground.com/blog/RickyRood/comment.html?entrynum=290 at Wunderground.  Shortly thereafter, I got a reply from Dr. Rood asking for my opinion, and that of my colleagues (here at ASIF, I assume) about a separate piece, "Climate Change: A fundamental shift of our place in the world" he has written for the Michigan Journal of Sustainability.  (See links in above Quotes)

I've only had a chance to read the piece one time, however, I believe it well worth the time to read again and expand the discussions here in this Forum.

Clearly, we are at a very critical nexus of Climate Policy and Energy Policy. We can no longer have independent Climate & Energy Policies. Energy Policies must account for the imminent (5-10 years) and eventual (decades/centuries) consequences of unabated Climate Change. Conversely, Climate Policies must reflect society's requirements for reliable and adequate sources of energy. Not an easy task on either front.

I'm opening this topic to further these critical discussions.


11
My wife saw the video of this on Facebook today.   I have no idea whether this concept would be economically feasible for large-scale development.  After a Google search I found the following Time article which provides more of a description.  Thought I would share this to get some feedback from the broader community.

http://techland.time.com/2013/03/05/finally-a-billboard-that-creates-drinkable-water-out-of-thin-air/




12
Exxon CEO Joins Lawsuit to Stop Fracking Near His Home
by: FishOutofWater for North Carolina BLUE.

Full article @ DailyKos: http://www.dailykos.com/story/2014/02/21/1279443/-Exxon-CEO-Joins-Lawsuit-to-Stop-Fracking-Near-His-Home


Rex Tillerson finally tells the truth about fracking. It lowers property values.

Quote
Exxon CEO Rex Tillerson may be the world's biggest fracker (Exxon is the biggest natural gas producer in the U.S.) but he isn't stupid. He'll frack my backyard and tell me it's good for me and he'll frack your place too, but don't let any frackers near his home. He knows damn well that fracking lowers property values, but he wouldn't admit it until the frackers came to his place. He just joined a lawsuit to stop the fracking because it would lower the value of his property.

One of my wife's friends just posted a link to this on Facebook this morning.

What utter self-serving hypocrisy.  The man make millions of dollars by destroying other peoples properties along with the world's environment, yet he can't have the value of his precious little home decline. 

13
Consequences / Texas Drought and Water Issues
« on: February 19, 2014, 03:57:41 PM »

Medina Lake is 3.3% full as of 2014-02-19


http://waterdatafortexas.org/reservoirs/individual/medina



Per Jack Taylor's suggestion, I've started this thread to discuss issues related to the current and future droughts in Texas as well as the many water usage issues that plague a state whose economy depends on agriculture and the oil 7 gas industry, which are very water intensive.

Medina lake is less that 30 miles from where I live and is just west of San Antonio.  Of all the lakes in Texas, this one is probably in the worst condition regarding current water levels.

As I mentioned in the other thread, the Texas Drought Project http://texasdroughtproject.org/ finally has a functioning website, with numerous links to valuable resources regarding water issues and climate change.  What I found interesting and informative was this Q&A regarding desalinization:

Quote
Q - If we get really desperate for water, can't we build desalination plants? After all,  climate change experts say that the seas are going to rise, so couldn't we use some of that water?

A - Desalination plants utilize a tremendous amount of energy, requiring new plants to be built to power them. In addition to seeming counter-productive, desalination is also far from a perfect process. Chemical and pharmaceutical waste, oil from offshore platforms and vessel spills, organic decaying matter from sea life, and "nerdles" - plastic pieces that resemble fish eggs - all find their way into the water produced through desalination. Additionally, chemicals have to be added in the process so as not to corrode the metal machinery in the plant. Desalinating water for human consumption in Texas would be energy-intensive and costly,  and the product would be contaminated.  Activist Maude Barlow, author of "Blue Covenant" and "Blue Gold,"  books about the commodification and scarcity of water, talks about the "inky" substance which emanates from the plants - she describes it as looking like it came out of a squid.  Desalination is not the answer to our problems with water.


14
Consequences / Annoying Little Local Impacts of AGW/CC
« on: August 08, 2013, 08:46:13 PM »
There are times we notice small changes locally due the changing climate.  Some of these changes aren't worthy of cluttering up the various threads which are dealing with the many far more catastrophic changes that are about to be happening.  I thought I'd start this thread for us to share the small, yet annoying changes we see happening now at local or regional levels.

I was just struck yesterday about how local summer warming may be responsible for the dramatic reduction in attendance at our local outdoor theatre.  Here in Ingram, TX in the heart of the Texas Hill Country, the iconic Point Theatre, located at the site of Stonehenge II, has been a landmark for many decades.  During the summer, all productions are held in the outdoor theatre which has a seating capacity of 750.  For the play that opens tomorrow night, only 29 tickets have been sold, Saturday and Sunday sales are at 9 and ZERO, respectively.  When the plays start the temperature will be in the mid to high 90s(F), there will be moderate humidity and there will be no breeze, hence many mosquitos.  In the not to distant past a normal summer night at the theatre would have had temperatures in the mid 80s(F), light to moderate humidity and a gentle breeze.

I have this more detailed information because my wife has been working part time as the business manager at the gallery and art studio side of this complex.  Traditionally, the revenues from the summer theatre productions provided the funding that supported all of the various creative art and educational activities.

My wife and I chose to retire here in 2007 because of the topography and climate.  As the rivers dry up the topography will change and the changing climate has already brought heat waves water  shortages.  We may be moving again.

15
Photo & Map from Calgary Herald
http://www.calgaryherald.com/business/Vast+Mackenzie+River+basin+under+threat+international+report/8502570/story.html#ixzz2VqYl6pTc

Quotes from Science Daily
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130610084312.htm



The sun sets on the Mackenzie River in Nahanni Butte, N.W.T. An environmental think-tank says the area drained by the river is one of the world's largest remaining intact ecosystem.

Photograph by: Ed Struzik, Postmedia News Files , The Canadian Press



Quote
Importance of the MacKenzie Basin

Researchers have compared the Mackenzie Basin to Africa's Serengeti Plain, an area of comparable size. Both ecosystems harbour high biodiversity and biological productivity compared to others in their respective regions. There are some 45,000 biologically productive lakes in the Mackenzie Basin.

Meanwhile, the ice and snow cover in the Mackenzie Basin provides a vital refrigerator-like cooling role, in weather and climate patterns throughout the northern hemisphere.

University of California Prof. Henry Vaux, Chair of the Rosenberg Forum, stressed that the average temperature in the Basin has already warmed beyond the 2 degree Celsius upon which nations agreed in Copenhagen as a limit not to be surpassed.

And, he noted, the World Meteorological Organization (2012) reported that ice cover in the Arctic between March and September of 2012 had been reduced by an area of 11.83 million square kilometers.

"To put that in perspective, Canada is about 10 million square kilometers in area; the area of Arctic sea ice that melted last summer was almost 2 million square kilometers larger," says Dr. Vaux.

The report, based on hearings conducted in Vancouver Sept. 5 to 7 last year, supported by the Walter and Duncan Gordon Foundation, says warm air now arrives in the north earlier in the spring and often persists longer into the autumn.

The Mackenzie Basin helps moderate climate by capping hundreds of millions of tonnes of greenhouse gases in permafrost soils, which cover 20% of Earth's surface. Deep permafrost -- in some places two kilometres deep -- can take 100,000 years to form.

In regions like the Mackenzie Basin, however, where average annual temperature is only slightly below freezing, permafrost is much thinner. Its melting will release massive quantities of methane (a greenhouse gas 21 times more potential per molecule than CO2) into the atmosphere.

Rising Arctic temperatures are already affecting the hydrological cycle of the Northwest Territories and other parts of Canada "and all signs indicate these changes will accelerate over time," according to the report.

Glacier coverage has declined by approximately 25 per cent in the last 25 years and in spring snow cover in the Canadian Rockies disappears about one month earlier.

Though these changes are already significant, "and in some cases border on catastrophic," the report says, climate simulations suggest increased warming will lead to even higher temperatures of a level not seen on Earth in more than 10,000 years.

16
The rest / NEW POLL: When Will the Forum Reach 1,000,000 Page Views
« on: June 08, 2013, 07:02:37 PM »
Due to the fantastic success of this forum in it's first 5 months, it's been exciting to see the participation grow.  Neven is to be complimented and thanked for creating this venue for sharing science, ideas, suggestions and at times our most dire fears.

I thought it was time for a poll that is purely fun for a change.

The winners of the poll should be entitled to receive a coffee mug or a T-shirt, but we don't have any of those, either for sale or give-away!!

17
Policy and solutions / Is the US Education System Failing Us??
« on: June 01, 2013, 02:49:49 PM »
One of the more rewarding experiences I have had, since retirement, is being the scholarship chairman for a local non-profit.  I live in the heart of the Texas Hill Country, which most of you know is very conservative and the local populace receives most of their news from unreliable sources (FOX News).  It alarms me to find out how many bright, deserving high school graduates are planning for educational and career futures in the petroleum or natural gas industries.

Quite often, I'm invited to present the scholarship at special award ceremonies for graduating seniors.  Last night was a different situation.  I was invited to a small rural high school in a neighboring county where the award presentation was combined the graduation ceremony.  As such, the award presenters got to march behind the faculty and graduates onto the football field.  I'm not going to mention how many decades it's been since I marched to the sound of "Pomp and Circumstance".

Being a very small school, the educational and career plans for each graduating senior were announced publicly.  Two of the young men receiving multiple awards and numerous honors were planning careers in Natural Gas Engineering and Petroleum Geology respectively.  Fortunately, the young lady I presented a scholarship to was planning a future in Environmental Sciences.

Unfortunately, this is not the first time that I've encountered many young people in this area that have plans for career futures in the fossil fuel industry.  I'm certain that they have been unduly influenced by family, friends and even possibly educators that climate change is not real and the world's energy future lies underground waiting to  be further exploited.

Somehow, we have to  strive to make sure that the true science of AGW/CC is being taught at the junior and senior high school levels.  If not, we are going to have another generation of deniers going through the educational pipeline.

18
The forum / Neven's "TIP JAR"
« on: May 06, 2013, 11:52:14 PM »
Many of those members of this forum are also regular commenters and readers of Neven's Arctic Sea Ice Blog.  These members are aware that Neven has provided the blog and this forum as a free service....a true gift to humanity!!  Isn't it nice to participate in an on-line venue without being pestered with pop-up commercials and viewing multiple images of things you don't want or need?

What many of you may not know, in addition to creating and managing the blog and this forum, Neven works for a living, is raising a family and is building a new home.  How he manages to do all of this is truly amazing.

There are times, however, when the expenses associated with the technological needs of these sites becomes burdensome for one lone individual.  Being that Neven would like some financial assistance in upgrading his technology, he created a means of accepting donations via PayPal.  Being the humble soul that he is, he put a donation link on the Arctic Sea Ice Blog, with little or no fanfare.

I would hope that each of you can find a few extra euros to help fund one of the most influential climate sites on the internet.  Your show of support and appreciation may be more important that the amount you choose to donate.

Donation Link is Below:

https://www.paypal.com/us/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_flow&SESSION=REbRXspCXkS7ZqwfzHKxygUx65ZNwh6gdx62UsPBr0EA6Pzg6yCe2Sit064&dispatch=5885d80a13c0db1f8e263663d3faee8d96fc0752e9614158f04872d2f2ae25dc

19
Consequences / Sea Level Rise by 2100 (POLL)
« on: April 28, 2013, 08:01:13 PM »
There are various estimates and models of how much sea levels will rise during the 21st century.  If and when policy makers and planners begin to take AGW/CC seriously they need to have some basis for determining what to be prepared for in terms of sea level rise.  If you were to advise them of what they need to be prepared for in terms of anticipated sea levels, how would you advise them, and why?

20
Glaciers / Land O' Lakes: Melting Glaciers Transform Alpine Landscape
« on: April 28, 2013, 02:13:03 PM »

Quote
Climate change is dramatically altering the Swiss Alps, where hundreds of bodies of water are being created by melting glaciers. Though the lakes can attract tourists and even generate electricity, local residents also fear catastrophic tidal waves.

Full article by Axel Bojanowski  and more pictures in Spiegel Online:

http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/melting-glaciers-turning-alps-into-lake-region-a-896729.html

21
Limbaugh rewards child climate skeptic with an iPad

Full article:http://www.salon.com/2013/04/05/limbaugh_rewards_child_climate_skeptic_with_an_ipad/

Quote
On his show Thursday, Rush Limbaugh hosted a climate expert to explain how global warming is “a hoax.” Sorry, did we say climate expert? We meant 13-year-old kid from Indiana. The young man called into Limbaugh’s show and said he had done his own research at the local library for a school project and concluded that it was obvious that man-made climate change is bogus.

“It was really easy for me to find this evidence, really easy,” said young Alex. “I believe the reason that the liberals do not have the evidence [that it's a hoax] is because they do not want the evidence. They don’t want to hear that it’s wrong.”

Alex said he found all the information at the library, because he didn’t have a computer. Limbaugh was so impressed that he told Alex he wanted to send him an iPad, assuming his parents were OK with it, in order to help him with future research.

Circling back today, Limbaugh explained that “exactly as the news media is a branch of the Democrat Party, so too is much of science today.” “The global warming scientists are just Democrats, folks. They’re all part of an agenda,” he continued, “The Democrats have literally politicized everything they can use to expand government, which is their primary objective.”

Since this forum is very much international in scope and participation, I thought that those members, who are not from the US and are either scientists or scientifically literate, would like to know that one of America's premiere "bloviators", Rush Limbaugh, has declared that you are members of the US Democratic Party.

I listen to this clown periodically just to see which lies or distortions of the truth he is currently spouting.  While he calls his show "The Limbaugh Institute for Advanced Conservative Studies", I prefer to call it the "The Limbaugh Institute for the Advancement of Ignorance"

22


Little did I know, on the 15th of January 1975, when I arrived in Thule, Greenland, that some of the experiences I would have in the ensuing 8 months, would provide memories that would last for a life time.   Yet then, a month earlier, when I left the US Marine Corps, I didn’t know that my next destination would be Thule, Greenland.  For more than a year, I had been certain, as well as assured, that I would have a lucrative position with UNIVAC.  Then as an economic downturn became a recession, UNIVAC went into a hiring freeze.  Having no alternate plans for my post-military career, I accepted an offer for immediate employment maintaining the radar processing equipments at the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) in Thule, Greenland.

It is now 2013, almost 40 years since I lived and worked in Greenland.  As I watch the decline of the Arctic Sea Ice and the unparalleled melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, I can’t help but reflect on the brief time that I spent there.  Hardly a day goes by that I don’t search for some data on the temperatures, glacial retreat or some other event that is climatologically or meteorologically relevant to Greenland.

Yes, I’ve survived an extended period of time without sunlight.  I’ve lived through destructive katabatic winds blowing in sub-zero temperatures (-40F or colder).  I’ve also seen the splendor of the ice floating on the calm waters in a fjord, the morning after a massive calving event from a nearby glacier.  Yet this story is more about having witnessed a way of living that soon will be no more.  That is the way the Inuit people have lived for centuries, if not millennia, and now are faced with a changing climate that will alter their lives more than their 100s of years of interactions with western civilization.

How I came to have the opportunity to meet an Inuit family, interview them and then hitch a ride on a dog sled, is a brief sidebar story in itself.  Although I was working 72 hours a week, I needed something to do during my non-working hours.  I thought that it would be more beneficial to further my education than to sit in the club every night renewing a friendship with Jack Daniels, who I spent too many nights with during my year in Vietnam.  Therefore, I signed up for a class in journalism, being taught on-base by the Air Force Base Public Information Officer (PIO).  By the time April came and the class was nearing completion, I was given the final assignment of covering the Annual Greenlandic Dog Sled Races, being held on the frozen bay between Thule and Dundas Island, for the base newspaper.

On the morning of the race, I was driven to the nearby Inuit village along with the Air Force PIO and the Danish Liaison Officer.  Once entering the small cottage of an Inuit family, I was given the opportunity to interview them about dog-sledding in Greenland.  The interview process required that the questions were translated from English to Danish and then to the native Inuit tongue, with the answers requiring the same process in reverse. 

The Greenlandic sled dogs are more than just beasts of burden, they are integral parts of an Inuit family and given the love and care we give to our household pets.  Yet caring for a sled dog is no small feat, in and of itself, as each dog eats approximately 2 tons of seal meat each year.  For a team of 10 or more dogs, that requires a great deal of hunting just to feed the dogs.  As the above picture indicates, the dog teams in Greenland are harnessed in a fan, unlike the tandem harnessing of an Alaskan or Yukon dog team.  The harnessing in a fan provides more pulling power than does the tandem method and is suitable for Greenland because there are no forests with narrow trails.  The lead dog, in the center has a longer trace than the rest of the pack.  This lead dog is the naturally selected leader of the pack.  The younger dogs start their pulling careers at the edges of the fan and move towards the center as they mature and learn to work as part of a team.

I had the fortune of being able to ride on a dog sled from the Inuit Village to the site of the race, which was held on the frozen bay between Thule and Dundas Island, which was no more than a few miles away.  I also learned the important lesson of having the right lens on my camera before the ride began, as it’s a bit difficult changing lenses with bare hands in sub-freezing temperatures while riding on a dog sled.

Inuit families had travelled hundreds of miles across Greenland and the frozen waters along the shoreline of Baffin Bay, to participate in this annual event.  Using track vehicles with plow blades, the Air Force had cleared a circular race course of about two miles in length.  The race was a timed event with each competing team racing individually and the winner was the team that completed the course in the least amount of time.  It was a fascinating and exciting event to be a part of. These are events that soon will be no more, as the 2013 Annual Greenlandic Dog Races were cancelled due to lack of Sea Ice in a location far south of Thule.

It’s sad to think about the changes that are being imposed upon indigenous peoples, not just in Greenland, but around the world, because we have so carelessly destroyed the habitats they have lived in and thrived in for millennia.

Thanks for allowing me to share these bittersweet memories of a time gone by and a time that shall be no more.

Below are more of the pictures taken of the day of the race plus a few others showing the stark landscape of the frozen shores of Greenland.


Proud Friends and Servants



Cuddly, Cute & Loving



Waiting to be Called



A Bit of Rest Before the Race



This Team is Ready for the Big Race



The Sleds are Ready



Some Days it Just Doesn't Pay to go to Work



The Proud Winner of the 1975 Greenlandic Dog Sled Races



Previous Year's Icebergs Trapped in Bay



As the Arctic Melts, sights like this will never be seen again!!!





23


According to the data provided in this video, the combined contributions to SLR from Greenland and Antarctica has risen from 0.27mm/yr in the 1990s to 0.95mm/yr between 2005 and 2010.  Currently Greenland accounts for about 2/3rds of this.

After the exceptional mass loss from Greenland in 2012 and what AbruptSLR has been discussing about recent mass loss from the WAIS, I would imagine that all previous SLR projections for the future are alarmingly on the low side.

I have not watched the full 2 hours of this video, however, am looking forward to a very educational experience.  May require a bag of popcorn and a cold brew (or two).

24
Greenland and Arctic Circle / Canadian glaciers face 'big losses'
« on: March 07, 2013, 10:52:35 PM »

The glaciers and ice caps of the archipelago cover some 146,000 square km

Quote from:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-21699115

"The glaciers of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago will undergo a dramatic retreat this century if warming projections hold true.

A new study suggests the region's ice fields could lose perhaps as much as a fifth of their volume.

Such a melt would add 3.5cm to the height of the world's oceans. Only the ice of Greenland and Antarctica is expected to contribute more.

The assessment is reported in the Geophysical Research Letters journal.

"This is a very important part of the world where there has already been a lot of change," said lead author Jan Lenaerts from Utrecht University, Netherlands.

"And it is all the more important that we talk about it because it has been somewhat overshadowed by all the news of Greenland and Antarctica," he told BBC News.
"


25
The rest / Thoughts for Scholars
« on: March 05, 2013, 01:44:12 AM »
WOW!!

When Neven started this forum I knew it would be important and suspected that it would be successful.  However, I had no idea that it would generate this much activity in just a few short weeks.  I amazed at the broad scope and depth of the various topics and their resultant comments.  My initial take-away is that these discussions are resulting in questions that currently have no defined answers whether from the scientific communities or political leaders.

Therefore, I would recommend that any graduate student searching for topics for their master's thesis or doctoral dissertation, whether in the hard sciences (climatology, meteorology, atmospheric physics, etc.) or liberal arts (psychology, public administration, etc.) can find new ground for research just by reading every topic and comment here on the Arctic Sea Ice Forum.

26
Policy and solutions / Why some still "DENY" and others "FAIL TO ACT"
« on: February 26, 2013, 12:32:28 PM »
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs



 I still remember "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" and believe that it can help us understand and explain why so few people are concerned about the future impacts of Climate Change and why others are so adamant in cling to a Culture of Denial. 90+ % of the world's population is mired at the bottom two levels of Maslow's Hierarchy striving to meet their Physiological and Safety Needs on a daily basis. Can't really blame them for not worrying about will happen to other peoples 10, 20 or 50 years from now. At the top of the Maslow's Hierarchy is Self-Actualization which is defined by achieving a state of Morality,Creativity, Spontaneity, Problem Solving, Lack of Prejudice and Acceptance of Facts. Not many of us here can claim that we are close to acheiving Self-Actualization, however, the denialists with their inability to accept scientific facts, unwillingness to solve problems an the lack of any moral compass are certainly nowhere close to achieving this state of being. My thoughts are that too many of the denialists are trapped at the middle levels of the hierarchy trying to find Love/Belonging and Esteem by succumbing to the peer pressures of family, certain religious groups, political factions and a biased media. While I am disheartened at times with the blatant lies and distortions of truth, it helps when I sit back and try to understand what is influencing their actions and thought processes.

27
Glaciers / Chacaltaya Glacier, Bolivia
« on: February 23, 2013, 04:22:15 PM »

Quote


As glacial retreat reaches critical levels in Bolivia, water stress plagues the cities of El Alto and La Paz.3,8,9 If our heat-trapping emissions continue to rise at current rates, many tropical glaciers in Latin America are likely to disappear within a few decades.12
◾Chacaltaya glacier, northeast of La Paz, lost more than 90 percent of its volume from the 1940s to the late 1990s-and disappeared completely in 2009.3,9,10,11
◾Average temperatures throughout the tropical Andes rose around 0.6° F (0.33° C) per decade in the last quarter of the twentieth century.13,14 Scientists have observed that temperature increases of as little as 0.2° F (0.1° C) per decade can cause glaciers to shrink dramatically.17
◾Melting of tropical Andean glaciers threatens the water supply of 30 million people, agriculture, hydropower, and the region's immense biodiversity.4,23
 
............................................................................

Glaciers across South America have shrunk severely in recent decades, with many vanishing altogether.12 Scientists attribute the accelerating retreat of Andean glaciers to climate change—primarily warming temperatures, higher humidity, and shifting precipitation.13 Average temperatures throughout the tropical Andes have been rising since the mid-twentieth century, with the rate of increase jumping to around 0.6° F (0.33° C) per decade in the last quarter of the century.13,14




http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-locations/chacaltaya-glacier-bolivia.html

28
The forum / [Solved] Inserting blockquotes
« on: February 22, 2013, 02:53:55 PM »
I can easily get a quote from a previous blogger's comment, however I didn't see how to include the author's name and time stamp.

What am I missing?

THANKS

29


While this chart may be purely hypothetical, the events depicted are not!  I have chosen to use the loss of arctic sea ice on the x-axis, because we know the stages of decline.  We also know that Arctic Amplification is going to continue to play havoc with the climate, leading to severe droughts, extreme heatwaves and more violent storms. I've also included stages of Sea level rise (SLR) on the x-axis because the loss of the arctic sea ice will lead to accelerated melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS).  What we don't know is when in the future these events will be occurring, although, the best minds on Neven's blog seem to believe that we will see an ice-free September as early as 2016.  I arbitrarily placed a 1 meter SLR after a perrennially ice free arctic, however comments/opinions on that are welcome.

The global impact of Climate Change is already taking a toll on infrastructure and society.  This toll will only worsen unless CO2 emissions are drastically reduced or other mitigation efforts prove successful.

We Have Choices

While many of the events depicted on this chart are already unavoidable, humanity has within it's power to change the slope of the curves.  While I'm not always as optimistic about a rapid transition to renewable energy as my good friend Bob Wallace is, I'm also not as doomerish as those who believe that we are unavoidably heading towards a mass extinction event.

I welcome any thoughts/comments about the timeline of events and/or the societal impacts of unfettered Climate Change.

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