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Messages - kassy

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1
The rest / Re: Consequences of using plastics
« on: Today at 02:16:53 PM »
New study reveals United States a top source of plastic pollution in coastal environments

Years of exporting plastic waste abroad masked actual US contribution to plastic pollution crisis

A study published today in the journal Science Advances has revealed that the United States ranks as high as third among countries contributing to coastal plastic pollution when taking into account its scrap plastic exports as well as the latest figures on illegal dumping and littering in the country. The new research challenges the once-held assumption that the United States is adequately "managing" -- that is, collecting and properly landfilling, recycling or otherwise containing -- its plastic waste. A previous study using 2010 data that did not account for plastic scrap exports had ranked the United States 20th, globally, in its contribution to ocean plastic pollution from mismanaged waste.

Using plastic waste generation data from 2016 -- the latest available global numbers -- scientists from Sea Education Association, DSM Environmental Services, University of Georgia, and Ocean Conservancy calculated that more than half of all plastics collected for recycling (1.99 million metric tons of 3.91 million metric tons collected) in the United States were shipped abroad. Of this, 88% of exports went to countries struggling to effectively manage, recycle, or dispose of plastics; and between 15-25% was low-value or contaminated, meaning it was effectively unrecyclable. Taking these factors into account, the researchers estimated that up to 1 million metric tons of U.S.-generated plastic waste ended up polluting the environment beyond its own borders.

"For years, so much of the plastic we have put into the blue bin has been exported for recycling to countries that struggle to manage their own waste, let alone the vast amounts delivered from the United States," said lead author Dr. Kara Lavender Law, research professor of oceanography at Sea Education Association. "And when you consider how much of our plastic waste isn't actually recyclable because it is low-value, contaminated or difficult to process, it's not surprising that a lot of it ends up polluting the environment."

Using 2016 data, the paper also estimated that 2-3% of all plastic waste generated in the U.S. -- between 0.91 and 1.25 million metric tons -- was either littered or illegally dumped into the environment domestically. Combined with waste exports, this means the United States contributed up to 2.25 million metric tons of plastics into the environment. Of this, up to 1.5 million metric tons of plastics ended up in coastal environments (within 50 km of a coastline), where proximity to the shore increases the likelihood of plastics entering the ocean by wind or through waterways. This ranks the United States as high as third globally in contributing to coastal plastic pollution.

...

The study noted that although the United States accounted for just 4% of the global population in 2016, it generated 17% of all plastic waste. On average, Americans generated nearly twice as much plastic waste per capita as residents of the EU.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201030142125.htm

2
The forum / Re: Forum Decorum
« on: Today at 10:12:33 AM »
It would be consequences then.
Same goes for Consequences of using plastics which is also in The Rest and since it is from 2013 it probably predates the consequences subforum.

3
The rest / Re: Wildlife
« on: Today at 10:04:43 AM »
Nice design, too bad about the material.

4
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: Today at 09:56:57 AM »
BBC also has an article on this:

Climate change: You've got cheap data, how about cheap power too?

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-54723147

5
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 30, 2020, 01:56:28 PM »
Yes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177048 (oops wili got there first)

BTW my understanding has always been that there is a difference between the vaccine response and the immune response.

Usually the actual experience yields a better response but this also depends on the type of vaccine. The modern flu ones just teach the body to recognize some outside part of the viral envelope which is actually a very limited response (which also means that some years are less effective if another strain then the chosen one becomes dominant).

Results with vaccine types which use more of the target virus might give more robust results but i would like a link to some papers to back up the claim.

6
Policy and solutions / Re: Oil and Gas Issues
« on: October 30, 2020, 10:38:49 AM »
Britain’s Profiteering Spymasters Ignored the Country’s Biggest Threats

While spinning the revolving doors, they have endangered the public by neglecting  bigger security threats, like coronavirus and climate change, write Matt Kennard and Mark Curtis.

Almost all of Britain’s former spy chiefs are personally profiting from working for cyber security and energy companies after retiring from the U.K.’s major intelligence agencies.

In May, Declassified UK revealed that since 2000, nine out of 10 former chiefs of MI6, MI5 and GCHQ have taken jobs in the cyber security industry, a sector they promoted while in office as key to defending the U.K. from the “Russian threat.”

The British government was told for over a decade that the “gravest risk” to the country is an influenza pandemic, which its National Security Strategy identifies as a “tier one priority risk.” Yet the security services largely ignored health threats, despite claiming they are guided by the U.K.’s security strategy.

...

The last three heads of MI6 all joined oil or gas-producing companies, which are among the world’s largest contributors to climate change, after they left the service. Declassified can reveal that former MI6 chief, Sir Richard Dearlove, has earned more than £2-million from his role on the board of American oil and gas company, Kosmos Energy, which was until 2018 registered in the tax haven of Bermuda.

Another former MI6 chief, Sir John Sawers, has earned £699,000 since 2015 as a board member of oil giant BP, in addition to possessing shares in the company worth £91,300.

Climate change has also been largely ignored by the security agencies, evidence suggests, despite the U.K. government last year recognizing it as a “security risk,” adding, “There is no doubt that climate-related security challenges are real. They are here. They are now.”

...

It appears that no intelligence chief has ever made money working on the security threats posed by climate change or health pandemics. None also appears to have ever mentioned these threats while in office or after. Public warnings from intelligence chiefs which highlight the security threat from climate change would be likely to adversely impact the profitability of fossil fuel companies.

https://consortiumnews.com/2020/10/29/britains-profiteering-spymasters-ignored-the-countrys-biggest-threats/


7
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 29, 2020, 04:07:44 PM »
The mutations reported for the virus so far only influenced spread of spread and not virulence. I think it is indeed better treatment methods and also a part of society self sheltering keeping deaths down (lots of cases are in the younger ages which always have less deaths).

8
Policy and solutions / Re: Tesla glory/failure
« on: October 29, 2020, 04:04:30 PM »
Deep in the eastern central Pacific Ocean, on a stretch of sea floor nearly as big as the continental United States, researchers are discovering species faster than they can name them. And they are exploring newfound fossil beds of whales that lived up to 16 million years ago.

The findings — many reported for the first time last week at the Deep-Sea Biology Symposium in Monterey, California — have come as a shock. Some scientists had thought these vast underwater plains, 4,000–5,500 metres below the ocean surface, were relatively lifeless. But that is changing just as nations and corporations prepare to mine this patch of the Pacific sea bed for cobalt, manganese and other elements for use in technologies such as smartphones and electric cars.

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-06771-w

It´s so much more then just ´ores´. We should not do sea mining since there is probably enough on land and we could also try to live within our means.

9
The rest / Re: Astronomical news
« on: October 29, 2020, 03:48:26 PM »
Scientists Find Gas Linked to Life in Atmosphere of Venus
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2020/sep/14/scientists-find-gas-linked-to-life-in-atmosphere-of-venus

Phosphine, released by microbes in oxygen-starved environments, was present in quantities larger than expected
Turns out to be a faulty step in analysis. Paper can be found here:
https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.09761

Re-analysis of the 267-GHz ALMA observations of Venus: No statistically significant detection of phosphine

Conclusions: We find that the published 267-GHz ALMA data provide no statistical evidence for phosphine in the atmosphere of Venus.

10
Policy and solutions / Re: Tesla glory/failure
« on: October 29, 2020, 02:56:40 PM »
Let´s try mining on land first...

11
The rest / Re: Archaeology/Paleontology news
« on: October 28, 2020, 09:29:05 PM »
Past Extinctions of Homo Species Coincided with Increased Vulnerability to Climatic Change

Summary

At least six different Homo species populated the World during the latest Pliocene to the Pleistocene. The extinction of all but one of them is currently shrouded in mystery, and no consistent explanation has yet been advanced, despite the enormous importance of the matter. Here, we use a recently implemented past climate emulator and an extensive fossil database spanning 2,754 archaeological records to model climatic niche evolution in Homo. We find statistically robust evidence that the three Homo species representing terminating, independent lineages, H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, and H. neanderthalensis, lost a significant portion of their climatic niche space just before extinction, with no corresponding reduction in physical range. This reduction coincides with increased vulnerability to climate change. In the case of Neanderthals, the increased extinction risk was probably exacerbated by competition with H. sapiens. This study suggests that climate change was the primary factor in the extinction of Homo species.

https://www.cell.com/one-earth/fulltext/S2590-3322(20)30476-0?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS2590332220304760%3Fshowall%3Dtrue#secsectitle0015

12
The politics / Re: The Trump Presidency
« on: October 28, 2020, 09:08:39 PM »
How does she display superior intellect? Just curious...

13
Permafrost / Re: Permafrost general science thread
« on: October 28, 2020, 08:35:28 PM »
The Permafrost general science thread is mainly for just that. The methane release has it´s own thread:

https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,12.0.html
Welcome to the Arctic Sea Ice Forum - Arctic Methane Topic!


14
Arctic sea ice / Re: What's new in the Arctic ?
« on: October 28, 2020, 02:20:44 PM »
Quote
Then they are vague about what ASI Extent or Area they plugged into their model.  But in Figure 1a the caption says "Regional warming for the whole Earth if Arctic summer sea ice (ASSI) in June, July and August, mountain glaciers (MG), Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) and West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) vanish at a global mean temperature of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial.   (bolding added by me).

     ALL ASI vanishing in June July and August (as in zero Extent-Area-Thickness-Volume) during peak solar input is an entirely different scenario than reaching ASI > 1M km2 Extent for a couple of days in September before refreeze resumes.

     So which is it?  <1M km2 ASI Extent or Area at September minimum, or ASI vanishing to give zero km2 ASI for June 1 - August 31?   Based on the Fig. 1A caption, it seems to be the latter, which renders that first paragraph completely out of context with their simulation and egregiously misleading. 

In our experiments the state of the Greenland Ice Sheet, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and mountain glaciers is simply prescribed in the model and affects both, ice cover and topography. In our simulations for the Arctic summer sea ice, the albedo during the summer months (June, July, August) is lowered to average values for open ocean waters instantaneously similar to Blackport and Kushner30, while keeping the computation of ice-covered areas dynamic, such that the experiment does not violate energy and water conservation.

So basically they run CLIMBER-2 as described in the first paragraph of results and then run it with only the ice removed to calculate the relative contribution .

The light blue line indicates the region of removed Arctic summer sea ice extent, where its concentration in CLIMBER-2 is 15% or higher. In all panels, the average additional warming on top of 1.5 °C is shown in absolute degree.

The first paragraph is just a summary of the science for context.

15
Consequences / Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« on: October 27, 2020, 09:32:34 PM »
So there must be some arthropods problem as well...

16
Permafrost / Re: Permafrost general science thread
« on: October 27, 2020, 01:43:34 PM »
Maybe even completely since the articl/paper does not mention permafrost at all.

17
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 27, 2020, 01:17:24 PM »
This is a very serious situation, if the report is accurate. Risking transmission from medical staff to patients is a devil's bargain. How many will that discourage from seeking treatment for other ills?

Can they call out army medical corps ?  Are there no cross border treatment agreements ?

sidd

There are some but their use is really limited. The Netherlands sends cases to Germany but not more then 10 per day due to limitations on the amount of special transport vehicles available.

We have some Belgian patients but that will be on a similar order of magnitude so that will not really help with the current numbers.

However when the Covid cases ramp up the hospitals stop performing all elective surgery that can be cancelled. So there is a high chance that the positive without symptoms personnel will work with active covid cases.


18
The rest / Re: Good music
« on: October 26, 2020, 10:12:19 PM »
Since you lot like oldies so much here are some:  :)

THE OLDEST SONG IN THE WORLD

This song to the Hurrian goddess Nikkal, is the oldest piece of music for which we have both the words and the accompanying musical notes. The work was written on clay tablets around 3500 years ago, and was discovered by archaeologists in the 1950’s in the ruins of the ancient city of Ugarit.



The Epic Of Gilgamesh In Sumerian




19
Consequences / Re: Places becoming less livable
« on: October 26, 2020, 05:59:59 PM »
Interesting question but it should be discussed somewhere else (OTOT thread).

20
Policy and solutions / Re: Cars, cars and more cars Part Deux
« on: October 26, 2020, 01:30:22 PM »
Climate change: 'Dangerous and dirty' used cars sold to Africa

Millions of highly polluting used cars from rich countries are being "dumped" on developing nations, according to a UN report.

Between 2015 and 2018, some 14 million older, poor quality vehicles were exported from Europe, Japan and the US.

Four out of five were sold to poorer countries, with more than half going to Africa.

Experts say that up to 80% failed to meet minimum safety and environmental standards in exporting countries.

As well as causing accidents, these cars make air pollution worse and contribute heavily to climate change.

Many of the vehicles have also been tampered with to remove valuable parts.

...

Car ownership is booming all over the world with an estimated 1.4bn vehicles on the roads, a number that's expected to reach around two billion by 2040.

...

They believe these imports are responsible for increased levels of road accidents in many poorer African and Asian countries. The cars are also pumping out fine particulate matter and nitrogen oxides, which are major sources of air pollution in many cities.

"In 2017, the average age of a diesel vehicle imported into Uganda was over 20 years old," said Jane Akumu, also from Unep.

"This is the same story for Zimbabwe. In fact, around 30 countries of Africa do not have any age limit on cars. So, any kind of car of any kind of age, can come in."

As well as failing to meet road safety and environmental standards, a significant number were tampered with and had important equipment removed.

"They cut out catalytic converters, because the platinum value is worth $500. And they put in a piece of steel pipe and weld it back in," said Rob de Jong.

"They have illegally removed the airbags, because they have a value in Europe, they have illegally removed the anti-lock brake system because it has a value and is being sold on the black market."

Of the vehicles in the report, more than 54% came from Europe. Many were exported through the Netherlands.

The Dutch authorities are concerned about the trade and want action taken at the European level.

and more on:
https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-54665545

21
Permafrost / Re: Permafrost general science thread
« on: October 26, 2020, 01:24:12 PM »
The linked reference uses new paleo-findings to indicate that the risk of an abrupt remobilization of dormant carbon in the Siberian-Arctic permafrost is higher than previously assumed by consensus climate scientists.  This is particularly true if abrupt sea level rise floods coastal Arctic permafrost regions in coming decades:

Jannik Martens et al (16 Oct 2020), "Remobilization of dormant carbon from Siberian-Arctic permafrost during three past warming events", Science Advances, Vol. 6, no. 42, eabb6546, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb6546

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/42/eabb6546

Abstract
Carbon cycle models suggest that past warming events in the Arctic may have caused large-scale permafrost thaw and carbon remobilization, thus affecting atmospheric CO2 levels. However, observational records are sparse, preventing spatially extensive and time-continuous reconstructions of permafrost carbon release during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Using carbon isotopes and biomarkers, we demonstrate that the three most recent warming events recorded in Greenland ice cores—(i) Dansgaard-Oeschger event 3 (~28 ka B.P.), (ii) Bølling-Allerød (14.7 to 12.9 ka B.P.), and (iii) early Holocene (~11.7 ka B.P.)—caused massive remobilization and carbon degradation from permafrost across northeast Siberia. This amplified permafrost carbon release by one order of magnitude, particularly during the last deglaciation when global sea-level rise caused rapid flooding of the land area thereafter constituting the vast East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Demonstration of past warming-induced release of permafrost carbon provides a benchmark for the sensitivity of these large carbon pools to changing climate.

See also:

Title: "New Climate Warnings in Old Permafrost: 'It’s a Little Scary Because it’s Happening Under Our Feet.'"

https://insideclimatenews.org/news/16102020/permafrost-study-arctic-ocean-climate-change

Extract: "The study, published today in Science Advances, shows that only a few degrees of warming in the Arctic is enough "to abruptly activate large-scale permafrost thawing," suggesting a "sensitive trigger" for greenhouse gas emissions from thawing permafrost. The results also support climate models that have shown "large injections of CO2 into the atmosphere" when glaciers, and the frozen lands beneath them, melted.

"If we consider the magnitude and the speed of anthropogenic climate warming, by 1 degree Celsius (1.8 Fahrenheit) globally and 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit) in the Arctic, during the past 150 years, and compare this with the first abrupt temperature increase of about 1 degree Celsius at the Bölling-Alleröd, it appears likely that large-scale permafrost thawing and carbon release is going to happen again," he said. "Our study indeed suggests that abrupt permafrost thawing represents a tipping point in the climate system.""


22
Consequences / Re: Forests: An Endangered Resource
« on: October 25, 2020, 07:51:08 PM »
But will the Eemian be a good approximation? It was still an interglacial while we are going extraglacial or from icehouse earth to a warmer earth which might mean totally different large scale climate patterns evolve.

Anyway forests and soil fungi (or another example of why clear cutting is bad) :

New research is first to show that growth rate of adult trees is linked to fungal networks colonizing their roots.

The study, published in the Journal of Ecology, is the first to show that the growth of adult trees is linked to their participation in fungal networks living in the forest soil.

Though past research has focused on seedlings, these findings give new insight into the value of fungal networks to older trees -- which are more environmentally beneficial for functions like capturing carbon and stabilizing soil erosion.

"Large trees make up the bulk of the forest, so they drive what the forest is doing," said researcher Joseph Birch, who led the study for his PhD thesis in the Faculty of Agricultural, Life & Environmental Sciences.

When they colonize the roots of a tree, fungal networks act as a sort of highway, allowing water, nutrients and even the compounds that send defence signals against insect attacks to flow back and forth among the trees.

The network also helps nutrients flow to resource-limited trees "like family units that support one another in times of stress," Birch noted.

Cores taken from 350 Douglas firs in British Columbia showed that annual tree ring growth was related to the extent of fungal connections a tree had with other trees. "They had much higher growth than trees that had only a few connections."

The research also showed that trees with more connections to many unique fungi had much greater growth than those with only one or two connections.

"We found that the more connected an adult tree is, the more it has significant growth advantages, which means the network could really influence large-scale important interactions in the forest, like carbon storage. If you have this network that is helping trees grow faster, that helps sequester more carbon year after year."

...

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201022123118.htm

23
Consequences / Re: Places becoming less livable
« on: October 25, 2020, 07:12:34 PM »
Geology’s human footprint is enough to spur rage

LONDON, 21 October, 2020 − The human footprint has left its mark on Earth, in every sense. The United States alone is scarred by 500,000 abandoned mines and quarries.

Right now, worldwide, there are more than 500,000 active quarries and pits, employing 4 million people, excavating the sand and gravel needed for new roads, new homes and new megacities.

Humans have not simply pitted the face of the Earth, they have paved it. In 1904, beyond the cities, the US had just 225 km of sealed highway. Now it has 4.3m km of asphalt or concrete roadway, consuming more than 20 billion tonnes of sand and gravel.

By comparison, the Great Wall of China, the biggest and most enduring construction in early human history, contains just 0.4bn tonnes of stone.

Humans have changed the face of the waters. In 1950, trawlers, long-liners and purse seiners fished just 1% of the high seas beyond territorial waters. No fish species of any kind was considered over-exploited or depleted.

Extinction threat widens

Less than one human lifetime on, fishing fleets roam 63% of the high seas and 87% of fish species are exploited, over-exploited or in a state of collapse. Meanwhile somewhere between 5m and almost 13 million tons of discarded plastics flow each year into the sea.

Humans and human livestock now far outweigh all other mammalian life. At least 96% of the mass of all mammals is represented by humans and their domesticated animals. Domestic poultry makes up 70% of the mass of all living birds. The natural world is now endangered, with a million species at risk of extinction.
...

https://climatenewsnetwork.net/geologys-human-footprint-is-enough-to-inspire-rage/

Living beyond our means...

24
Policy and solutions / Re: Becoming Vegan
« on: October 24, 2020, 01:00:20 PM »
And cook your own stuff. Lot´s of ready made food has too much salt, sugar and other additives.


25
Science / Re: Satellite News
« on: October 23, 2020, 06:55:12 PM »
Norway funds satellite map of world's tropical forests

A unique satellite dataset on the world's tropical forests is now available for all to see and use.

It's a high-resolution image map covering 64 countries that will be updated monthly.

Anyone who wants to understand how trees are being managed will be able to download the necessary information for analysis - for free.

The Norwegian government is funding the project through its International Climate and Forests Initiative (NICFI).

....

"There are many parts of the world where high-resolution images simply aren't available, or where they are available - the NGOs, communities, and academia in those countries can't afford them because they're quite expensive.

"So, we've decided to foot the bill for the world, basically," he told BBC News.

The NICFI has awarded a $44m (£33m) contract to Earth-observation specialists Airbus, Planet and Kongsberg Satellite Services (KSAT) for access to their pictures and expertise.

European aerospace giant Airbus is opening up its Spot image archive going back to 2002.

US-based Planet operates the single biggest constellation of imaging satellites in orbit today. The San Francisco firm acquires a complete picture of the Earth's land surface daily (cloud permitting), and it will provide the bulk of the data for the monthly map going forward.

KSAT will tie the information together and provide the technical support for users.

see:

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-54651453

26
Policy and solutions / Re: Nuclear Power
« on: October 23, 2020, 06:32:39 PM »
Instead of spending tens of billions on nuclear plants, spend far less on wind (and solar), put in an extra amount for grid batteries, and spend some change on keeping your coal plants mothballed rather than dismantle them. Then when the dreaded calm cloudy period comes AND WW3 is upon us so the interconnects stop working, use those coal plants for a week.
Achieving this solution will be much cheaper, much quicker, and will emit less CO2 overall.

Indeed. This is so simple. And no it is not support for fossil fuels because it only runs when needed (hence it would be a different type of contract then current ones.

Also: Maybe, just maybe Poland is doing those half assed projects because of the large interest of the mining industry there?

27
Consequences / Re: Places becoming more livable
« on: October 23, 2020, 06:05:30 PM »
So, my friends, let's stop believing that everything is going to be wonderful in these countries.
No one said that. It was just an example of one nice project.

Aside. A while ago many billions were pledged (for Paris i guess) by the rich countries to help the poorer ones with the climate transition and they ended up with 20 or 30 billion out of 140.

So much could be done with that also at very basic levels...

28
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 23, 2020, 05:22:21 PM »
And masks can be discussed in this thread (not here):
https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,3024.msg286840.html#msg286840


29
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 23, 2020, 05:12:17 PM »
Not great as in only bronze medal for deaths worldwide...

And that while their number is very likely an undercount.
I think Belgium always used a much wider definition for its official covid cases and so probably for deaths too.

30
Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2020/2021 freezing season
« on: October 23, 2020, 04:53:09 PM »
Have you seen the snow extent growth over Siberia and Western Canada? Anything to comment or you only rejoice on the bad feedbacks?
...
apart from this, the weather is about to become propitious for a quick rebound of sea ice next week.

This seems like an emotional type response, especially as a reply to such an informative post which did not actually feature any rejoicing...

The previous posts were an actual attempt at figuring out some of the extent of the damage done.

A quick rebound next week would already be late but both recent comments in this thread and in the SIA&E thread hint that the it might not be quick.

You are thinking too much about the area/extent (so 2D) while ignoring the 3D problems like the stall in TPD.

Quote
In other words, 2021 and 2022 could be rebound years as probable as big melt years. I don’t see the doom scenario here (more in line with the scientific consensus of 2040+)

In case you missed it we are discussing what we see. Oh and i think that scientific consensus might have shifted a bit...

31
The rest / Re: Article links: drop them here!
« on: October 22, 2020, 01:37:39 PM »
So fences...

We’ve built enough fences to stretch to the sun—but still don’t understand their effects here on Earth

...

“Most of the time, fences produce more losers than winners,” Dr. McInturff says. Often, these winners are generalists that can handle disturbed areas—in other words, the same ones that survive other types of habitat disruption. More sensitive species tend to lose out. In some cases, fences curtail so many different species that whole ecosystems begin to collapse. 

There are also trends in the research itself. Most of the papers the researchers found were set in just five countries, and a majority focused on fences’ effects on larger mammals. We have a lot to learn about how smaller animals, plants, and fungi—not to mention physical aspects of ecosystems, like rivers and soil—respond to having their habitats sliced and diced.

...

https://www.anthropocenemagazine.org/2020/10/weve-built-enough-fences-to-stretch-to-the-sun-but-still-dont-understand-their-effects-here-on-earth/

32
The rest / Re: Good music
« on: October 21, 2020, 10:18:40 PM »
The genre no one needed.

The following is an album full of surf style covers of black metal covers songs which works pretty well although the Leave No Cross Unturned cover is actually 8 bit.


33
The forum / Re: Forum Decorum
« on: October 21, 2020, 10:14:33 PM »
I don´t really see the point of diaries.

I think that this is a subject for the "Forum Decorum" thread because the cognitive dissonance I am seeing in general on the COVID side is beyond insane and is now enabled / supported (?) by moderation here to the potential detriment to the health and life of posters on this forum in areas that will imminently experience their primary wave.

People are responsible for their own posts on Covid and all other stuff. Attack the numbers or their analysis not the posters.

34
Consequences / Re: Places becoming more livable
« on: October 21, 2020, 09:29:37 PM »
The Sahara has no real soil. Yes it was green before but that took time, probably quite some time compared too human generations. It is not going to magically appear.

Same for much of the rest of the northern soils and we don´t really know what will happen because we are pushing the system harder then it has been pushed before.

Cutting drastically by 2050 sounds cool but where does that lead us when current values will probably knock out Artic ice this decade, Siberia is already a net carbon contributor and Antarctica is falling apart (only the edges but that is where it starts)?

35
But how would you do that?

And btw: SRM is Solar Radiation Management?

36
Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2020/2021 freezing season
« on: October 20, 2020, 11:43:52 PM »
It´s not that strange. A couple of years back it was warmer at the north pole then in London.
I really see this just as a logical progression.

37
Policy and solutions / Re: Oil and Gas Issues
« on: October 20, 2020, 11:06:39 PM »
Laugh, cry or smash head into wall. I sit here confused.  :-\

38
Well that won´t work.

The current problem is that the old Arctic was more or less a desert (wrt vapour in the air column) while our *new* Arctic with seas open year round already enables much more vapour which keeps heat in during Arctic night because it used not to be there.

This whole scheme won´t work.


39
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 20, 2020, 10:49:45 PM »
What we need to determine at this point is the extent of re-infection.  If 55%+ of all infected become disabled afterwards, what are the implications for the future of our dystopian mask wearing society?

The study involved 88 patients and controls. The 55% can clearly not be extrapolated to the general population so the claim that ´55%+ of all infected become disabled afterward´ does not hold true.


40
Consequences / Re: Places becoming more livable
« on: October 20, 2020, 01:54:50 PM »
The discussion is indeed off topic so should be continued in either the Population thread or OTOT.

As to places becoming more liveable... these are climate winners or places that are sheltered from the worst effects climate wise but they still depend on the rest of the world for a lot of food services.

Much of the northern lands are not good for farming since they have no proper soils.

Another problem is that when they become desirable places to be a lot of people want to move there so at least it will drive up the prices locally. Think of this as global gentrification.

41
Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: October 19, 2020, 02:16:10 PM »
I think we can conclude that we all agree on that but broader discussions reducing energy consumption should be held in the other thread.

42
The rest / Re: Good music
« on: October 18, 2020, 01:55:11 PM »
That was awesome, kass!

Is it TMI to tell you that my daughter's greatest aspiration is to perform the following song on stage with a giant strapon, replacing each instance of 'winner' with 'wiener'?  :o

Ah yes... will we have any stages left?

She should practice the act so she can perform it in fundraising shows on all the little podiums for those podiums (Ekko, ACU) when we can fill the venues again.

If they lack acts i will chime in with my ´once there is a 100 bucks in the hat it will stop routine´ although for that to work nowadays the hat probably needs some means of electronic payment. Bah.

43
The rest / Re: The off topic off topic thread
« on: October 18, 2020, 01:43:24 PM »
But the point is that they still play with their food and sometimes don´t eat it.

Some predators bring harmless live prey home so the little ones can practice a bit although that is education. They also eat selectively eating only choice parts of the carcass leaving the other parts for many other animals. You can label that as ecological services but in no way do they have to eat all they kill.


44
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 18, 2020, 01:10:11 PM »
Well i am with you on that (and i would love to join the bike ride. Long hikes and bike trips are a great way to get out  :) ).

45
Science / Re: 2020 Mauna Loa CO2 levels
« on: October 18, 2020, 12:56:43 PM »
This is a fun question. Just tagging 2.5 or something similar on certain values gives you something slightly below 420 and then it gets a bit more complicated.  :)

46
The rest / Re: The off topic off topic thread
« on: October 17, 2020, 10:50:19 PM »
That is an interesting project. I would love to see the numbers on carbon costs/savings.

As too the cats...

Well the non domestic cats will probably do that too but not bring it too you because they do not know you.


47
The rest / Re: Good music
« on: October 16, 2020, 11:57:48 PM »
Modern music or epic rock about IKEA.  8)

NANOWAR OF STEEL - Valhalleluja


48
The rest / Re: The off topic off topic thread
« on: October 16, 2020, 06:46:35 PM »
Infanticide happens in certain large predator species. Orcas are also recorded to "torture" seals to death and then not eat them. Chimps engage in deadly tribal warfare without eating each other. Even certain corvidae birds will intentionally kill each other over territorial disputes

And cats will bring you all kinds of stuff.


49
Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: October 16, 2020, 06:39:00 PM »
.. In Nazi Germany they called it Eugenics

I don´t see how that equates.

Can we try to keep it into context because the nazi name calling seems the modern way of political discussion in the USA but we have a forum for that below.




50
Policy and solutions / Re: Nuclear Power
« on: October 16, 2020, 06:22:38 PM »
Probably that would mean  inventing new technology which would not make that much sense in the long run. The price is also probably for new tritium while this is a mix of all ages.

There is a current there so it gets diluted and swept away.

1m tonnes water is 1 x 10 to 9 litres
A 1000 liter cube.
A liter is 10x10x10 cm so that is a 100m cube going into the ocean.

It is also going in in little cubes, or probably rounder stuff over time but that just complicates things.

Now the ocean is huge and there is also a current there so the local impact is not really an issue if it is only tritium. It also has a half life of 12 years with what they release being a mix.

I don´t think there is a better solution to their problem but it is also another demonstration that nuclear is not the optimal solution.

Some data they did not mention:
The actual cost to filter out all the other radioactive elements and process or store them.

The running cost of the barriers in place.

And all other costs.

The problem here is not a bit of tritium diluted water even if the number is impressive compared to your bath.

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