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Messages - morganism

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Permafrost / Re: Siberian permafrost hole/blowout
« on: September 19, 2020, 09:56:39 PM »
A large new ‘hole’ appears in Gydan tundra, following record-warm Arctic summer
17 September 2020

200 metres wide thermocirque seen weeks after scientists find funnel in the Yamal peninsula, caused by build up of methane.

Sciences said gas emissions were not the origin of this phenomenon.

‘This is a thermocirque; gas funnels have nothing to do with it.

‘We have been studying thermocirques for many years, they became active in warm year 2012.

'They look like huge landslides of semi-circular shape with outcrops of ice.

'Earlier such thermocirques were observed near the sea, now they are seen deeper on land. They are associated with ice layers and warming, alike to funnels’, she said.

More than 400 sealed ‘craters’ are ticking time bombs from a total 7000+ Arctic permafrost mounds

At least three of the recorded eruptions had witnesses, who reported seeing the ignition.

These were the Antipayuta crater (C3), the Seyakha crater (C11) and the Yerkuta crater (C12) eruptions.

‘We believe the ignition was caused by electrostatic discharges, which adds to the danger of the mounds’, Vasily Bogoyavlensky said.

Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: September 19, 2020, 09:15:00 PM »
more on electric mud bacteria

Scientists find 'secret molecule' that allows bacteria to exhale electricity

"The team found that, when stimulated by an electric field, Geobacter produce a previously unknown kind of nanowire made of a protein called OmcZ. Made of tiny, metallic building blocks called hemes, this protein created nanowires that conducted electricity 1,000 times more efficiently than the typical nanowires Geobacter create in the soil, allowing the microbes to send electrons across unprecedented distances.

"It was known that bacteria can make electricity, but nobody knew the molecular structure," Malvankar said. "Finally, we have found that molecule."

In previous research, Malvankar and colleagues found that lab-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens microbes display another clever survival trick when exposed to a small electrode, or a disk that conducts electricity. Stimulated by the electric field, the microbes assemble into dense biofilms — interlinked piles of hundreds of individual microbes, moving electrons through a single shared network.

"They stack up like high-rise apartments, hundreds of stories tall," Malvankar said. "And they can all share the same electric grid, constantly dumping electrons."

Researchers have been using Geobacter colonies to power small electronics for more than a decade. A big perk of these so-called microbial fuel cells is their longevity. Bacteria can repair and reproduce themselves nearly indefinitely, creating a small but constant electric charge; in one U.S. Navy experiment, conducted in 2008, researchers used a Geobacter fuel cell to power a small weather buoy in Washington, D.C.'s Potomac River for more than nine months without showing any signs of weakening. However, the charge provided by these fuel cells is extremely small (the Navy buoy ran on about 36 milliwatts, or thousandths of a watt, of power), severely limiting the types of electronics they can power."

Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: September 19, 2020, 08:46:00 PM »
Researchers offer first proof that Ultraviolet C light with a 222 nm wavelength — which is safer to use around humans — effectively kills the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

"Other studies involving 222 nm UVC, also known as Far-UVC, have so far only looked at its potency in eradicating seasonal coronaviruses that are structurally similar to the SARS-CoV-2 but not on the COVID-19-causing virus itself. A nanometer is equivalent to one billionth of a meter.

An in vitro experiment by HU researchers showed that 99.7% of the SARS-CoV-2 viral culture was killed after a 30-second exposure to 222 nm UVC irradiation at 0.1 mW/cm2. The study is published in the American Journal of Infection Control.

Tests were conducted using Ushio’s Care222TM krypton-chloride excimer lamp. A 100 microliter solution containing the virus (ca. 5 × 106 TCID50/mL) was spread onto a 9-centimeter sterile polystyrene plate. The researchers allowed it to dry in a biosafety cabinet at room temperature before placing the Far-UVC lamp 24 centimeters above the surface of the plates.

222 nm vs 254 nm UVC

A wavelength of 222 nm UVC cannot penetrate the outer, non-living layer of the human eye and skin so it won’t cause harm to the living cells beneath. This makes it a safer but equally potent alternative to the more damaging 254 nm UVC germicidal lamps increasingly used in disinfecting healthcare facilities.

Since 254 nm UVC harms exposed human tissues, it can only be used to sanitize empty rooms. But 222 nm UVC can be a promising disinfection system for occupied public spaces including hospitals where nosocomial infections are a possibility."

Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2020 melting season
« on: September 18, 2020, 10:40:52 PM »
I still think its the methane release that is causing the wild melt outs. wonder if the alkalinity affects the methanogens and methanotrophs, as much as the extra carbon afffects the algeas.

Extreme Greenland blocking and high‐latitude moisture transport

Has been a weird few years, and a big thanks to all those folks doing the charts and comparison gifs.
Have been informative on ocean and ice matters to a life-long desert rat.

Consequences / Re: Climate change, the ocean, agriculture, and FOOD
« on: September 15, 2020, 08:11:47 PM »
Extreme weather and permanent disaster zones will force a new American migration: research

Once you accept that climate change is fast making large parts of the United States nearly uninhabitable, the future looks like this: With time, the bottom half of the country grows inhospitable, dangerous and hot. Something like a tenth of the people who live in the South and the Southwest — from South Carolina to Alabama to Texas to Southern California — decide to move north in search of a better economy and a more temperate environment. Those who stay behind are disproportionately poor and elderly.

In these places, heat alone will cause as many as 80 additional deaths per 100,000 people — the nation’s opioid crisis, by comparison, produces 15 additional deaths per 100,000. The most affected people, meanwhile, will pay 20% more for energy, and their crops will yield half as much food or in some cases virtually none at all. That collective burden will drag down regional incomes by roughly 10%, amounting to one of the largest transfers of wealth in American history, as people who live farther north will benefit from that change and see their fortunes rise.

Science / Re: Satellite News
« on: September 11, 2020, 08:21:24 PM »
Common misconceptions about space-grade integrated circuits

What are radiation effects

The very concepts of "radiation hardness" and "radiation hardened IC" are enormous simplifications. There are many different sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, and they affect the functioning of microelectronic devices in multiple ways. The tolerance to different sets of conditions and varying levels of exposure for different applications is not the same, so a “radiation hardened” circuit designed for low earth orbit is absolutely not obliged to work in a robot parsing debris in Chernobyl or Fukushima.

Ionizing radiation is called so because the deceleration of an incoming particle in a substance releases the energy and ionizes the substance. Each material has its own energy required for ionization and the creation of an electron-hole pair. For silicon it is 3.6 eV, for its oxide — 17 eV, for gallium arsenide — 4.8 eV. The energy release can also “shift” an atom out of the correct place in the crystal lattice (21 eV must be transferred to shift a silicon atom). Electron-hole pairs created in a substance can produce different effects in an integrated circuit. Therefore, radiation effects can be divided into the four large groups: the effects of total ionizing dose (TID), the dose rate effects, single event effects (SEE), and the non-ionizing effects called the displacement damage. This separation is somewhat arbitrary: for example, irradiation with a stream of heavy ions causes both single event effects and accumulation of a total ionizing dose.

Antarctica / Re: Ice Apocalypse - MULTIPLE METERS SEA LEVEL RISE
« on: September 09, 2020, 08:58:32 PM »
Rox, can you just truck it to an undammed river and dump it in to flow to the sea?

Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy Transition and Consumption
« on: September 09, 2020, 08:46:22 PM »
Now, if New Zealand startup Emrod has its way, Tesla and Marconi’s dreams may merge. The company is building a system to wirelessly beam power over long distances. Earlier this month, Emrod received funding from Powerco, New Zealand’s second biggest utility, to conduct a test of its system at a grid-connected commercial power station.

The company uses metamaterials to more efficiently convert the microwave beam back into electricity. The relays, which are like “lenses” extending the beam beyond line-of-sight by refocusing it, are nearly lossless. According to Kushnir, most of losses happen at the other end, where electricity is converted into microwave energy. Overall, he said the system’s efficiency is around 70%, which is short of copper wires but economically viable in some areas.

PS: jP Morgan stopped funding Tesla because wireless transmission ddnt "make" electricity.

Science / Re: Solar cycle
« on: September 07, 2020, 07:57:23 PM »

When do solar erupting hot magnetic flux ropes form?
A. Nindos, S. Patsourakos, A. Vourlidas, X. Cheng, J. Zhang
We investigate the formation times of eruptive magnetic flux ropes relative to the onset of solar eruptions, which is important for constraining models of coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation. We inspected uninterrupted sequences of 131 Å images that spanned more than eight hours and were obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to identify the formation times of hot flux ropes that erupted in CMEs from locations close to the limb. The appearance of the flux ropes as well as their evolution toward eruptions were determined using morphological criteria. Two-thirds (20/30) of the flux ropes were formed well before the onset of the eruption (from 51 minutes to more than eight hours), and their formation was associated with the occurrence of a confined flare. We also found four events with preexisting hot flux ropes whose formations occurred a matter of minutes (from three to 39) prior to the eruptions without any association with distinct confined flare activity. Six flux ropes were formed once the eruptions were underway. However, in three of them, prominence material could be seen in 131 Å images, which may indicate the presence of preexisting flux ropes that were not hot. The formation patterns of the last three groups of hot flux ropes did not show significant differences. For the whole population of events, the mean and median values of the time difference between the onset of the eruptive flare and the appearance of the hot flux rope were 151 and 98 minutes, respectively. Our results provide, on average, indirect support for CME models that involve preexisting flux ropes; on the other hand, for a third of the events, models in which the ejected flux rope is formed during the eruption appear more appropriate.
Comments:   A&A, in press
Subjects:   Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)
Cite as:   arXiv:2008.04380 [astro-ph.SR]
    (or arXiv:2008.04380v1 [astro-ph.SR] for this version)

Science / Re: Solar cycle
« on: September 07, 2020, 07:42:07 PM »
On the correlation between solar activity and large earthquakes worldwide

We found clear correlation between proton density and the occurrence of large earthquakes (M > 5.6), with a time shift of one day. The significance of such correlation is very high, with probability to be wrong lower than 10–5. The correlation increases with the magnitude threshold of the seismic catalogue. A tentative model explaining such a correlation is also proposed, in terms of the reverse piezoelectric effect induced by the applied electric field related to the proton density.

we demonstrate that it can likely be due to the effect of solar wind, modulating the proton density and hence the electrical potential between the ionosphere and the Earth. Although a quantitative analysis of a particular, specific model for our observations is beyond the scope of this paper, we believe that a possible, likely physical mechanism explaining our statistical observations, is the stress/strain pulse caused by reverse piezoelectric effects. Such pulses would be generated by large electrical discharges channeled in the large faults, due to their high conductivity because of fractured and water saturated fault gauge. The widespread observations of several macroscopic electro-magnetic effects before, or however associated to large earthquakes, support our qualitative model to explain the observed, highly statistically significant, proton density-earthquakes correlation. It is important to note that our hypothesis only implies that the proton density would act as a further, small trigger to cause the fracture on already critically charged faults, thus producing the observed large scale earthquake correlation. Such a small perturbation would add to the main factor producing worldwide seismicity, which is tectonic stress.

Walking the walk / Re: Meat Consumption and Global Warming
« on: September 07, 2020, 07:25:49 PM »
Beef Fat Prevents Alcoholic Liver Disease in the Rat

The amount and type of dietary fat is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We investigated the role of different dietary fats in our rat model for ALD. Liver pathology was evaluated in rats fed ethanol and lard or tallow or corn oil over a period of 2 to 6 months. All experimental animals were pair‐fed the same diet as controls except that glucose was isocalorically replaced by ethanol. Rats fed tallow and ethanol developed none of the features of ALD, those fed lard and ethanol developed minimal to moderate disease, rats fed corn oil and ethanol developed the most severe pathology. The degree of histopathological abnormality correlated with the linoleic acid content of fat in the diet (tallow 0.7%, lard 2.5%, corn oil 56.6%). We postulate that linoleic acid facilitates development of ALD and provides an explanation for our previous epidemiological observations.

Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: September 02, 2020, 10:23:13 AM »
I'm still wondering if th Neanderthal genes are having an impact on physical responses, seems like regional differences in severity may be linked to those or perhaps to the virus genes incorporated into our genome.

Consequences / Re: Near Term Human Extinction
« on: September 02, 2020, 10:17:33 AM »
Siberian Island Enigma

In 2012, Japanese scientist Fusa Miyake identified two spikes in the carbon-14 levels present in tree rings of known age from dendrochronological archives—one in 775, and the other in 994. These surges, now called Miyake Events, were likely produced by massive bursts of cosmic radiation and can be seen in tree rings throughout the world. Por-Bajin was originally thought to have been built in 750 by Bayan-Chur Khan (r. 747–759), ruler of the Uighur Khaganate, and his Chinese princess wife. But this date, as well as the identification of the site as a palace, was based on an inscription found elsewhere. Earlier efforts at radiocarbon dating the larch beams that supported the clay structures were frustratingly inexact. “The problem with routine radiocarbon is precision,” says archaeologist Margot Kuitems of the University of Groningen. “You always end up with a range, usually a few decades. For some periods or monuments this may not matter as much, but for Por-Bajin, with all the questions surrounding it, you really do want to know when, exactly, it was built.”


Digs Mongolia Por Bajin Map(Ken Feisel) Kuitems was able to identify a Miyake Event in the forty-third ring of one of the wooden beams, but the real excitement came when she saw that it was only two rings away from the final ring, meaning that she could confidently conclude that the tree had been felled in 777. She was even able to determine that the tree had been cut down during a warm season, likely the spring, because the ring consisted only of so-called early wood, which is not formed during cold Siberian winters.

Science / Re: Trump Administration Assaults on Science and the Environment
« on: September 01, 2020, 08:50:03 PM »
<Not on topic at all so i removed it. kassy>

Permafrost / Re: Siberian permafrost hole/blowout
« on: August 30, 2020, 07:57:59 PM »
New 50 meter blowhole opened up. Story at SiberianTimes.

I can't link from this tablet.

Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2020 melting season
« on: August 23, 2020, 08:39:35 AM »
Would b cool 2 c the transitions of thicknesses as a 3-D stretch gradient shading. Should be a lasso tool selection on the data map possible.

Wondering if the Beaufort compression weather upcoming is going to press the whole ice cube tray into the garlic press. It sounds like a cooking recipe,

"add a shelf of MY glacial ice while you stir constantly at medium heat, then add in the ice bath to firm the mold"

Policy and solutions / Re: Nuclear Power
« on: August 23, 2020, 08:02:45 AM »
classified documentary video of Tsar Bomba nuke test

:Photos and short video clips have previously been available, but this unseen 40 minutes declassified footage of the Soviet Union’s monster nuclear bomb give a whole new insight into what happened on Novaya Zemlya on October 30, 1961."

"The bomb was detonated 4,000 meters above the ground. As seen in the film, the fireball flash lasted far longer than seen on any other nuclear weapon test videos. The flash dome itself reached 20 km, while the ring of absolute destruction had a radius of 35 kilometers

After 40 seconds, the dome of the fire reached 30 km and thereafter developed into a mushroom cloud which soared to a height of 60-65 kilometers with a diameter of 90 km. In the military town Severny, center for the nuclear weapons test around the Matochkin Strait, most buildings were destroyed. The town was 55 kilometers from ground zero."

Policy and solutions / Re: Renewable Energy
« on: August 22, 2020, 07:59:17 PM »
'Electric mud’ teems with new, mysterious bacteria

"Fashioned into a film, nanowires can generate electricity from the moisture in the air. The film generates power, researchers believe, when a moisture gradient develops between the film’s upper and lower edges. (The upper edge is more exposed to moisture.) As the water’s hydrogen and oxygen atoms separate because of the gradient, a charge develops and electrons flow. Yao and his team reported on 17 February in Nature that such a film can create enough power to light a light-emitting diode, and 17 such devices connected together can power a cellphone. The approach is “a revolutionary technology to get renewable, green, and cheap energy,” says Qu Liangti, a materials scientist at Tsinghua University. (Others are more cautious, noting that past attempts to wring energy from moisture, using graphene or polymers, have not panned out.)"

The microbes also alter the properties of mud, “They are particularly efficient … ecosystem engineers.” Cable bacteria “grow like wildfire,” she says; on intertidal oyster reefs, she has found, a single cubic centimeter of mud can contain 2859 meters of cables, which cements particles in place, possibly making sediment more stable for marine organisms.

The bacteria also alter the mud’s chemistry, making layers closer to the surface more alkaline and deeper layers more acidic, Malkin has found. Such pH gradients can affect “numerous geochemical cycles,” she says, including those involving arsenic, manganese, and iron, creating opportunities for other microbes."

Permafrost / Re: Permafrost general science thread
« on: August 22, 2020, 07:13:48 PM »
Electric mud’ teems with new, mysterious bacteria

"The bacteria also alter the mud’s chemistry, making layers closer to the surface more alkaline and deeper layers more acidic, Malkin has found. Such pH gradients can affect “numerous geochemical cycles,” she says, including those involving arsenic, manganese, and iron, creating opportunities for other microbes.

With vast swaths of the planet covered by mud, cable and nanowire bacteria are likely having an influence on global climate, researchers say. Nanowire bacteria, for example, can strip electrons from organic materials, such as dead diatoms, then shuttle them to other bacteria that produce methane—a potent greenhouse gas. Under different circumstances, cable bacteria can reduce methane production.

Greenland and Arctic Circle / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: August 21, 2020, 08:25:38 PM »
Toxic fuel from 21,000 ton leak reaches pristine lake, bypassing floating booms, as rivers of diesel pollution cover-up is exposed. Next stop, Kara Sea.

(This is classified as a permafrost caused infrastructure fail, but they say it is just a upkeep screwup.)

"The main problem is that the leak was not of oil itself, but of the product of its processing - diesel.

‘An oil slick is held on the surface of the water, and diesel sinks to the bottom and mixes with water and silt. In addition, the chemical components of diesel fuel are much more toxic.

‘Booms will not be able to completely stop the diesel, part of the oil product will still go beyond and then settle to the bottom. For complete cleaning, it is necessary to completely remove the soil from the bottom of water bodies. So far it is about at least collecting all the spots from the surface.

‘Now there are problems with this, as there are not enough tanks to drain pumped oil products.

‘And it’s problematic to quickly deliver them to the tundra.

‘It is clear that with this attitude to ecology, the development of the Arctic will lead to the fact that we simply will not preserve the nature of the region.’

xpost from methane thread

Forget the Trump tweets. This is the Trump action that might actually kill us.

"It did this by using accounting gimmicks in its official regulatory cost-benefit analysis. In technical documents, the administration said it was no longer taking into account harms that climate change might have outside U.S. borders; and also that it was changing the “discount rate” — that is, reducing how much weight it placed upon future costs. It was Trump’s trademark isolationism and short-termism, made mathematically explicit.

The result? The Obama-era estimate of methane’s social costs were ratcheted down from about $1,400 per metric ton to just $55 under a Trump accounting scenario. Incidentally, the Trump administration was admonished for this same phony math in a court case blocking a related environmental rule last month."

Science / Re: Solar cycle
« on: August 19, 2020, 02:19:56 AM »
NASA Researchers Track Slowly Splitting 'Dent' in Earth’s Magnetic Field

" recent observations and forecasts show that the region is expanding westward and continuing to weaken in intensity. It is also splitting – recent data shows the anomaly’s valley, or region of minimum field strength, has split into two lobes, creating additional challenges for satellite missions.

“The observed SAA can be also interpreted as a consequence of weakening dominance of the dipole field in the region,” said Weijia Kuang, a geophysicist and mathematician in Goddard’s Geodesy and Geophysics Laboratory. “More specifically, a localized field with reversed polarity grows strongly in the SAA region, thus making the field intensity very weak, weaker than that of the surrounding regions.”

Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: August 18, 2020, 10:06:11 PM »
Forget the Trump tweets. This is the Trump action that might actually kill us.

"It did this by using accounting gimmicks in its official regulatory cost-benefit analysis. In technical documents, the administration said it was no longer taking into account harms that climate change might have outside U.S. borders; and also that it was changing the “discount rate” — that is, reducing how much weight it placed upon future costs. It was Trump’s trademark isolationism and short-termism, made mathematically explicit.

The result? The Obama-era estimate of methane’s social costs were ratcheted down from about $1,400 per metric ton to just $55 under a Trump accounting scenario. Incidentally, the Trump administration was admonished for this same phony math in a court case blocking a related environmental rule last month."

Arctic background / Re: Polar Shipping Routes
« on: August 14, 2020, 11:19:51 PM »
Interview: Challenges and Opportunities of the Northern Sea Route

"During her voyage along the Northern Sea Route, the LNG carrier was escorted by the nuclear icebreaker Yamal. We expect that in the future, the use of next-generation Project 22220 nuclear icebreakers will further improve the efficiency of ice escorts and reduce the NSR transit times. These icebreakers, currently under construction, surpass Yamal in terms of power capacity and hull breadth.   

As for the ice conditions, they matched our forecasts. Certainly, in some areas, thick hummocky ice fields, plastic deformation of ice and ice pressure impacted progress. However, the crews of the icebreaker and our LNG carrier were well prepared to handle these obstacles, and in terms of navigation techniques, this did not create any serious difficulties for either vessel.

As anticipated, the most challenging parts of the route proved to be the Vilkitsky Strait, where the vessels observed numerous icebergs, as well as the East Siberian and the Chukchi seas, where the passage through the ice fields was complicated by severe hummocking and ice pressure. In these areas the ice was free-moving, rather than being attached to the shore, which required our vessel to use her maximum power when underway."

Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: August 11, 2020, 10:31:02 PM »
so is this the phase 3 study by russia for the covid vaccine?

Russia begins mass vaccination against bubonic plague in danger areas near border with Mongolia

as far as i know, there is no effective vacccine against plague......and it has never been suggested around here, were plague is endemic to wildlife.. (AZ)

"Following the primary series of 3 injections, about 7% of individuals do not produce PHA antibody, and a few fail to develop a titer of 128, the level correlated with immunity in experimental animals. PHA titers should be determined for individuals who have an unusually high risk of infection or who have a history of serious reactions to the vaccine in order to govern the frequency of booster doses. Such testing can be arranged through state health departments. Since plague vaccination may only ameliorate illness, whenever a vaccinated person has a definite exposure, prophylactic antibiotics may be indicated whether or not an antibody response has been demonstrated. "

"A killed whole cell plague vaccine has been used in the past, but recent studies in animals have shown that this vaccine offers poor protection against pneumonic disease. A live attenuated vaccine is also available. Whilst this vaccine is effective, it retains some virulence and in most countries it is not considered to be suitable for use in humans. We review here work to develop improved sub-unit and live attenuated vaccines against plague. A sub-unit vaccine based on the F1- and V-antigens is highly effective against both bubonic and pneumonic plague, when tested in animal models of disease. This vaccine has been used to explore the utility of different intranasal and oral delivery systems, based on the microencapsulation or Salmonella delivery of sub-units. "

Policy and solutions / Re: Nuclear Power
« on: August 09, 2020, 01:44:14 AM »
Extreme Chernobyl Fungus Could Protect Astronauts From Deadly Radiation

"Here, growth of Cladosporium sphaerospermum and its capability to attenuate ionizing radiation, was studied aboard the International Space Station (ISS) over a time of 30 days, as an analog to habitation on the surface of Mars. At full maturity, radiation beneath a ≈ 1.7 mm thick lawn of the melanized radiotrophic fungus (180° protection radius) was 2.17±0.35% lower as compared to the negative control. Estimations based on linear attenuation coefficients indicated that a ~ 21 cm thick layer of this fungus could largely negate the annual dose-equivalent of the radiation environment on the surface of Mars, whereas only ~ 9 cm would be required with an equimolar mixture of melanin and Martian regolith. Compatible with ISRU, such composites are promising as a means to increase radiation shielding while reducing overall up-mass, as is compulsory for future Mars-missions."

"As an added benefit, the fungus is a self-sustaining, self-replicative substrate capable of living off even the smallest doses of radiation and biomass. It can also be grown on many different carbon sources, such as organic waste.

“This significantly reduces the amount of shielding material that one would have to bring to Mars, which is maybe what makes it most exciting, as the up-mass is very restrictive in any Mars-mission scenario,” explained Averesch."

Policy and solutions / Re: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
« on: August 09, 2020, 01:37:42 AM »
a new electrocatalyst that converts carbon dioxide (CO2) and water into ethanol with very high energy efficiency, high selectivity for the desired final product and low cost. Ethanol is a particularly desirable commodity because it is an ingredient in nearly all U.S. gasoline and is widely used as an intermediate product in the chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.

"The team’s catalyst consists of atomically dispersed copper on a carbon-powder support. By an electrochemical reaction, this catalyst breaks down CO2 and water molecules and selectively reassembles the broken molecules into ethanol under an external electric field. The electrocatalytic selectivity, or ​“Faradaic efficiency,” of the process is over 90 percent, much higher than any other reported process. What is more, the catalyst operates stably over extended operation at low voltage."

revealed a reversible transformation from atomically dispersed copper to clusters of three copper atoms each on application of a low voltage. The CO2-to-ethanol catalysis occurs on these tiny copper clusters. This finding is shedding light on ways to further improve the catalyst through rational design.

“We have prepared several new catalysts using this approach and found that they are all highly efficient in converting CO2 to other hydrocarbons,”

Consequences / Re: Thermohaline Circulation Connections
« on: August 08, 2020, 12:30:47 AM »
Florida Current is Weaker Now Than at Any Point in the Past Century

"Piecuch, who specializes in coastal and regional sea level change, used a connection between coastal sea level and the strength of near-shore currents to trace the evolution of the Florida Current, which forms the beginning of the Gulf Stream. "

Nature Communications published on August 7

Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: August 01, 2020, 11:49:56 PM »
New study confirms extensive gas leaks in the North Sea

"The positions of the boreholes and the location and extent of the gas pockets indicate that this area of the North Sea alone has the potential to emit 900 to 3700 tonnes of methane every year. 'However, more than 15,000 boreholes have been drilled in the entire North Sea,'

"In the North Sea, about half of the boreholes are at such shallow water depths that part of the emitted methane can escape into the atmosphere."

Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: August 01, 2020, 11:07:13 PM »
Oceanic and atmospheric methane cycling in the cGENIE Earth system model

"we find that simulated atmospheric methane levels and marine dissolved methane distributions are generally in good agreement with empirical constraints for the modern and recent Earth. Finally, we illustrate the model's utility in understanding the time-dependent behavior of the methane cycle resulting from transient carbon injection into the atmosphere, and present model ensembles that examine the effects of oceanic chemistry and the thermodynamics of microbial metabolism on steady-state atmospheric methane abundance."

Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: July 29, 2020, 03:51:00 AM »

The rest / NASA Mars Perseverence video links
« on: July 29, 2020, 03:39:22 AM »

streams and links to FB and YT stories and briefings.

Science / Springer publishing free books-almost over...
« on: July 29, 2020, 03:35:26 AM »
The Sea Floor
An Introduction to Marine Geology

Air-Sea Interactions of Natural Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) in a Changing Climate

top page, not sure what search terms get you to the freebies

Permafrost / Re: Arctic Methane Release
« on: July 27, 2020, 03:29:29 AM »

Discovery Of First Active Seep In Antarctica Provides New Understanding Of Methane Cycle

"Antarctica is believed to contain as much as 25 percent of Earth's marine methane. Having an active seep to study gives researchers new understanding of the methane cycle and how that process might differ in Antarctica compared to other places on the planet, Thurber said.

For example, researchers have found that the most common type of microbe that consumes methane took five years to show up at the seep site and even then those microbes were not consuming all of the methane, Thurber said. That means some methane is being released and is likely working its way into the atmosphere. "

An expansive microbial mat, about 70 meters long by a meter across, formed on the sea floor about 10 meters below the frozen ocean surface. These mats, which are produced by bacteria that exist in a symbiotic relationship with methane consumers, are a telltale indication of the presence of a seep, said Thurber.

"The microbial mat is the road sign that there's a methane seep here," Thurber said. "We don't know what caused these seeps to turn on. We needed some dumb luck to find an active one, and we got it."

Consequences / Re: Hurricane Season 2020
« on: July 25, 2020, 08:51:14 PM »
Excellent TX weather forcaster

Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: July 25, 2020, 08:48:22 PM »
In cell studies, seaweed extract outperforms remdesivir in blocking COVID-19 virus

"But the virus could just as easily be persuaded to lock onto a decoy molecule that offers a similar fit. The neutralized virus would be trapped and eventually degrade naturally.

Previous research has shown this decoy technique works in trapping other viruses, including dengue, Zika, and influenza A.

"We're learning how to block viral infection, and that is knowledge we are going to need if we want to rapidly confront pandemics,"

Sulfated polysaccharides effectively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro

Arctic sea ice / Re: Freeform season chatter and light commentary
« on: July 25, 2020, 03:08:10 AM »
Not exactly an aerosol study, but some folks did some studies with satts and ground truth evaporation pans when the air traffic stopped on 9/11.

they found some increases in evap because of clearer skies iirc.

There was also one study done on cloud cover over the ocean from sea shipping traffic "contrails". they showed that the lowering of shipping, caused lower cloud formation. This they attrib to the ships wakes pushing up bio particles from the kelp islands.

I think those kelp islands are all gone now, because of the increased frequency of the ships, and intl trade. Maybe interesting to see if the shipping in the Arctic creates "contrails" above the algal blooms...
(saw that one in a print copy of Science News)

Arctic sea ice / Re: The 2020 melting season
« on: July 14, 2020, 11:04:53 PM »
I think there was a PBS special on Greenland, where for a couple days of the year, the natives could get into an "ice cave" to collect mussels or something, and the rock to ice span was 10-20 meters, and only 1-2 meters at the ceiling level. Could have been a First Nations of Canada special tho...

Atmospheric Erosion by Giant Impacts onto Terrestrial Planets: A Scaling Law for any Speed, Angle, Mass, and Density

"We present a new scaling law to predict the loss of atmosphere from planetary collisions for any speed, angle, impactor mass, target mass, and body compositions, in the regime of giant impacts onto broadly terrestrial planets with relatively thin atmospheres.

To this end, we examine the erosion caused by a wide range of impacts, using 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with sufficiently high resolution to directly model the fate of low-mass atmospheres. Different collision scenarios lead to extremely different behaviours and consequences for the planets.

In spite of this complexity, the fraction of lost atmosphere is fitted well by a power law. Scaling is independent of the system mass for a constant impactor mass ratio. We find no evident departure from the trend at the extremes of the parameters explored. The scaling law can readily be incorporated into models of planet formation."

The politics / Decryption Originalism: The Lessons of Burr
« on: July 04, 2020, 11:45:49 PM »
Decryption Originalism: The Lessons of Burr

"The Supreme Court is likely to rule soon on how the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination applies to compelled decryption of a digital device. When the Court rules, the original understanding of the Fifth Amendment may control the outcome. This Article details an extraordinary case that illuminates the original understanding of the privilege and its application to compelled decryption. During the 1807 treason trial of Aaron Burr, with Chief Justice John Marshall presiding, the government asked Burr’s private secretary if he knew the cipher to an encrypted letter Burr had sent to a co-conspirator. Burr’s secretary pled the Fifth, leading to an extensive debate on the meaning of the privilege and an opinion from the Chief Justice.

The Burr dispute presents a remarkable opportunity to unearth the original understanding of the Fifth Amendment and its application to surprisingly modern facts. The lawyers in Burr were celebrated and experienced advocates. The Chief Justice allowed them to argue the Fifth Amendment question in exhaustive detail. And an attorney recorded the entire argument in shorthand, including dozens of legal citations to the specific pages of the authorities the lawyers invoked. The rich materials allow us to reconstruct for the first time precisely how the privilege was understood by leading lawyers and Chief Justice John Marshall soon after the Fifth Amendment’s ratification. The Article presents that reconstruction, and it concludes by applying Burr’s lessons to the modern problem of compelled decryption of digital devices such as cell phones and computers."

Pretty cool that for the encryption debate to go all the way back to the original impeachment.

Consequences / Re: COVID-19
« on: July 04, 2020, 11:31:28 PM »
The major genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 is inherited from Neandertals

"Here, we show that the risk is conferred by a genomic segment of ~50 kb that is inherited from Neandertals and occurs at a frequency of ~30% in south Asia and ~8% in Europe."

The rest / Parkinsons neuron degeneration halted in mice
« on: July 02, 2020, 12:22:00 AM »
Reversing a model of Parkinson’s disease with in situ converted nigral neurons

One-time treatment generates new neurons, eliminates Parkinson's disease in mice

"Researchers have discovered that a single treatment to inhibit a gene called PTB in mice converts native astrocytes, brain support cells, into neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. As a result, the mice's Parkinson's disease symptoms disappear. "

"The treatment works like this: The researchers developed a noninfectious virus that carries an antisense oligonucleotide sequence -- an artificial piece of DNA designed to specifically bind the RNA coding for PTB, thus degrading it, preventing it from being translated into a functional protein and stimulating neuron development.

Antisense oligonucleotides, also known as designer DNA drugs, are a proven approach for neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases "


A War Against Climate Science, Waged by Washington’s Rank and File

Efforts to block research on climate change don’t just come from the Trump political appointees on top. Lower managers in government are taking their cues, and running with them.

"survey in 2018 of more than 63,000 federal employees across 16 agencies identified the E.P.A. and Department of Interior as having the least trustworthy leadership in matters of scientific integrity.

Findings published in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS ONE in April on a subset of those agencies found that 631 workers agreed or strongly agreed that they had been asked to omit the phrase “climate change” from their work. In the same paper, 703 employees said they avoided working on climate change or using the phrase."

Policy and solutions / Re: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
« on: June 15, 2020, 11:30:50 PM »
Great paper on easy nano grain CO2 catalyst, made by simple flame pyrosis. Easy and scalable, this can create a flexible syngas product, and you can "dial" in the CO and H quantities to make fuels or plastics.

This could get rid of oil and gas production in a year or so..... especially if we started switching over to methanol and electric right now, and not subsidizing fossil fuel cars and companies anymore.

"It means it can be used industrially, it can be scaled, it’s super quick to make the materials and very effective,” she says.

“We don’t need to worry about complicated synthesis techniques that use really expensive metals and precursors – we can burn it and in 10 minutes have these particles ready to go. And by controlling how we burn it, we can control those ratios of desired syngas building blocks.”

"“The idea is that we can take a point source of CO2, such as a coal fired power plant, a gas power plant, or even a natural gas mine where you liberate a huge amount of pure CO2 and we can essentially retrofit this technology at the back end of these plants. Then you could capture that produced CO2 and convert it into something that is hugely valuable to industry,” says Dr Lovell."

The researchers say in effect, they are closing the carbon loop in industrial processes that create harmful greenhouse gases. And by making small adjustments to the way the nanoparticles are burned by the FSP technique, they can determine the eventual mix of the syngas building blocks produced by the carbon dioxide conversion.

“At the moment you generate syngas by using natural gas – so from fossil fuels,” Dr Daiyan says. “But we’re using waste carbon dioxide and then converting it to syngas in a ratio depending on which industry you want to use it in.”

For example, a one to one ratio between the carbon monoxide and hydrogen lends itself to syngas that can be used as fuel. But a ratio of four parts carbon monoxide and one part hydrogen is suitable for the creation of plastics, Dr Daiyan says.

The rest / Re: Re-using facemasks, anti-viral, with table salt
« on: March 21, 2020, 12:21:31 PM »
this didn't get added, but you can use CPAP , sleep apnea machines as ventilators

The above model would suggest that COVID patients really need positive
pressure more than anything else.  For example, their work of
breathing is often tolerable – so they may not need much mechanical
support for the work of breathing (indeed, mechanical support could
lead to injuriously large tidal volumes).

The best modality to provide lots of positive pressure is simply
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP).  CPAP may not seem
dramatic, but this modality actually provides the greatest amount of
positive pressure to allow for the most powerful recruitment

The rest / Re-using facemasks, anti-viral, with table salt
« on: March 19, 2020, 08:09:49 AM »

Universal and reusable virus deactivation system for respiratory protection

Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 39956 (2017)

Here, we report the development of a universal, reusable virus deactivation system by functionalization of the main fibrous filtration unit of surgical mask with sodium chloride salt. The salt coating on the fiber surface dissolves upon exposure to virus aerosols and recrystallizes during drying, destroying the pathogens. When tested with tightly sealed sides, salt-coated filters showed remarkably higher filtration efficiency than conventional mask filtration layer, and 100% survival rate was observed in mice infected with virus penetrated through salt-coated filters. Viruses captured on salt-coated filters exhibited rapid infectivity loss compared to gradual decrease on bare filters. Salt-coated filters proved highly effective in deactivating influenza viruses regardless of subtypes and following storage in harsh environmental conditions. Our results can be applied in obtaining a broad-spectrum, airborne pathogen prevention device in preparation for epidemic and pandemic of respiratory diseases.

Consequences / Re: Chinese coronavirus
« on: February 04, 2020, 10:16:48 AM »
Universal and reusable virus deactivation system for respiratory protection

"Here, we report the development of a universal, reusable virus deactivation system by functionalization of the main fibrous filtration unit of surgical mask with sodium chloride salt. The salt coating on the fiber surface dissolves upon exposure to virus aerosols and recrystallizes during drying, destroying the pathogens. When tested with tightly sealed sides, salt-coated filters showed remarkably higher filtration efficiency than conventional mask filtration layer, and 100% survival rate was observed in mice infected with virus penetrated through salt-coated filters. Viruses captured on salt-coated filters exhibited rapid infectivity loss compared to gradual decrease on bare filters. Salt-coated filters proved highly effective in deactivating influenza viruses regardless of subtypes and following storage in harsh environmental conditions."

(Don't know if this has held up, or is replicated)

Flu trackers site used to be pretty good, but was abandoned by the original folk. They left it up, and has been used as a central site anyway.

He he....

"It seems that whatever “crap” we put into graphene, electrocatalysis increases.(2) One may exaggerate only a little by saying that if we spit on graphene it becomes a better electrocatalyst. Having 84 reasonably stable elements (apart from noble gases and carbon), one can produce 84 articles on monoelemental doping of graphene; with two dopants we have 3486 possible combinations, with three dopants we can publish 95,284 combinations, and with four elements there are close to 2 × 106 combinations."

"We decided to follow the hyperbole of ever multiplying dopants; however, instead of using expensive and toxic chemicals such as ammonia, fluorine, chlorine, boranes, etc., we took a page from the pre-Haber–Bosch era and sought natural materials for the fertilization of graphene and used guano as a dopant. Guano has a great advantage for doping over using synthetic chemicals. It is available at low cost, it contains a plethora of elements (including N, P, S, Cl, etc.), and its use for graphene doping can be handled by a nonchemist. We show that we can create high-entropy, multiple-element-doped graphene with outstanding electrocatalytic properties for two industrially important reactions: oxygen reduction used in fuel cells and hydrogen evolution used in electrolyzers. If we follow the claims of previously published doped graphene for electrocatalysis articles regarding “metal-free catalysis”, one can envision an era in which guano-doped graphene is used instead of platinum in fuel cells and electrolyzers, with huge societal impact not only in clean energy production and a cleaner environment but also on rural economies as guano once again becomes a valuable and highly sought-after product."

Consequences / Re: Chinese coronavirus
« on: February 01, 2020, 11:14:04 AM »
2019 Corona virus has 4 inserts that match HIV, showing possible bio-hacking.

Uncanny similarity of unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV spike protein to HIV-1

" The  finding  of  4  unique  inserts  in  the  2019-nCoV,  all  of  which  have identity  /similarity  to  amino  acid  residues  in  key  structural  proteins  of  HIV-1  is  unlikely  to  be fortuitous in nature. This work provides yet unknown insights on 2019-nCoV and sheds light on the evolution and pathogenicity of this virus with important implications for diagnosis of this virus.  ".

Unexpectedly, all the insertions got aligned with Human immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1). F

"As none of these 4 inserts are present in any other coronavirus, the genomic region encoding these inserts represent ideal candidates for designing primers that can distinguish 2019-nCoV from other coronaviruses".

"This  indicates  that  these  insertions  have  been  preferably  acquired  by  the  2019-nCoV, providing it with additional survival and infectivity advantage. Delving deeper we found that these insertions were similar to HIV-1. Our results highlight an astonishing relation between the gp120 and Gag protein of HIV, with 2019-nCoV spike glycoprotein. These proteins are  critical for  the viruses  to  identify  and  latch  on  to  their  host  cells  and  for    viral  assembly  (Beniac  et  al.,  2006). Since surface proteins are responsible for host tropism, changes in these proteins imply a change in  host  specificity  of  the  virus.  According  to  reports  from  China,  there  has  been  a  gain  of  host specificity in case 2019-nCoV as the virus was originally known to infect animals and not humans but after the mutations, it has gained tropism to humans as well. "

Permafrost / Re: Toward Improved Discussions of Methane & Climate
« on: January 23, 2020, 10:41:49 AM »
Another clathrate ? of the "strange metal" superconductors. This one is nickle oxide based, with doping of neodyminium. The Nd donates extra charge from its place in the lattice. Pretty cool, and these structures are starting to look like may be common in the lithosphere.

"Furthermore, the intervening layers actually contribute electrons to the nickelate sheets, creating a three-dimensional metallic state that is quite different from what's seen in the cuprates."

This is an entirely new type of ground state for transition metal oxides such as cuprates and nickelates, the researchers said. It opens new directions for experiments and theoretical studies of how superconductivity arises and how it can be optimized in this system and possibly in other compounds."


"the electronic structure of LaNiO2 and NdNiO2, while similar to the cuprates, includes significant distinctions. Unlike cuprates, the rare-earth spacer layer in the infinite-layer nickelate supports a weakly interacting three-dimensional 5d metallic state, which hybridizes with a quasi-two-dimensional, strongly correlated state with \(3d_{x^2-y^2}\) symmetry in the NiO2 layers. Thus, the infinite-layer nickelate can be regarded as a sibling of the rare-earth intermetallics13,14,15, which are well known for heavy fermion behaviour, where the NiO2 correlated layers play an analogous role to the 4f states in rare-earth heavy fermion compounds. This Kondo- or Anderson-lattice-like ‘oxide-intermetallic’ replaces the Mott insulator as the reference state from which superconductivity emerges upon doping."

edit. SLAC news release with diagram

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