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Messages - Stephan

Pages: [1] 2 3 ... 28
1
Antarctica / Re: Pine Island Glacier (PIG) Calving and Discussion
« on: October 26, 2020, 05:37:02 PM »
Also a small piece of the NIS (lower left corner of the image) has calved.

2
Science / Re: 2020 Mauna Loa CO2 levels
« on: October 25, 2020, 07:25:47 PM »
Outlook:
Last year next week was around 408.7 ppm. Extrapolating the actual values into the near future would result in an annual increase of 2.6 ± 0.25 ppm.
This week the latest CO2 values from Mauna Loa are available on Sunday evening again  :)
Week beginning on October 18, 2020:     411.52 ppm
Weekly value from 1 year ago:               408.73 ppm
Weekly value from 10 years ago:            387.54 ppm
Last updated: October 25, 2020

The annual increase of 2.79 ppm is a little bit higher than I expected last Monday. The reason for this is an uptick, combined with massive intra-day variations, from Oct 21 on. The annual increase is also higher than the 10y average of 2.40 ppm/a. 8.48 ppm are missing to the "poll value".

Outlook:
Last year next week averaged at 409.3 ppm. I expect an annual increase of 2.6 ± 0.3 ppm.

3
Arctic sea ice / Re: Global sea ice area and extent data
« on: October 25, 2020, 08:10:51 AM »
Extent gain yesterday 0.14 M km² up to 23.64 M km². Therefore the actual value is higher than the value measured on June 28 (23.57 M km²), which has been the highest value ("false maximum") so far this year.

4
Arctic sea ice / Re: 2020 Sea ice area and extent data
« on: October 21, 2020, 10:40:25 PM »
...and 2016, not too long ago, also was a "slow freezer" until November, with various entries of warm air masses from the Atlantic. Please just compare 2016's path with the 2010s average on gero's latest chart.

5
Arctic sea ice / Re: Global sea ice area and extent data
« on: October 20, 2020, 07:13:30 PM »
A short check about the "maximum maximum" that should be expected early November:

To make 2020 have its maximum in July global sea ice extent (23.57 M km²) must not exceed an increase of 0.29 M km². From yesterday on this increase is not to expect anymore from a track like the 1980s and 1990s averages.
An increase of 0.29 M km² would be realised until October 24 (track of 2000s average) or October 23 (track of 2010s average), respectively. As a lot of open water exists in the Arctic it seems likely that 2020's global sea ice extent will increase by (far) more than 0.29 M km² until early November.
Two things must happen at the same time to avoid this:
1. A further very slow increase in the Arctic for at least two weeks.
2. A (much) higher decrease than average around Antarctica every day in the next two weeks.
If the 2020's curve manages to stay below 23.57 M km² until around Nov 10, then the strongly increasing seasonal losses around Antarctica will make up for a later and faster Arctic extent increase.

6
Science / Re: 2020 Mauna Loa CO2 levels
« on: October 19, 2020, 07:28:13 PM »
Outlook:
The next week of last year had an average of about 408.6 ppm. I expect an annual increase of 2.6 ± 0.25 ppm.
With one day delay the actual values from Mauna Loa are available:

Week beginning on October 11, 2020:     411.12 ppm
Weekly value from 1 year ago:                408.57 ppm
Weekly value from 10 years ago:            386.86 ppm
Last updated: October 19, 2020

The annual increase is 2.55 ppm, slightly higher than the 10 y average of 2.42 ppm/a.
The intra-day variations were huge, but the inter-day variation was quite small. The seasonal minimum has now passed. We are 8.88 ppm away from the "poll value" of 420.0 ppm.

Outlook:
Last year next week was around 408.7 ppm. Extrapolating the actual values into the near future would result in an annual increase of 2.6 ± 0.25 ppm.

7
Antarctica / Re: Pine Island Glacier (PIG) Calving and Discussion
« on: October 19, 2020, 07:18:01 PM »
Thank you paolo. Perfect.
In addition (I hope this isn't too much work) a short history of the evolution of the largest cracks within PIIS, SIS or SWT in the same manner would be great.

8
Arctic sea ice / Re: 2020/21 Freezing Season Predictions
« on: October 19, 2020, 06:53:43 PM »
gerontocrat - thank you for the analyses. Very interesting and informative indeed.

9
Science / Re: 2020 Mauna Loa CO2 levels
« on: October 18, 2020, 08:54:39 PM »
It is Sunday evening here in Germany, and time for the weekly update of Mauna Loa CO2 values. But there is no update.
I will post them as soon as they are available.

10
Science / Re: 2020 Mauna Loa CO2 levels
« on: October 18, 2020, 07:24:21 AM »
Just for clarification:
1. A week beginning in April will be counted for April, even if it ends in May. The same rule aplies for any other month.
2. I use the source https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/weekly.html as "official" data.

11
Science / Re: 2020 Mauna Loa CO2 levels
« on: October 17, 2020, 10:45:23 PM »
I just added a poll to this thread, because 420 ppm is exactly 50% above pre-industrial and we are approaching this limit in the not too distant future. When exactly - this is up to you to guess.
One option per voter, which cannot be changed.

12
Arctic sea ice / Re: Global sea ice area and extent data
« on: October 17, 2020, 11:13:38 AM »
Quote from gerontocrat:

"N.B. In 2016 the maximum was reached on the 7th July. i.e. the November maximum was less than the “false” maximum."

I checked the JAXA graphs of the years from 1979 to 2019.
To have a higher July "false" maximum than the "real" maximum early November in 2020 global sea ice extent must not exceed 23.57 M km². This means an increase of max. 0.50 M km² from now on until November.
2016 kept below that threshold and became the first year with the annual maximum in July.
But there are several other years in which the increase from Oct 11 to the November maximum was smaller than 0.50 M km². That were 1980, 1981, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1996 and 2000.
Lower than average increases in the Arctic and at/above average losses in the Antarctic led to an slower increase in global sea ice extent.
Today the max. increase must stay below 0.35 M km². Both 1980s and 1990s average stayed below this threshhold. Therefore the probability that the "false" maximum in July finaly is the largest global sea ice extent in 2020 is rising.

13
Arctic sea ice / Re: Global sea ice area and extent data
« on: October 12, 2020, 08:25:41 PM »
Quote from gerontocrat:

"N.B. In 2016 the maximum was reached on the 7th July. i.e. the November maximum was less than the “false” maximum."

I checked the JAXA graphs of the years from 1979 to 2019.
To have a higher July "false" maximum than the "real" maximum early November in 2020 global sea ice extent must not exceed 23.57 M km². This means an increase of max. 0.50 M km² from now on until November.
2016 kept below that threshold and became the first year with the annual maximum in July.
But there are several other years in which the increase from Oct 11 to the November maximum was smaller than 0.50 M km². That were 1980, 1981, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1996 and 2000.
Of course in those times much larger portions of the Arctic were already ice covered which are now still open waters. Therefore the increase rate in 2020 until November should be larger than in those years. Anyway, if Antarctic sea ice extent will lose much more than average until then it may be possible that 2020 follows 2016's example.

14
Science / Re: 2020 Mauna Loa CO2 levels
« on: October 11, 2020, 07:04:02 PM »
Outlook:
Last year next week had an average of 408.3 ppm. An annual increase of 2.8 ± 0.3 ppm should be expected.

Sunday evening - time to post the latest CO2 concentration from NOAA (Mauna Loa)

Week beginning on October 4, 2020:     411.05 ppm
Weekly value from 1 year ago:              408.33 ppm
Weekly value from 10 years ago:           386.98 ppm
Last updated: October 11, 2020

The annual increase is 2.72 ppm. This value is again higher than the 10y average (2.41 ppm/a).
We are now in the seasonal minimum. The values were very smooth and didn't change within this week.

Outlook:
The next week of last year had an average of about 408.6 ppm. I expect an annual increase of 2.6 ± 0.25 ppm.

15
Science / Re: Where are we now in CO2e , which pathway are we on?
« on: October 11, 2020, 06:59:19 PM »
I do not use a factor for methane, but I convert the actual concentration into radiative forcing (values listed in my posting). I sum up all the radiative forcings of the four "NOAA gases" and re-convert them into CO2 equivalents using the same formula I use to convert CO2 concentrations into radiative forcing.

There has been a lengthy discussion how to do it some months ago in this thread, because before that I had used the factors 28 and 80. But this is scientifically not correct as I was told.

16
Science / Re: Where are we now in CO2e , which pathway are we on?
« on: October 10, 2020, 10:00:51 PM »
Is there a way to change the final value to CO2e, in ppm?
And a way to compare the sum of them with what we have, by example, versus 1980?

Here you go, Juan:

I converted the radiative forcing back into CO2 equivalents. Please find the values for each January of the following years. Please also keep in mind that these numbers only represent the four "NOAA gases" CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. Therefore the "true" value is higher than that.

Jan 1980 372.2 ppm
Jan 1990 394.8 ppm (+22.6 ppm or +6.1%)
Jan 2000 415.7 ppm (+20.9 ppm or +5.3%)
Jan 2010 440.4 ppm (+24.7 ppm or +5.9%)
Jan 2020 473.4 ppm (+33.0 ppm or +7.5%)

The latest value (June 2020) represents a CO2 equivalent of 477.1 ppm (annual increase of 3.6 ppm). I will report this equivalent in future, once a month, when NOAA adds the latest monthly averages to its website.

It is obvious that we are on an exponential track. The smaller increase during the 1990s is a consequence of the breakdown of the Soviet Union's and its allies' economy after the revolutions of 1989/90. 

17
Arctic sea ice / Re: 2020 Sea ice area and extent data
« on: October 09, 2020, 09:59:25 PM »
I added the monthly extent value for september 2020 into my long-term plot where I calculate the extent anomalies from 1979 up to now.
The average (1979-2020) September extent is now 6.01 M km². September 2020 had an average extent of 3.93 M km², which is 2.08 M km² less than that long-term average.
The much higher than normal losses in July 2020 had pushed the actual value below the red long-term linear trend line, where it remains in August and in September. The difference of the actual month from that trend line is -1.01 M km² (calculated from the linear trend line this September should have been at 4.94 M km²).
The slope of the long-term linear trend line has become again steeper by two digits (-0.0555 instead of -0.0553).

See attached graph. Click to enlarge.

18
Arctic sea ice / Re: When will the Arctic Go Ice Free?
« on: October 09, 2020, 09:18:02 PM »
It is time for the monthly update of my extrapolation when the extent [Ausdehnung], volume [Volumen], thickness [Dicke] and area [Fläche] will reach zero. The extrapolation occured linearly and by a logarithmic function; the latter one almost constantly resulting in earlier times (valid for volume and thickness, not for extent and area in the winter months). The September value now includes 2020.
Volume and thickness in September 2020 are (slightly) above the long term trend lines, area lies almost at the long term trend line, whereas extent dips slightly below it. The "BOE numbers" did not change relevantly compared to September 2019. Interestingly my linear extrapolation for volume matches zero in 2032, which is in line with postings of other members in this thread some days ago.

The order (earlier → later BOE) generally is volume < thickness < area < extent.

Please note that this is not a forecast but a trend!
See attached table, now widened to see the linear function value (y-AA) at t = 0. stg = slope.

Click to enlarge it.

19
Arctic sea ice / Re: Global sea ice area and extent data
« on: October 08, 2020, 10:04:33 PM »
We are again more than 2 M km² below the 2000s average.

I checked JAXA and found that the last day of global sea ice extent higher than the 2000s average was December 3rd of 2015.

20
Arctic sea ice / Re: September predictions challenge 2020
« on: October 08, 2020, 10:01:30 PM »
All of my bets were one bin too high (takin' the lower PIOMAS volume as a reference). I early went for high confidence which gives me 3*2 = 6 points for each month, totaling 18 points in the end.

21
Antarctica / Re: Pine Island Glacier (PIG) Calving and Discussion
« on: October 08, 2020, 07:12:44 PM »
Thank you paolo for the SWT update.

I also mentioned the "ZoD" and its growth, now better called "DZ", in the western part of the SWT, close to the ice rise, in a posting last melting season.
I share your opinion of a structural change of the SWT, due to the missing buttressing by PIIS-MIS. I guess that the greater instability is now in the eastern part of SWT, which should see further (minor) calvings soon. With further calvings the whole SWT will move faster, and more areas will come closer to the calving front. This front will move westward and may finally reach the DZ. Until then a complete decoupling of the ice masses of the ice rise and the SWT will be completed.

No good news at all...

22
Arctic sea ice / Re: When will the Arctic Go Ice Free?
« on: October 06, 2020, 09:58:38 PM »
Maybe the tipping point wasn't so far this summer? CAB ice looked weak all the way up to the pole, as witnessed by the Mosaic crew.

Maybe with just a little bit thinner ice to start the season, or more favourable weather late season, or a strong storm to clear the rubble...
I'd like to take you back into summer 2016. At this time the CAB ice also looked very damaged and fragmented. Maybe it has never really recovered since then, although the melting seasons 2017 and 2018 were not too strong. Could it be this was the first step on the way into a BOE?

23
Arctic sea ice / Re: 2020 Sea ice area and extent data
« on: October 06, 2020, 09:02:36 PM »
Thanks again gerontocrat for these very clear and informative graphs. :-)

24
Science / Re: Where are we now in CO2e , which pathway are we on?
« on: October 06, 2020, 08:41:14 PM »
To finalize my update on greenhouse gases here is the summary of the four postings in the individual gas concentration threads.

More radiative forcing of the "NOAA gases" (CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6) in June 2020 than in June 2019, but less than in May 2020, because CO2 and CH4 reach their seasonal maximum in May.

The values [W/m²], change to May 2020 and change to June 2019:
CO2 2.161    (- 0.009)    (+ 0.031)   
CH4 0.519    (- 0.001)    (+ 0.005)
N2O 0.205   (+ 0.000)    (+ 0.003)
SF6  0.0053 (+ 0.0000)  (+ 0.0001)
sum  2.891  (- 0.009)   (+ 0.040) (rounding differences)

The relative annual increase is 1.43 %, a little bit higher than May 2020.

25
Science / Re: Trends in atmospheric CH4
« on: October 06, 2020, 08:35:52 PM »
Here is the latest monthly average of Mauna Loa CH4 concentration:

June 2020:     1872.2 ppb
June 2019:     1858.8 ppb
Last updated: October 05, 2020

This is an annual increase of 13.4 ppb. This is the highest annual increase since February 2015!

I set an index = 100 for the 1980 average [1601.2 ppb]. June 2020 is at 116.9 compared to that index.

26
Science / Re: Trends in Atmospheric SF6
« on: October 06, 2020, 08:33:38 PM »
The latest monthly average for SF6 is available from NOAA:

June 2020:     10.26 ppt
June 2019:       9.92 ppt
Last updated: October 05, 2020

The annual increase is 0.34 ppt. It is about average of what has been observed in the last decade.

I set an index of 100 for the year 1980 [0.848 ppt]. June 2020 is at 1,210.

27
Science / Re: Trends in Atmospheric N2O
« on: October 06, 2020, 08:32:08 PM »
The latest NOAA monthly average for N2O is available.

June 2020:     332.9 ppb
June 2019:     331.7 ppb
Last updated: October 05, 2020

The annual increase is 1.2 ppb. This is higher than the annual increase of most of the last years.

I set an index = 100 to the average of 1980 [301.1 ppb]. June 2020 has a relative value of 110.6 compared to 1980.

28
Science / Re: 2020 Mauna Loa CO2 levels
« on: October 06, 2020, 08:23:58 PM »
And here comes the official value from NOAA:

September 2020:       411.29 ppm
September 2019:       408.54 ppm
Last updated: October 6, 2020

The annual increase is 2.75 ppm. Last year (Sep 2019 vs. Sep 2018) it was at 3.03 ppm.

29
Antarctica / Re: Antarctic Icebergs
« on: October 05, 2020, 10:02:22 PM »
It looks like B-22 is losing further pieces.
I analysed the latest picture from Sentinel 2 and found a small soon-to-be breaking off iceberg at the Western edge of B-22, circled in orange. The latest calving is marked by a blue arrow. A much older calving (yellow arrow) is still hanging around, it is grounded.

I also detected a new rift (green line) starting in the SW corner and going almost to the centre of B-22. It was absent last year. Is this a first sign of a more fundamental disintegration of my pet iceberg?

See attached picture.

30
Arctic sea ice / Re: When will the Arctic Go Ice Free?
« on: October 05, 2020, 08:58:20 PM »
Thanks a lot for these animations. Very informative indeed.

31
Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2020/2021 freezing season
« on: October 05, 2020, 08:53:59 PM »
Latest Five Day Forecast
Wind + Temp @ Surface
Large GiF!
A closer look onto ESS/Laptev on the one hand and the Barents on the other shows mostly southerly winds in both areas. This should slow down cooling at least a little bit, even if Siberia turned into "blue".

32
Arctic sea ice / Re: 2020 Sea ice area and extent data
« on: October 05, 2020, 07:15:58 PM »
Five more days like this and ESS ice area will be at zero.
Six more days like this and ESS ice area will reach zero.

33
Arctic sea ice / Re: 2020 Sea ice area and extent data
« on: October 04, 2020, 08:36:24 PM »
Five more days like this and ESS ice area will be at zero.

34
Science / Re: 2020 Mauna Loa CO2 levels
« on: October 04, 2020, 07:02:56 PM »
Outlook:
Next week last year had an average slightly below 408 ppm. An annual increase of 2.7 ppm ± 0.3 should be ecxpected. Let's see whether it will work out this way...

Sunday evening update of Mauna Loa CO2 concentration.

Week beginning on September 27, 2020:     411.06 ppm
Weekly value from 1 year ago:                    407.97 ppm
Weekly value from 10 years ago:                386.77 ppm
Last updated: October 4, 2020

The annual increase is 3.09 ppm. This value is higher than I had expected last Sunday and it is higher than the 10y average of 2.43 ppm/a.
The weekly average has not even gone below 411 ppm, but dipped below it last Sunday, Monday and Wednesday. From the long term experience the seasonal minimum has been reached. The increase towards the seasonal maximum in May will begin slowly throughout October.

Outlook:
Last year next week had an average of 408.3 ppm. An annual increase of 2.8 ± 0.3 ppm should be expected.

35
Arctic sea ice / Re: 2020 Sea ice area and extent data
« on: October 03, 2020, 09:59:44 PM »
Still very impressive losses of area and extent in the ESS.

36
Arctic sea ice / Re: Accuracy of poll predictions
« on: October 02, 2020, 09:26:56 PM »
Very interesting, indeed.
Thank you for the evaluation.
+

37
Arctic sea ice / Re: 2020 Sea ice area and extent data
« on: October 02, 2020, 07:48:09 PM »
Interestingly, ESS ice area of today is even lower than in mid September...

38
Antarctica / Re: Pine Island Glacier (PIG) Calving and Discussion
« on: September 29, 2020, 08:37:24 PM »
I am deeply concerned - will there be a month, or at least a week, without further (micro-/mini-)calvings at all? How long will this be going on?

39
Antarctica / Re: Pine Island Glacier (PIG) Calving and Discussion
« on: September 28, 2020, 06:05:06 PM »
Thanks paolo for all these updates. It seems to me that also parts of the damage zone have left together with the "P2 iceberg". I wonder whether a meta stable front in the damage zone can be established or whether further minor calvings further upstream are unavoidable in the next future.

40
Arctic sea ice / Re: 2020 Sea ice area and extent data
« on: September 28, 2020, 06:57:29 AM »
JAXA Arctic Sea Ice Extent as of Sep 27, 2020.
All values in M km²

2020: 4.07 (decrease of 0.02, whereas the usual increase of the last decades for this day is +0.05).
2020 is 2nd in the list.

2012: 3.62
2007: 4.19
2019: 4.31
2018: 4.70
2011: 4.73
2010s: 4.72
2015: 4.80
2008: 4.85
2017: 4.89
2016: 5.01
2010: 5.17
2014: 5.22
2013: 5.27
2000s: 5.81
1990s: 6.99
1980s: 7.69

41
Science / Re: 2020 Mauna Loa CO2 levels
« on: September 27, 2020, 04:58:09 PM »
Outlook:
Last year next week had an average of 408.2 ppm. An annual increase of 2.8 ± 0.3 ppm seems to be likely.
Sunday evening - an update from Mauna Loa CO2:

Week beginning on September 20, 2020:     411.00 ppm
Weekly value from 1 year ago:                   408.34 ppm
Weekly value from 10 years ago:                386.81 ppm
Last updated: September 27, 2020

The annual increase is 2.66 ppm. It is lower than last week, but still higher than the 10y average of 2.42 ppm/a. Apart from Sep 22 ("Unavailable") all days passed NOAA's quality standards. The intra-day and inter-day variations were in a normal range. Next week will be the lowest value of this season. I bet the week won't fall below 410 ppm.

Outlook:
Next week last year had an average slightly below 408 ppm. An annual increase of 2.7 ppm ± 0.3 should be ecxpected. Let's see whether it will work out this way...

42
Arctic sea ice / Re: 2020 Sea ice area and extent data
« on: September 27, 2020, 08:13:46 AM »
JAXA Arctic Sea Ice Extent as of Sep 26, 2020.
All values in M km²

2020: 4.09 (increase of 0.05, this is roughly close to the usual increase of the last decades for this day).
2020 is 2nd in the list.

2012: 3.57
2007: 4.12
2019: 4.27
2011: 4.68
2018: 4.68
2010s: 4.72
2015: 4.74
2008: 4.76
2017: 4.84
2016: 4.92
2010: 5.07
2013: 5.18
2014: 5.21
2000s: 5.77
1990s: 6.94
1980s: 7.64

43
Science / Re: 2020 Mauna Loa CO2 levels
« on: September 26, 2020, 03:33:00 PM »
* just kidding *
I propose to re-draw the "Fuji picture" with its top being equivalent to 475 ppm CO2. Then we will be able to see it for a while longer...

44
Antarctica / Re: Antarctic Icebergs
« on: September 21, 2020, 10:11:16 PM »
Some recent observations around my pet iceberg B-22 in EOSDIS.

One of the icebergs in the mélange S of B-22 trapped behind grounded icebergs (green) was pushed out by strong currents in WNW direction in the last ten days. It is circled in yellow. The NW movement of B-22 over winter maybe has opened a gate that allows further export of icebergs from the mélange into the polynya. We will see...

A rift in the sea ice has formed (marked in broken lines in black). It appeared much earlier than last year (approx. position broken grey lines) and it is approx. 3-6 km further south than previous year.

Open waters from the polynya slowly crawl in SE direction (blue arrows), but some other parts are newly covered by sea ice (red crosses) that were open ten days ago. It is still quite cold there (Climate Reanalyser says something about -15°C today).

It is a very volatile area and its shape changes within days. See attached picture.

45
Arctic sea ice / Re: Global sea ice area and extent data
« on: September 20, 2020, 09:33:23 PM »
Quote from gerontocrat:
"- Extent is at position #5 in the satellite record"
All top five years are the last five years.

46
Science / Re: 2020 Mauna Loa CO2 levels
« on: September 20, 2020, 05:57:36 PM »
Outlook:
Last year the following week had an average of about 408.4 ppm. The annual increase should therefore be in the range of 2.4 ± 0.3 ppm.
Sunday evening = time for an update of Mauna Loa CO2 levels.

Week beginning on September 13, 2020:     411.47 ppm
Weekly value from 1 year ago:                    408.48 ppm
Weekly value from 10 years ago:                 387.00 ppm
Last updated: September 20, 2020

The annual increase has increased to 2.99 ppm, higher than the 10y average of 2.44 ppm/a.

The reason for this higher than expected increase is that the first four days of this week showed higher values than the week before. Generally the hourly values have smoothed, and the inter-day variations of the last three days are very small.

Outlook:
Last year next week had an average of 408.2 ppm. An annual increase of 2.8 ± 0.3 ppm seems to be likely.


47
Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2020/2021 freezing season
« on: September 19, 2020, 09:52:34 PM »
Very nice animation. Thanks for all these great contributions.  :)

48
Arctic sea ice / Re: 2020 Sea ice area and extent data
« on: September 19, 2020, 06:58:50 PM »
The last evaluation of Arctic Sea Ice Area of this melting season "relative area wise"
Two seas still lost ice:
ESS       - 63%
CAB       -   1%
Three seas have already gained some ice:
Grønland + 4%
Beaufort  + 6%
CAA        + 8%
The other seas (almost completely melted out) were not analysed.

49
Arctic sea ice / Re: 2020 Sea ice area and extent data
« on: September 19, 2020, 07:19:01 AM »
From the image a further relevant increase should be expected. Large areas of newly formed ice in N Beaufort Sea.
But still no numerical data available.

50
Arctic sea ice / Re: 2020 Sea ice area and extent data
« on: September 17, 2020, 06:08:25 PM »
The second lowest minimum extent of Arctic Sea Ice was one of the topics in the radio news (Deutschlandfunk - a nationwide public radio programme in Germany). They also explained the higher than average temperatures in the Arctic were one of the reasons for this event.

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