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AGW in general => Consequences => Topic started by: Pmt111500 on October 19, 2017, 12:09:48 PM

Title: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on October 19, 2017, 12:09:48 PM
A short think between me and a scientist didn't uncover a direct  climate change connection, though. That doesn't exclude could have indirect effects. Potential Habitat reserved for human use, extensive use of pesticides have locked the studied areas in a state of degeneration and splitting the available habitats. Climate change could have effects through poorer nutritional value of co2 induced growth of foodplants and weather. Habitat destruction is easier in secluded small areas. Interesting anyhow.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/oct/18/warning-of-ecological-armageddon-after-dramatic-plunge-in-insect-numbers

<modified title; N.>
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Avalonian on October 19, 2017, 02:35:18 PM
It's a sad state of affairs, this, and there are actually plenty of climate change connections when you start looking...

For example, I'm one of the people monitoring UK Hemiptera species, and we're seeing, on average, four or five new species a year being recorded. We're also getting previous visitors being able to get established, so the total diversity at the moment is actually increasing steadily. There are also changes on a local scale; my area of mid Wales is seeing a lot of new colonists that were previously stuck the other side of the border due to the harsher weather. This has got to be a direct reflection of milder winters, in particular.

The influx of species new to a region has all sorts of knock-on effects, in extreme cases (e.g. the Harlequin Ladybird, or the Elm Bark Borer) having a huge effect on numerous native species. Where a colonist becomes hugely successful, it can knock out some of the ecological buffer systems, leading to boom-and-bust cycles, and unexpected collapses. I'm not sure whether this could result in lower overall insect abundance per se, but it certainly makes the ecology more vulnerable.

The boom-and-bust cycles also result in occasional plagues of aphids, for example, or caterpillars, which are dealt with by farmers in the traditional way: by throwing something toxic at them. This, of course, gets into the local environment, and kills a whole lot more than intended.

A balanced ecosystem, with all its components functioning, is moderately stable and robust to environmental perturbations. An ecosystem with major components suppressed or missing results in more unstable population dynamics, which exacerbates the whole cycle. For example, a small population of caterpillars one year leads to a reduction in their dependent predators; the following year, because the parasitoid wasps have been hit badly and butterflies lay lots of eggs, the caterpillar population booms, and the predators can't keep it under control. So the farmers spray with something extra-nasty, decimating the parasitoids as well as the caterpillars. Rinse and repeat.

I'm sure there are lots of more specific aspects as well. One is changes in weather patterns. In the UK, floods or frost in late April to May are catastrophic for insect populations, because they coincide with flightless larvae; we've had several very bad years. Changes in the plant flowering and budding seasons can also cause problens; last year, for example, I say leaf-feeding insects on a leafless tree, waiting for the buds to burst. Because so many insects are strictly host-specific, a late opening of leaves can result in the population crashing.

There are probably masses more... but insects are extremely sensitive to environmental change. The first clue we had to the rapidity of temperature changes at the end of the last glacial was, I believe, Russell Coope's work on peatland beetles: sub-arctic to Mediterranean faunas in the same place, in a few years. He was soundly laughed at, of course.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on October 19, 2017, 03:24:00 PM
A previous article in the Guardian looked at the presence of pesticides in honey.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/sep/21/assumed-safety-of-widespread-pesticide-use-is-false-says-top-government-scientist

It is not a big leap to assume that pesticides are present throughout the insect population and maybe inside us.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on October 19, 2017, 04:58:46 PM
Oh, <Avalonian> hemiptera. I've done local butterfly monitoring for abt 10 years and had moths/butterflies as a hobby every now and then for some 30. The 3-5 year gaps in monitoring could be seen on the records by the variation and pretty steady rises and falls in certain species, so i can somewhat relate. Here's one species which might have some difficulties in finland in 100 years. Might have seen it myself once in 1986? but of course not identified it. And probably still wouldn't, there are just so many groups of insecta around, can't know them all.

Currently my health prevents me from going out much, so I tried last year to monitor nearby very closely. The result was dismal, but that's more of a location issue. Still managed to find two species I didn't see in 1990s when I last lived hereby.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Avalonian on October 20, 2017, 03:20:40 AM
Ah, Chiloxanthus! We've only got one (different) species in the UK, and so far it's eluded me, but I do like saldids. Yes, it's likely to be these ones with very specific requirements that are vulnerable to vanishing... but that's always surprisingly hard to predict. For example, one scarce saldid species in the UK, S. opacula, used to be restricted to a few high-altitude lochans in Scotland, and a couple of southern saltmarshes... but is now appearing much more widely, in brownfield sites and marshlands. Sometimes they just don't do what we'd expect them to.  ???
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: jai mitchell on October 20, 2017, 08:07:43 AM
 :-X
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Alexander555 on October 20, 2017, 10:02:36 AM
Probably many things have an impact. Over here, when we have ants, than we put some poison on them. Otherwise we have hundreds of them in the house the year after. When we have some weed growing between the stones, we put some poison on them. When i was young we had many moles in the garden, and we put smokebomds (poison) in their tunnels.  We killed everything we could to let everything look nice and beautifull. A part of all that airpollution falls on your soil, and with the first rain it's in your soil. And if you look at the number of cars and trucks that are driving on this planet and at the quantities of all kinds of poisons and chemicals that are sold worldwide. Than you know that there are giant quantities of garbage in our soil. They are close to dead. And that brings the question, how many insects needed something that was living in that soil. Because they are all gone now. And the bad news is, little by little all that garbage will find his way to the sea in the next dozens of years. Every time it rains, flows in groundwater will bring it a little closer to the sea. And if you look at that global expansion from the last years, than you know what our sea's are going to get. I fear that many people don't understand how bad we have been for our planet. But they will find out soon.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on October 20, 2017, 01:40:03 PM
Something to cheer us up for the weekend

"Insectageddon: farming is more catastrophic than climate breakdown"
George Monbiot

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/oct/20/insectageddon-farming-catastrophe-climate-breakdown-insect-populations
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: sidd on October 22, 2017, 08:49:47 PM
In the Monbiot article there is a link to a 2010 paper that shows insectivorous birds declining in N. America. The evidence is not as clear as the German study, and the time period of the study is much shorter, but it is worth looking at, I think.

http://www.ace-eco.org/vol5/iss2/art1/

sidd
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Avalonian on October 23, 2017, 03:13:49 AM
Thanks Sidd - interesting. I suspect the same pattern is happening all over the developed world, but you need to sample in the right way to see it.

A friend in mid Wales is a 90-year-old moth trapper (recently given up, since he can no longer remember all the names), who has been setting weekly traps for 50 years. Anyone who's run a moth trap knows what to expect nowadays - good nights and bad nights, with the bad nights having almost nothing caught.  What we've all mostly forgotten is what it was like a few decades ago, when he would measure the nightly haul in pounds of moths. On good nights he'd have to run it for a few hours only, or the moths would start dying in the crush. 

That's the level of insect abundance that we've lost... and most of us simply can't remember what it was like. I'm trying hard to persuade him to publish his records...
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: sidd on October 23, 2017, 04:09:37 AM
We have killed all the megafauna, and now our carelessness is killing the microfauna. Not even necessarily through malice, but through careless inattention, and that is an obscenity.

sidd
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Red on October 23, 2017, 11:34:14 AM
We have killed all the megafauna, and now our carelessness is killing the microfauna. Not even necessarily through malice, but through careless inattention, and that is an obscenity.

sidd
Sidd I don't think it was through careless inattention. The big guys (monsanto,gargill etc.) and those before them have been actively seeking poisons to wipe out the microfauna since WW2. If they have to kill all to get one then so be it! Scorched earth of their own making.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: pileus on October 28, 2017, 09:19:08 PM
Small creatures like this are always on the knife's edge of existence, but this one never really had a chance given its geographic range and the multitude of local threats.

Florida's most endangered butterfly may not have survived Hurricane Irma

http://www.placead.tampabay.com/news/environment/wildlife/floridas-most-endangered-butterfly-may-not-have-survived-hurricane-irma/2342661

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: TerryM on October 28, 2017, 09:43:13 PM
In the 1950's I could go to our property line, clap my hands loudly over a vast field of milkweed, and watch the sky darkened as the Monarch butterflies arose in mass.
A few years ago a butterfly count in the same area found less than triple digits of Monarchs for the season.
They're planting milkweed on a slope a mile or so away in an effort to bring the butterflies back, but the results have been disappointing.
Terry
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Shared Humanity on October 28, 2017, 09:51:26 PM
We have killed all the megafauna, and now our carelessness is killing the microfauna. Not even necessarily through malice, but through careless inattention, and that is an obscenity.

sidd
Sidd I don't think it was through careless inattention. The big guys (monsanto,gargill etc.) and those before them have been actively seeking poisons to wipe out the microfauna since WW2. If they have to kill all to get one then so be it! Scorched earth of their own making.

And the forecast for the killing insect business is rosy as the range for insects spreads north due to global warming. Rollins, Inc. which holds Orkin as a wholly owned subsidiary is forecasting double digit growth in the business and their stock has been on a steady climb for a decade.

Poisoning shit is big business and getting bigger.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: pileus on October 28, 2017, 10:32:19 PM
In the 1950's I could go to our property line, clap my hands loudly over a vast field of milkweed, and watch the sky darkened as the Monarch butterflies arose in mass.
A few years ago a butterfly count in the same area found less than triple digits of Monarchs for the season.
They're planting milkweed on a slope a mile or so away in an effort to bring the butterflies back, but the results have been disappointing.
Terry

As a kid in the 70s I remember early summer drives through rural Maryland and Pennsylvania at dusk, and being amazed at the thick swarms of fireflies lighting up the farmland and fields.  It was magical. Took the same drive a few years ago and didn't see evidence of even one.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: TerryM on October 28, 2017, 11:15:28 PM
In the 1950's I could go to our property line, clap my hands loudly over a vast field of milkweed, and watch the sky darkened as the Monarch butterflies arose in mass.
A few years ago a butterfly count in the same area found less than triple digits of Monarchs for the season.
They're planting milkweed on a slope a mile or so away in an effort to bring the butterflies back, but the results have been disappointing.
Terry

As a kid in the 70s I remember early summer drives through rural Maryland and Pennsylvania at dusk, and being amazed at the thick swarms of fireflies lighting up the farmland and fields.  It was magical. Took the same drive a few years ago and didn't see evidence of even one.


Now that you mention it, I've not seen one firefly since returning to Ontario in 2004.


Slightly OT, but does anyone know what happened to the huge flocks of starlings that were such a problem in the 50's?
Terry
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: pileus on October 29, 2017, 01:27:38 AM
There are plenty of topics about humans persisting and surviving the deepening climate crisis, but what kind of world is worth living in that has lost much of its mega and microfauna, and is dominated by AI, rats, coackroaches, and jellyfish? Maybe a bit hyperbolic as spiders and ants have quite the net biomass, but it's really hard to see the appeal of Earth without all the other creatures, large and small.  It's ironic that we'll someday be wistful for what many long considered pests.  Part of the answer I suppose is that future generations born into the new Earth system only know what they know.  They will look at pictures of animals and insects and fish like we look at pictures of dinosaurs, as they enjoy their three square of soylent.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: sidd on October 29, 2017, 02:46:28 AM
Re: starlings and bagworms and fireflies

Still see em in OH and PA. Noisy as hell, but they eat the bagworms ...

fireflies are still about in those states too, not as many though, and mostly away from the cities.

sidd
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Red on October 29, 2017, 11:23:01 AM
Just casual observation but working and playing outside most of my life the lack of insects is not lost on me. I've often wondered about mass use of pesticides on the fauna that feeds on these little creatures. Living a fair distance from anything that resembles big agriculture and yet having noticed a large enough drop in blackly and mosquito populations that I haven't had to use any repellent in the past five or six years. Yes there are some biters out there but not enough to make me use products containing deet. Over the last two years I've noticed a decline in the year round bird populations. The past couple of winters while hiking in my local forest it has become difficult to find any winter birds at all on some days! It got me thinking about mortality of wild song birds. From what I found the life expectancy of song birds in the wild is five to eight years with the survival rate of young at 50% or less in abundant conditions. Could this be related to a lack of food supply on which to raise the chicks? Not enough to get them up to adulthood before winter sets in? After a few years of low replacement numbers of adult birds the decline would start to show up? Just like the human population if you lose the food supply the overall numbers go down after an appropriate amount of time has past. Could be I'm wrong and I sincerely hope so. Anyone out there noticing anything similar. I know migratory song birds have been on a steady decline for decades now but the year round residents?!   
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Shared Humanity on October 29, 2017, 03:33:57 PM
In the west suburbs of Chicago, most bird populations were decimated in 2002 by West Nile. I spent the entire summer picking up dead birds in my yard, yellow and house finches, cardinals, sparrows etc. As an organic gardener, it was one of the saddest summers of my life.The populations have never fully recovered.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Forest Dweller on October 30, 2017, 10:22:57 PM
So unsurprising....

The decline is said to be related to both climate change and pesticides.
I'll not discuss the climate aspect but already "pesticides"is the wrong terminology and falls short.
It's pesticides, herbicides and all kinds of chemical or industrial pollution deliberate or not which play a part in all life.

It is the same limited thinking surrounding the most famous "weed killer interview" where lobbyist Patrick Moore refuses to drink some even though he claims glyphosate is 100% safe to drink.
He knows he would have gone straight to intensive care of course because as he has just explained 20 or so heavier systemic poisons are added to that crap.
Glyphosate is just the most harmless one and while we don't even know the other ingredients most idiots just keep discussing how safe glyphosate is.
Nobody sprays just glyphosate anywhere.
They spray cocktails which we know are always more harmful and that is why during my wildlife research i can see where they use it the mice or voles just sitting around in a daze or even climbing on my shoes to die on the spot.

Of course insects will die.
They are subjected to many other cocktails and poisons on top of that, and various other forms of pollution AND climate change all at once.
All are the result of industrial society, that is what it is and what it does.
The greatest destructive force ever on Earth.

Have people lost their frigging minds???
Chemical industry has done nothing since it's beginning but leave behind it a trail of millions of dead and sick creatures including us, while reaping the profits going from one product to the next before it can be banned.
Chemical industry should be closed down immediately if not all industry.

Here i see elderly people growing food or children playing sports next to the highway with the most polluted air in Europe, on fake grass filled in with poisonous ground up car tires while around them everything is sprayed and poisoned as well.
People say that is a healthy activity for kids or the elderly, while the increase in health problems and epidemics is dealt with by pharmaceuticals from the chemical industry as well.
And of course add more problems while the profits are reaped before those can be banned and replaced by the next "medicine" as well.
Of course the elderly gardeners add their own poisons to their already toxic crops...
Yes people have lost their frigging minds.

Even DDT still reaches us in spite of it being banned long ago.
Hey, we still have the factories here and happily export it to Africa so of course there is an illegal circuit and the rest comes through food imports etc.
They test plants in garden centers here and find 17 poisons on just 1 plant, half of them illegal...

We are a chemical experiment involving hundreds or more substances and we already don't care about our own health or that of our kids and pets.
So of course insects are gonna die.
Insects will not be the only ones either.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on November 09, 2017, 03:32:03 PM
THE UK ACTUALLY DOING THE RIGHT THING FOR ONCE?

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/nov/09/uk-will-back-total-ban-on-bee-harming-pesticides-michael-gove-reveals

"The UK will back a total ban on insect-harming pesticides in fields across Europe, the environment secretary, Michael Gove, has revealed.

The decision reverses the government’s previous position and is justified by recent new evidence showing neonicotinoids have contaminated the whole landscape and cause damage to colonies of bees. It also follows the revelation that 75% of all flying insects have disappeared in Germany and probably much further afield, a discovery Gove said had shocked him.

Neonicotinoids are the world’s most widely used insecticide but in 2013 the European Union banned their use on flowering crops, although the UK was among the nations opposing the ban. The European commission now wants a total ban on their use outside of greenhouses, with a vote expected in December, and the UK’s new position makes it very likely to pass."
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Sigmetnow on November 14, 2017, 04:08:16 PM
From the Renewable Energy thread.  An acknowledgement of the problem, and steps to help address it.

How solar-energy sites can provide habitat for our Minnesota monarchs
When you see a facility blooming with native plants, it's helping the birds and butterflies.
Quote
This month — while the monarchs are gathering in their overwintering groves in the mountains of Mexico — Carver County, Ramsey and Blaine are considering proposals to use private funds to create more than 90 acres of high-quality habitat for monarchs and other pollinators over seven sites. The proposals, like others, are financed by the solar panels that sit above the diverse mix of deep-rooted plants. Once complete, these sites will provide habitat equivalent to more than 54,000 homes each planting and maintaining 6- by 12-foot pollinator gardens.
http://www.startribune.com/how-solar-energy-sites-can-provide-habitat-for-our-minnesota-monarchs/456220783/
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Csnavywx on November 14, 2017, 05:33:30 PM
A bit of an anecdotal story:

My father stopped using most pesticides and herbicides on his farm -- going back to using fallow rotational periods and planting green manure crops where he did need to restore nutrients. The effect has been drastic. A marked increase in insect and plant diversity returned over a 10-15 year period. One of those that recovered was fireflies. So many, in fact, that there was an explosion of them a couple of years ago. A "firefly flurry", I believe they're called. Huge quantities of them covered the trees and air at night, causing the entire forest to glitter. I'd never seen anything like it, even as a kid.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on November 29, 2017, 12:53:32 PM
It seems as if the world's favorite pesticide is damaging a lot more than insect populations.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/nov/29/common-pesticide-can-make-migrating-birds-lose-their-way-research-shows

The experimental study is the first to directly show harm to songbirds, extending the known impacts of neonicotinoids beyond insects.


Another "Silent Spring" ?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on December 30, 2017, 03:41:41 PM
If the pesticides don't get you, the fungicides will.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/dec/29/alarming-link-between-fungicides-and-bee-declines-revealed

Quote
Alarming link between fungicides and bee declines revealed
Fungicides are found to be the strongest factor linked to steep bumblebee declines, surprising scientists and adding to the threats to vital pollinators

This is sort of science Trump and his not very merry men are trying to kill.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Sebastian Jones on December 30, 2017, 06:05:52 PM
If the pesticides don't get you, the fungicides will.

Who would have guessed that poisons are poisonous?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Neven on February 18, 2018, 08:27:47 PM
According to this study:

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0185809

More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas - Germany.

Notable highlights from the study:
"Our results demonstrate that recently reported declines in several taxa such as butterflies [7, 25–27, 58], wild bees [8–14] and moths [15–18], are in parallel with a severe loss of total aerial insect biomass, suggesting that it is not only the vulnerable species, but the flying insect community as a whole, that has been decimated over the last few decades. The estimated decline is considerably more severe than the only comparable long term study on flying insect biomass elsewhere [28]."


Anecdotally, anyone who lives in the northern hemisphere can tell you that when driving there are FAR FEWER insects splatting on the windshields compared to just 10 or 20 years ago.  I've personally noticed a dramatic decline in insect population in the Northeast US in just 10 years.  It seems likely (although I don't have any data so this is an anecdotal claim) that across the entire northern hemisphere insect populations have declined by this same 75% level. 

The important take home consequences of this study (i.e., my thoughts):

1.  There are no pesticides being used in the reserves in which this study was carried out, therefore it's almost certain that the cause is somehow related to other factors, i.e., exponential temperature rise.  I personally live in an area with zero agriculture, and have noticed a dramatic decrease in insect densities as well.

2.  Insects have existed on this planet far, far longer than primates.  If insects cannot survive a 1.5C rise in global average temperature (above the 1750/1850 pre industrial baseline), it's difficult to imagine primates surviving much longer.  Especially considering that primates require insects to survive.

3.  Insects represent the foundation of the food-chain for all northern hemisphere biomes, with a 75% decline, it's likely that over the next several years die offs in many of the major larger terrestrial vertebrates will take place at a similar clip. 

We're only at 1.5C above pre industrial baseline as of 2018.  75% decline in the biomass of any population of animals on the planet is extreme, especially considering that it's across all families, genus and species of insects, not just a single group.  It appears as if the insect organisms cannot keep up with the exponential rise in global average temperature in the northern hemisphere.  Insects are ectothermic invertebrates, which means that they are particularly well adapted to (but also sensitive to) variations in temperature.  If an ectothermic invertebrate can't keep up with climate change, its difficult to imagine that endothermic vertebrates like mammals will survive.

This appears to be the prelude to an extinction level event that is unprecedented since the Permian mass extinction.

The insects are the canary in the terrestrial coal mine (similarly, Coral reefs are the canary in the oceanic coal mine), so to speak - mammals (i.e., humans), reptiles, amphibians, and birds are next.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: icefisher on February 19, 2018, 03:46:11 AM
SH, I live in the east suburbs of St. Louis.  The bee populations in my yard have vanished, Monarchs likewise.  Wasps, however are alive and well.  My wife and I loved to watch hummingbirds.  Several used to return year after year.  This past summer - no hummingbirds.  We are both alarmed.  Cardinal numbers are dwindling. Sparrows, wrens and nuthatches also putting in fewer and fewer appearances.  Starlings are numerous, as are blackbirds, crows, owls, hawks and geese.  Geese are just about everywhere and live year round.   
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Sebastian Jones on February 19, 2018, 06:49:29 PM

According to this study:

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0185809

More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas - Germany.



 (i.e., my thoughts):


  It appears as if the insect organisms cannot keep up with the exponential rise in global average temperature in the northern hemisphere.  ......

This appears to be the prelude to an extinction level event that is unprecedented since the Permian mass extinction.

The insects are the canary in the terrestrial coal mine 

With respect, there is no evidence that the rise in global temperature is the prime cause of the insect biomass decline, there is considerable evidence that changes in agricultural and land use practices do have a sufficient effect. The change to mono-cultures and heavy pesticide use associated with the adoption of GMOs are the most likely culprits. This is not to say that climate warming is not serious!
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: harpy on February 20, 2018, 02:11:31 AM
The area in the study is not influenced by agriculture directly, so pesticides and fragmentation are likely not the issue.  In the study it indicates that the land was ALREADY fragmented prior to the study, so that effect in a sense has no impact - it was an outside factor.

Another issue with your post is that you're discounting the numerous and at this point almost innumerable anecdotal observations from all over the northern hemisphere that insect populations are plummeting.  In the area where I live, there are ZERO pesticides and almost no fragmentation issues.  Insect populations here are sometimes non existent.

Pesticide use has no impact on the area where I live - the only factor is temperature, and temperatures here have been DRAMATICALLY warmer over the past 10 years.

Warm winter temperatures mess up the timing of insect hatches, and this causes premature death.  Moreover, insects metabolism increases with increased temperature, if theres nothing for them to eat when they hatch prematurely in March, instead of when they are supposed to hatch in June - they all die.

This is the crux of the problem for insects - their timing is all screwed up, and many of them are hatching and dying before they can eat and/or mate.  If insects hatch in January during a 69 degree night, they all die - especially if temps drop back down- that's a problem.  No trees have leaves on them when these insects hatch - theres no flowers, no food in February and March , they all die and there's no replacement for them.  This is happening to all insects all over the northern hemisphere every year we get these absurdly high temperatures in winter months.

I think that many folks seem to misunderstand just how fragile animals are.  You cannot simply suddenly increase winter temperatures in a 10 year time frame and expect animals to be able to cope.  70 degree days in February (as is going to happen in the northeast US in the next week) has profound and disastrous consequences for the natural environment that we simply haven't studied yet.  And the changes are happening so rapidly that it's very difficult to study them.  We;re lucky to even have this one study from Germany.  It represents a snapshot of the catastrophe that is unfolding in the northern hemisphere.

The last time that temperatures rose even close to as fast as they are now was the permian mass extinction.  Temperatures are rising much quicker now than during the permian.  90% of species died during that extinction event, and it took tens of thousands of years. What we're doing to the planet right now is taking the permian mass extinction and pushing down the accelerator even faster.  The only event that I can think of that altered global average temperatures this quickly was the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, and 70% of all species died.  That was an asteroid, with aerosols that fell out of the sky in a relatively quick fashion (geologically speaking) - the effects of atmospheric CO2 will not be quick.  It's hard to imagine anything less than a KT extinction level event from current CO2 emissions and positive feedbacks.  In such an event, anything larger than a medium sized rat will likely go extinct.

In short, insects are just the start.  Mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians are next.  Many have already started to die off in their natural environments en masse, independent of human fragmentation and habitat loss factors.

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Sigmetnow on February 24, 2018, 06:03:11 PM
Insect population decline leaves Australian scientists scratching for solutions
Quote
A global crash in insect populations has found its way to Australia, with entomologists across the country reporting lower than average numbers of wild insects.
University of Sydney entomologist Dr Cameron Webb said researchers around the world widely acknowledge that insect populations are in decline, but are at a loss to determine the cause.
"On one hand it might be the widespread use of insecticides, on the other hand it might be urbanisation and the fact that we're eliminating some of the plants where it's really critical that these insects complete their development," Dr Webb said.
"Add in to the mix climate change and sea level rise and it's incredibly difficult to predict exactly what it is." ...
http://amp.abc.net.au/article/9481136
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: ivica on March 09, 2018, 08:45:16 AM
Europe’s beetle species plummet as trees disappear (https://news.mongabay.com/2018/03/europes-beetle-species-plummet-as-trees-disappear/)

"A new report by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) finds nearly 18 percent of saproxylic beetles are threatened with extinction in Europe. That number goes up to almost 22 percent for the EU as a whole."

"Of Europe’s threatened species, the 2018 report finds five are critically endangered, up from two in 2010."

"Why are these beetles declining? According to the IUCN, it’s because Europe’s trees are disappearing."
Logging, wood harvesting, urbanization, tourism development and an increasing frequency in wildfires...
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: johnm33 on March 09, 2018, 12:06:35 PM
The effects of pesticides seem to be increasingly affecting our own species, I'm noticing an increasing number of babies being born with niggling little defects, worst cases are 'children without diagnosis'. If these toxins designed for other species are affecting our gestation, as I suspect, how much worse is it for those genetically closer to the target. Has anyone studied larval dysfunction or mis-metamorphosis?
 Since the use of pesticides to facillitate drying 'in the field' I've noticed feeling slightly poisoned [reminds me of working in a house after it's been sprayed with woodworm/dry rot killer] when eating certain foods.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on March 21, 2018, 10:39:17 AM
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/mar/21/catastrophe-as-frances-bird-population-collapses-due-to-pesticides

'Catastrophe' as France's bird population collapses due to pesticides

Dozens of species have seen their numbers decline, in some cases by two-thirds, because insects they feed on have disappeared

Quote
Bird populations across the French countryside have fallen by a third over the last decade and a half, researchers have said.

Dozens of species have seen their numbers decline, in some cases by two-thirds, the scientists said in a pair of studies – one national in scope and the other covering a large agricultural region in central France.

“The situation is catastrophic,” said Benoit Fontaine, a conservation biologist at France’s National Museum of Natural History and co-author of one of the studies. “Our countryside is in the process of becoming a veritable desert,” he said in a communique released by the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), which also contributed to the findings.

The common white throat, the ortolan bunting, the Eurasian skylark and other once-ubiquitous species have all fallen off by at least a third, according a detailed, annual census initiated at the start of the century. A migratory song bird, the meadow pipit, has declined by nearly 70%.

The museum described the pace and extent of the wipe-out as “a level approaching an ecological catastrophe”. The primary culprit, researchers speculate, is the intensive use of pesticides on vast tracts of monoculture crops, especially wheat and corn.

The problem is not that birds are being poisoned, but that the insects on which they depend for food have disappeared.

There are hardly any insects left, that’s the number one problem,” said Vincent Bretagnolle, a CNRS ecologist at the Centre for Biological Studies in Chize. Recent research, he noted, has uncovered similar trends across Europe, estimating that flying insects have declined by 80%, and bird populations has dropped by more than 400m in 30 years.

Despite a government plan to cut pesticide use in half by 2020, sales in France have climbed steadily, reaching more than 75,000 tonnes of active ingredient in 2014, according to European Union figures.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Sebastian Jones on March 21, 2018, 04:52:53 PM


'Catastrophe' as France's bird population collapses due to pesticides


The main causes are switching to mono cropping, the cessation of the practice of fallowing and the ever increasing use of pesticides. It is hard to exaggerate the seriousness of these trends- and it is not just France. These practices are widespread and are actively promoted around the world. It is not arctic ice, but it is as important, albeit differently.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on April 27, 2018, 12:07:45 PM
One can hope that it is not too late to implement this sort of policy.

EU agrees total ban on bee-harming pesticides
The world’s most widely used insecticides will be banned from all fields within six months, to protect both wild and honeybees that are vital to crop pollination


https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/apr/27/eu-agrees-total-ban-on-bee-harming-pesticides

So the multi-national chemical companies do not win everywhere, every time?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Coffee Drinker on April 29, 2018, 12:57:06 AM
Good news. Never understood how it can be not catastrophic to spray the whole landscape each year with pesticides.

Still remember driving on the autobahn in the 80s. The windscreen was pretty much always covered in insect after a few hours. Now its largely clean.

But then I wonder what is the "normal" insect population? In the 1980s, we had severe issues with water pollution, acid rain and poor air quality. So its not like the 80s were cleaner or "better" than today.

I always try to think what else could be the cause of insect demise. For this you have to think like an insect and know what they like. Many insect species need water without fish. I know many of the rivers and lakes got much cleaner and now have healthy fish populations again. Not sure if this has an influence as well. Maybe insects loved the polluted water and had highly "inflated" populations?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on June 11, 2018, 03:34:43 PM
You might think the quote is about the swift. Wait small.

Swifts' only food is flying insects- if there are less swifts then it is because there are less insects.

The cause is not AGW - the warmer it is the more insects we see in the UK.

It is pesticides and herbicides by farmers and gardeners.

Those who think fixing CO2 emissions means 'job done' are in for an unpleasant surprise

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jun/11/chris-packham-springwatch-warns-of-ecological-apocalypse-britain

Chris Packham warns of 'ecological apocalypse' in Britain
Springwatch presenter says Britain is increasingly ‘a green and unpleasant land’


Quote
Birdwatchers have noticed the skies are particularly lacking swifts this year, a summer migrant that is declining at an increasing rate – 51% over 20 years but 25% in the five years to 2015. Swifts are usually seen in 38% of the bird sightings logged with the British Trust for Ornithology in early June. This year they account for just 31%.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on June 17, 2018, 06:12:26 PM
Britain's insects in catastrophic decline
If it is happening here, one can assume it is the same just about everywhere in the OECD countries.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jun/17/where-have-insects-gone-climate-change-population-decline

just one quote

Quote
Our creepy crawlies may have unsettling looks but they lie at the foot of a wildlife food chain that makes them vitally important to the makeup and nature of the countryside. They are “the little things that run the world” according to the distinguished Harvard biologist Edward O Wilson, who once observed: “If all humankind were to disappear, the world would regenerate back to the rich state of equilibrium that existed 10,000 years ago. If insects were to vanish, the environment would collapse into chaos.”
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: queenie on June 18, 2018, 10:06:03 PM
As a farmer, when I first read the article on insect decline last fall, it rocked me to the core. Scared me even more than the scariest climate change scenarios. It also rang true. We work to attract beneficial insects and it seems to get harder each year even as we have more host plants. We are, like most organic farms, surrounded by conventional farms. We farm apples and the standard budget for apple orchards, prepared by the very good ag program at the university nearby, calls for 14 rounds of spray each year. 10 of those are insecticide or fungicide. We're organic but even we have to deal with the coddling moths, which lay eggs that hatch into worms in apples. We use a virus that only kills the coddling moth but even that I ask myself - how am I contributing to this terrible problem? Achieving a balance where birds and predatory insects eat enough of the moths to have the worms stay at an acceptable level is kind of a fantasy. In our world there is no acceptable level of worms in apples. We sell mostly direct so there is a little forgiveness but if we were bigger and shipped apple there would be none.

We're a big berry growing area and those ship internationally. A certain fruit fly has become a problem here and there is zero tolerance for them. What does this mean? Blueberries, especially late season ones, are often insecticide sprayed every three days. I know conventional growers that won't eat their own berries because of the level of poisons on them.

I've no doubt that agriculture is largely responsible for insect decline. That said, consumers play a significant role here too. If you expect perfect produce know that the environmental cost of that is huge. I've had people tell me they won't buy organic produce because only chemically treated produce can leave them assured they won't encounter a bug. I doubt that much of the public would say they prefer chemicals to insects if you asked them. That said, almost all of them will chose the most perfect apple in the bin.

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: sidd on June 18, 2018, 10:48:19 PM
I know some pennsylvania apple farmers. They get mad at anyone who doesnt spray, claim that they see more damage on their own trees if a neighbour dont spray. This led to considerable ill will. Now a lot of them are tipping the tress over, hauling em off and converting to corn/soy rotation. Sad. Some of those farms had been there for generations.

sidd
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Martin Gisser on June 19, 2018, 12:10:18 AM
So what about apple tree pollinators? Do these stupid apple chemico-farmers haul in stupid bees (Apis mellifera) in stupid boxes with stupid Varroa mite problems? And what about those fucking vitamins that compel heedful City Homo Sapiens to eat those immaculate apples? Some rational economic thinkers might see the ridicu-lousiness of such "conventional farming" practices...

At least the American chemico-farmers can rotate corn and soy, unlike Barvarian farm bankrupters (Raubbauern). Apple wood is nice fire wood.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: jai mitchell on June 19, 2018, 12:19:22 AM
All of my fruit trees blossomed in mid february and then a cold snap ensued no fruit, no flies, barely any bees.  only 3 swallows in the awnings (usually more than 20)  It is about flowers and food, caterpillars for the birds etc. . .
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: queenie on June 19, 2018, 01:34:54 AM
So what about apple tree pollinators? Do these stupid apple chemico-farmers haul in stupid bees (Apis mellifera) in stupid boxes with stupid Varroa mite problems? And what about those fucking vitamins that compel heedful City Homo Sapiens to eat those immaculate apples?

Yes, most farms that grow anything requiring insect pollination rent bees. Beekeepers vary widely in how healthy their bees are, how much medication they use and the type of farms they will willingly rent their bees to. This year we got lucky. We got a bunch of mason bees and we found a local beekeeper who is small scale and focused on bee health not honey production for our honeybees. His hives have, thus far, been free of mites. He only puts his bees on organic farms. I think they went to an organic clover crop after us. We hope to have enough food for pollinators throughout the year and so not need rented bees soon. We're down to using about 1/4th of what is recommended and got good pollination but it still felt like we needed them.

The crop the beekeepers I know really complain about is California almonds. They need almost every hive in the country but only for a month. Many of the almond farmers spray while the bees are there and it's such a dense monoculture of almonds that it's not a great food source for the bees. Of course, the pay is good and many beekeepers depend on it.

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: queenie on June 19, 2018, 01:42:37 AM
All of my fruit trees blossomed in mid february and then a cold snap ensued no fruit, no flies, barely any bees. 

That is one of the big dangers of climate change and fruit production. We grow over 100 varieties of apples and our bloom stretches out over a couple of months since some bloom early and some late. Thus, biodiversity means we'll likely get some apples even when spring is highly unpredictable. A few heirloom varieties have long blooms even within them. Gravensteins and Bramley's Seedling will have late blooms while they have ping pong ball size fruits. I suspect with them if the first round froze out you'd still have a fair number of fine dormant buds yet to bloom.

Of course, varieties that bloom over a long span are a nightmare for orchards as they ripen over a long period and thus are terribly inefficient to harvest. In other words, the fruit will cost more to grow. Better costlier apples than none at all though.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Bruce Steele on June 19, 2018, 03:08:17 AM
Jai, The swallows like to nest in the awnings on my house also . I anticipate their arrival around March 15 every year. When I see the first a arrivals I make and maintain a mud puddle by the horse trough so they will have some mud to harvest. Some years I have swallows harvesting mud and flying off to other farmhouses to nest. Having a few dozen swallows around helps keep some insects in check. When fall arrives and the fledglings get their wings and return south ,with their parents ,I always notice more cabbage moths in the garden. 
 We also have phoebes that are resident and also are insectivores. The bird population doesn't seem too bad around here but it is very evident there just Aren't as many bugs splattered on the windshield as when I was younger. I know there are terrible insecticides in use , chlorpyrifos renders many local watersheds devoid of insect life. EPA was supposed to ban the stuff but Obama lagged and Trump
/ Pruit totally overrode any regulations to get rid of the crap. Dow got their Campaign payback early. 

https://www.factcheck.org/2017/04/the-facts-on-chlorpyrifos/



 
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Csnavywx on June 19, 2018, 09:29:26 AM
As a farmer, when I first read the article on insect decline last fall, it rocked me to the core. Scared me even more than the scariest climate change scenarios. It also rang true. We work to attract beneficial insects and it seems to get harder each year even as we have more host plants. We are, like most organic farms, surrounded by conventional farms. We farm apples and the standard budget for apple orchards, prepared by the very good ag program at the university nearby, calls for 14 rounds of spray each year. 10 of those are insecticide or fungicide. We're organic but even we have to deal with the coddling moths, which lay eggs that hatch into worms in apples. We use a virus that only kills the coddling moth but even that I ask myself - how am I contributing to this terrible problem? Achieving a balance where birds and predatory insects eat enough of the moths to have the worms stay at an acceptable level is kind of a fantasy. In our world there is no acceptable level of worms in apples. We sell mostly direct so there is a little forgiveness but if we were bigger and shipped apple there would be none.

We're a big berry growing area and those ship internationally. A certain fruit fly has become a problem here and there is zero tolerance for them. What does this mean? Blueberries, especially late season ones, are often insecticide sprayed every three days. I know conventional growers that won't eat their own berries because of the level of poisons on them.

I've no doubt that agriculture is largely responsible for insect decline. That said, consumers play a significant role here too. If you expect perfect produce know that the environmental cost of that is huge. I've had people tell me they won't buy organic produce because only chemically treated produce can leave them assured they won't encounter a bug. I doubt that much of the public would say they prefer chemicals to insects if you asked them. That said, almost all of them will chose the most perfect apple in the bin.

Spotted wind drosophila is the fruit fly you speak of. I have had a nasty intimate experience with them. They're invasive and will attack ripening fruit and it basically destroys a crop rapidly. Between them and the Japanese beetles, it's nigh impossible to have a raspberry, blackberry or blueberry crop without some sort of spray to keep them off. There aren't many natural counters to them either and none that can counter an infestation that's already established.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: dnem on June 29, 2018, 05:05:19 PM
I wish I had some actual data to compare, but I went out last night at about 11 pm in my yard in my low density, verdant part of Baltimore, MD.  It was a warm summer night, still close to 80 deg (~27 C).  It was eerily quiet.  Not a katydid or cricket to be heard.  Good amount of fireflies, though.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on August 04, 2018, 10:53:05 AM
The madness of the Trump Administration continues, with yet another kick in the guts for the planet.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/aug/04/trump-administration-lifts-ban-on-pesticides-linked-to-declining-bee-numbers

Trump administration lifts ban on pesticides linked to declining bee numbers
Environmentalists say lifting the restriction poses a grave threat to pollinating insects


Quote
The Trump administration has rescinded an Obama-era ban on the use of pesticides linked to declining bee populations and the cultivation of genetically modified crops in dozens of national wildlife refuges where farming is permitted.

Environmentalists, who had sued to bring about the two-year-old ban, said on Friday that lifting the restriction poses a grave threat to pollinating insects and other sensitive creatures relying on toxic-free habitats afforded by wildlife refuges.

“Industrial agriculture has no place on refuges dedicated to wildlife conservation and protection of some of the most vital and vulnerable species,” said Jenny Keating, federal lands policy analyst for the group Defenders of Wildlife.


EU agrees total ban on bee-harming pesticides
 Read more
Limited agricultural activity is authorized on some refuges by law, including cooperative agreements in which farmers are permitted to grow certain crops to produce more food or improve habitat for the wildlife there.

The rollback, spelled out in a US Fish and Wildlife Service memo, ends a policy that had prohibited farmers on refuges from planting biotech crops – such as soybeans and corn – engineered to resist insect pests and weed-controlling herbicides.

That policy also had barred the use on wildlife refuges of neonicotinoid pesticides, or neonics, in conjunction with GMO crops. Neonics are a class of insecticides tied by research to declining populations of wild bees and other pollinating insects around the world.

Rather than continuing to impose a blanket ban on GMO crops and neonics on refuges, Fish and Wildlife Service deputy director Greg Sheehan said decisions about their use would be made on a case-by-case basis.

Sheehan said the move was needed to ensure adequate forage for migratory birds, including ducks and geese favored and hunted by sportsmen on many of the nation’s refuges. US interior secretary Ryan Zinke, whose department oversees the Fish and Wildlife Service, has made expansion of hunting on public lands a priority for his agency.

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on August 04, 2018, 01:23:37 PM
Thanks for the info Gerontocrat, it looks like only a madman would bring his cultivated bees anywhere near Trumpistani fields. They do to the bees what Drumpf does to piipl.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Forest Dweller on August 04, 2018, 05:02:51 PM
What do people expect will happen with the pesticides and poisons?
There will be better ones? Cleaner ones?
Industrial society will do without them altogether?
That is not how the industry works.
Ever since it began it has done nothing but destroy.
If one poison is to be proven as damaging the environment in decades of study there are a hundred new ones ready to be marketed.
That is simply factored in the business model of the producers.
Even if a poison is proven as destructive it does not mean it goes away.
DDT is the best known for being banned, it nearly wiped out many species.
It is banned here...we produce it anyway and export it elsewhere instead and then it comes back.
People in countries which have banned DDT still have DDT in their bodies, they have a cocktail of many other poisons in their bodies as well.

Insects, mammals including humans are living in a chemical industrial experimental dump site.
Of course insect populations are going to crash, of course other populations do the same.
One person in this thread mentions several types of poisons he uses for different purposes around the house..he doesn't even know what's in those but he does not want ants...he poisons himself along with them.

How did ants and humans coexist for millions of years without poisons?
Were ants or mites destroying biodiversity including humans and did we make a lucky escape from that by industrial poisons?
Using any type of industrial poison, pesticide, herbicide, fungicide or whatever one calls it is a form of insane criminal activity.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Bruce Steele on August 10, 2018, 02:01:44 AM
Years ago I served on an agriculture water quality board. We knew then that a pesticide , chlorpyfros, was responsible for rendering one third of all watersheds between Monterey and Carpenteria devoid of insect life. That is the region I was helping to represent but this pesticide is very heavily used all across Calif. and the US. EPA was scheduled to ban it's use but Dow chemical lobbied for it's continued use and the current administration overruled the EPA ban. Everything I hear is about it's negative effects on humans but this crap is deadly to riparian insect populations and the fish that depend on them.
 Good news is that a New York court has ordered the EPA to take chlorpyfros off the market within 60 days. I suppose Dow will try to get the Supreme Court to take up the case but for now we and Calif watersheds have a bit of a victory.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/09/us/politics/chlorpyrifos-pesticide-ban-epa-court.html



Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: TerryM on August 10, 2018, 08:37:00 AM
Bruce
It appears as though chlorpyrifos is still used in Ontario.
A twenty mile drive down the river, followed by an outdoor dinner over the water, then a drive home, resulted in no insect deaths on the windshield, 2 houseflies hovering over the dinner table and no other insects or insectivores in evidence.
The days when mosquitoes were rumored to carry off small children are long past, even the annoying insect zappers seem to have gone the way of the dodo.
If 15 years of liberal government couldn't pull the plug on insecticides, there's no chance that the Conservative Clown now running things will even try.
I didn't appreciate the swarms of mayflies, mosquitoes or black flies when they were here, but the silence now is unnerving.
Terry
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Gray-Wolf on August 10, 2018, 02:44:58 PM
Indeed Terry,
Silent Spring this way...........
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on August 11, 2018, 05:20:21 PM
Indeed Terry,
Silent Spring this way...........

The researcher who was referred in the article regarding mass deaths of mosquitoes in Lapland in some newspapers happens to be an acquaintance of mine. Of course there's quite a lot of hyperbole in some or most of the articles regarding this, of course there are still mosquitoes in Lapland. But this relative drought in Finland and Sweden has affected  the numbers. A Quick survey among FB friends (naturalists, hobbyists, cottagers) states that most do not renember a summer with so few mosquitoes. Horseflies do still quite ok so only some decreases in insectivorous birds might have happened this summer here. (Typos corrected now in the shade)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: TerryM on August 14, 2018, 02:51:08 AM
I'd somehow forgotten to mention the one insect species that seems to have weathered the current downturn. Tent caterpillars seem to be doing very well, why this should be so I've no idea, but the nests are everywhere.
They used to be considered a terrible pest. Today I'm willing to accept the presence of any bugs that are still surviving.

Terry
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: sidd on August 14, 2018, 06:03:58 AM
tent caterpillars come by every couple three years. As do bagworms and the rest. I used to spray Bt, but now i mostly wait for the starlings to show up and eat em.

starlings are loud tho ...

sidd
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Eli81 on August 14, 2018, 07:37:47 AM
I used to see tent caterpillar webs everywhere here in the suburbs of Portland, Oregon when I was a kid.

There has definitely been a decline, around here at least....
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Gray-Wolf on August 14, 2018, 04:14:29 PM
Often the loss of one critter will lead to a blossoming of another. This is not like that with a general decline in all insects appearing to be the norm?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nicibiene on August 27, 2018, 09:01:24 AM
In our region (upper Erzgebirge >600 m above sealevel) are no wasps this year... I wonder where they are all gone?! Usually in August, if sou have cake, ice, fruits or barbeque outside you have wasps around you. But actually it is completely silent. Ripe plums lie on the ground, a table full of sweet cake...no wasp.  :-[ :'( :o -Additionally we have the worst drought I could remember. Farmers have trouble in getting the cows fed. Grass has stopped to grow.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: bbr2314 on August 27, 2018, 09:04:28 AM
In our region (upper Erzgebirge >600 m above sealevel) are no wasps this year... I wonder where they are all gone?! Usually in August, if sou have cake, ice, fruits or barbeque outside you have wasps around you. But actually it is completely silent. Ripe plums lie on the ground, a table full of sweet cake...no wasp.  :-[ :'( :o -Additionally we have the worst drought I could remember. Farmers have trouble in getting the cows fed. Grass has stopped to grow.
I was battling wasps constantly when staying at Versailles a few weeks ago so perhaps they have decamped for posher pastures?  :o
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on August 27, 2018, 01:55:40 PM
In our region (upper Erzgebirge >600 m above sealevel) are no wasps this year... I wonder where they are all gone?! Usually in August, if sou have cake, ice, fruits or barbeque outside you have wasps around you. But actually it is completely silent. Ripe plums lie on the ground, a table full of sweet cake...no wasp.  :-[ :'( :o -Additionally we have the worst drought I could remember. Farmers have trouble in getting the cows fed. Grass has stopped to grow.
I was battling wasps constantly when staying at Versailles a few weeks ago so perhaps they have decamped for posher pastures?  :o
Second generations have suffered of the drought here too, somewhat. But the lepidopteran fauna has again risen in Finland by at least two species this summer. There were several favorable air flows from eastern central europe, so insects have used these to get to new grounds. Of course the new species are such they cannot survive here, but some of the species introduced 20 to 10 years ago can. Additionally there are expansive movements of species previously seen only on southern coast. Some have spread at least 400 km north of their distribution 10-20 years ago. Hard winters may push them back for a few years but they'll be back almost in no time. The change in climate is very likely the main and only reason in many cases. Some northern species have vanished from the southern coast, but this is harder to note, as they generally manage to live on poorer habitats that are not so well studied.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on August 31, 2018, 10:07:55 AM
I am confused.

Evidence abounds on decline in insect populations, BUT...

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/aug/30/crop-losses-to-pests-will-soar-as-climate-warms-study-warns
Crop losses to pests will soar as climate warms, study warns
Rising temperatures make insects eat and breed more, leading to food losses growing world population cannot afford, say scientists

Quote
Rising global temperatures mean pests will devour far more of the world’s crops, according to the first global analysis of the subject, even if climate change is restricted to the international target of 2C.

Increasing heat boosts both the number and appetite of insects, and researchers project they will destroy almost 50% more wheat than they do today with a 2C rise, and 30% more maize. Rice, the third key staple, is less affected as it is grown in the tropics, which are already near the optimal temperature for insects – although bugs will still eat 20% more.

Is humankind managing to bump off the insects we need - e.g. pollinating insects, while creating pesticide-resistant insect populations that like to eat our food (i.e. a double-whammy) ?

Or

Is it simply that climate change is encouraging all insect populations to increase, while increased use of pesticides is doing the reverse?
___________________________________________________________
Full article at http://science.sciencemag.org/content/361/6405/916 - pay-walled
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Sebastian Jones on August 31, 2018, 08:58:31 PM
I am confused.

Evidence abounds on decline in insect populations, BUT...

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/aug/30/crop-losses-to-pests-will-soar-as-climate-warms-study-warns
......
Quote
Rising global temperatures mean pests will devour far more of the world’s crops, according to the first global analysis of the subject, even if climate change is restricted to the international target of 2C.

Increasing heat boosts both the number and appetite of insects, and researchers project they will destroy almost 50% more wheat than they do today with a 2C rise, and 30% more maize. Rice, the third key staple, is less affected as it is grown in the tropics, which are already near the optimal temperature for insects – although bugs will still eat 20% more.

Is humankind managing to bump off the insects we need - e.g. pollinating insects, while creating pesticide-resistant insect populations that like to eat our food (i.e. a double-whammy) ?

Or

Is it simply that climate change is encouraging all insect populations to increase, while increased use of pesticides is doing the reverse?
___________________________________________________________
Full article at http://science.sciencemag.org/content/361/6405/916 - pay-walled

I find it helpful to consider how global warming can lead to heavier snowfalls and record extent cold snaps....
The apparent contradiction could be resolved if the increases in pests  consisted of those that prefer mono crop agriculture.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: TerryM on September 01, 2018, 12:57:11 AM
Or perhaps laboratory experiments do show that insects metabolism increases as temperatures rises, increasing their need for sustenance, even while field tests show that insect populations are experiencing large die offs, possibly related to pesticide use, seasons changing more rapidly than insect evolution, or insects simply not finding the food they require at one or more of their life stages.


Statements from both studies could be true, although I give more weight to the field studies that agree with my own observations.


Perhaps the survivors do have voracious appetites, but there are so few of them that crop damage is minimal?
Terry
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on September 01, 2018, 06:50:21 AM
Please do consider the possibility the studies on insects are at many times done on more or less natural habitats with little to no incectisides, this would be because elsewhere there isn't much to study. If by chance some insects become resistant to these (pretty much doesn't look like it they do), or the farmer cannot afford or want to use those, the climate change might do a favor for insects as pests.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Avalonian on September 01, 2018, 09:28:05 AM
You're missing one thing, gerontocrat. Pests are currently kept in check in most years because they're part of a well-balanced community of herbivores, predators, scavengers, etc. When we see anomalous winters and summers, it knocks the balance out. For example, in 1976, the harsh winter killed off a lot of overwintering predators of small herbivores, which led to a spectacular rise in aphids during the hot summer, before they caught up. Eventually there was a bloom in ladybirds, which then exhausted the aphid supply and started migrating. Boom and bust.

We're killing off large numbers of insects, both 'pests' and others, which means that when the conditions are right for a particular species (e.g., when someone plants a monoculture and the weather's balmy), there aren't enough predators left to keep up with them. Pest have a field day because we're knocking out their enemies, as well as themselves.

I used to do some pest management in museums. In old, non-environmentally sealed environments, I had to keep telling other curators not to go for the bug spray whenever they saw a spider or centipede. They were the only things keeping the carpet beetles and woodworm in check...  ::)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on September 01, 2018, 12:41:16 PM
You're missing one thing, gerontocrat. Pests are currently kept in check in most years because they're part of a well-balanced community of herbivores, predators, scavengers, etc. When we see anomalous winters and summers, it knocks the balance out. For example, in 1976, the harsh winter killed off a lot of overwintering predators of small herbivores, which led to a spectacular rise in aphids during the hot summer, before they caught up. Eventually there was a bloom in ladybirds, which then exhausted the aphid supply and started migrating. Boom and bust.

We're killing off large numbers of insects, both 'pests' and others, which means that when the conditions are right for a particular species (e.g., when someone plants a monoculture and the weather's balmy), there aren't enough predators left to keep up with them. Pest have a field day because we're knocking out their enemies, as well as themselves.

I used to do some pest management in museums. In old, non-environmentally sealed environments, I had to keep telling other curators not to go for the bug spray whenever they saw a spider or centipede. They were the only things keeping the carpet beetles and woodworm in check...  ::)
"You're missing one thing, gerontocrat.". On this subject, I am sure I am missing a lot more than just one thing. Thanks for the comments.

The monoculture thing is certainly a thought provoker. One thing seems to be known, that a diverse vegetation supports a much greater variety of animal life. Without that, "a well-balanced community of herbivores, predators, scavengers, etc." cannot exist ? The chances for boom and bust increase?

One way or another, my guess it's a case of "tears before bedtime" sooner or later.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Avalonian on September 02, 2018, 02:31:52 PM

"You're missing one thing, gerontocrat.". On this subject, I am sure I am missing a lot more than just one thing. Thanks for the comments.

The monoculture thing is certainly a thought provoker. One thing seems to be known, that a diverse vegetation supports a much greater variety of animal life. Without that, "a well-balanced community of herbivores, predators, scavengers, etc." cannot exist ? The chances for boom and bust increase?

One way or another, my guess it's a case of "tears before bedtime" sooner or later.

Yup. Ecosystems are complicated. Make them more simple by knocking out components, and they become less stable. I'm sure there's a Chaos Theory way of phrasing this, involving fewer, increasingly powerful attractors with diminished degrees of freedom, but I ain't clever enough to go there!
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: cmcgugan on September 04, 2018, 07:17:18 PM
Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus ) are migrating south along the east shore of Lake Huron in Ontario Canada. For the last few years the migration here seemed to be single butterflies, about 1 per minute at peak.  On a positive note this year there are groups of two to five butterflies travelling together.  We have had a warm wet late summer, so that may be helping them along. They have a long trip to Mexico ahead of them.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on September 26, 2018, 11:59:12 AM
Common weed killer linked to bee deaths

Honey bees exposed to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup, lose some of the beneficial bacteria in their guts and are more susceptible to infection and death from harmful bacteria. Scientists believe this is evidence that glyphosate might be contributing to the decline of honey bees and native bees around the world.

...

Because glyphosate interferes with an important enzyme found in plants and microorganisms, but not in animals, it has long been assumed to be nontoxic to animals, including humans and bees. But this latest study shows that by altering a bee's gut microbiome -- the ecosystem of bacteria living in the bee's digestive tract, including those that protect it from harmful bacteria -- glyphosate compromises its ability to fight infection.
The researchers exposed honey bees to glyphosate at levels known to occur in crop fields, yards and roadsides. The researchers painted the bees' backs with colored dots so they could be tracked and later recaptured. Three days later, they observed that the herbicide significantly reduced healthy gut microbiota. Of eight dominant species of healthy bacteria in the exposed bees, four were found to be less abundant. The hardest hit bacterial species, Snodgrassella alvi, is a critical microbe that helps bees process food and defend against pathogens.
The bees with impaired gut microbiomes also were far more likely to die when later exposed to an opportunistic pathogen, Serratia marcescens, compared with bees with healthy guts. Serratia is a widespread opportunistic pathogen that infects bees around the world. About half of bees with a healthy microbiome were still alive eight days after exposure to the pathogen, while only about a tenth of bees whose microbiomes had been altered by exposure to the herbicide were still alive.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180924174506.htm
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: sidd on October 06, 2018, 07:06:32 AM
Stamets has a plan, rescue bees with mushrooms:

"Years ago, in 1984, Stamets had noticed a “continuous convoy of bees” traveling from a patch of mushrooms he was growing and his beehives. The bees actually moved wood chips to access his mushroom’s mycelium, the branching fibers of fungus that look like cobwebs.

“I could see them sipping on the droplets oozing from the mycelium,” he said. They were after its sugar, he thought. "

"For several virus strains, the extract “reduced the virus to almost nothing,” said Brandon Hopkins, a WSU assistant research professor, another author of the paper."

https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/science/how-the-mushroom-dream-of-a-long-haired-hippie-could-help-save-the-worlds-bees/

paper is doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32194-8

open access. read all about it.

sidd
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: AbruptSLR on October 16, 2018, 05:29:20 PM
FYI:

Bradford C. Lister and Andres Garcia (2018), "Climate-driven declines in arthropod abundance restructure a rainforest food web", PNAS, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1722477115

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/10/09/1722477115

Significance
Arthropods, invertebrates including insects that have external skeletons, are declining at an alarming rate. While the tropics harbor the majority of arthropod species, little is known about trends in their abundance. We compared arthropod biomass in Puerto Rico’s Luquillo rainforest with data taken during the 1970s and found that biomass had fallen 10 to 60 times. Our analyses revealed synchronous declines in the lizards, frogs, and birds that eat arthropods. Over the past 30 years, forest temperatures have risen 2.0 °C, and our study indicates that climate warming is the driving force behind the collapse of the forest’s food web. If supported by further research, the impact of climate change on tropical ecosystems may be much greater than currently anticipated.

Abstract
A number of studies indicate that tropical arthropods should be particularly vulnerable to climate warming. If these predictions are realized, climate warming may have a more profound impact on the functioning and diversity of tropical forests than currently anticipated. Although arthropods comprise over two-thirds of terrestrial species, information on their abundance and extinction rates in tropical habitats is severely limited. Here we analyze data on arthropod and insectivore abundances taken between 1976 and 2012 at two midelevation habitats in Puerto Rico’s Luquillo rainforest. During this time, mean maximum temperatures have risen by 2.0 °C. Using the same study area and methods employed by Lister in the 1970s, we discovered that the dry weight biomass of arthropods captured in sweep samples had declined 4 to 8 times, and 30 to 60 times in sticky traps. Analysis of long-term data on canopy arthropods and walking sticks taken as part of the Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research program revealed sustained declines in abundance over two decades, as well as negative regressions of abundance on mean maximum temperatures. We also document parallel decreases in Luquillo’s insectivorous lizards, frogs, and birds. While El Niño/Southern Oscillation influences the abundance of forest arthropods, climate warming is the major driver of reductions in arthropod abundance, indirectly precipitating a bottom-up trophic cascade and consequent collapse of the forest food web.


See also:

Title: "‘Hyperalarming’ study shows massive insect loss"

https://www.washingtonpost.com/science/2018/10/15/hyperalarming-study-shows-massive-insect-loss/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.c70784e553bc

Extract: "Insects around the world are in a crisis, according to a small but growing number of long-term studies showing dramatic declines in invertebrate populations. A new report suggests that the problem is more widespread than scientists realized. Huge numbers of bugs have been lost in a pristine national forest in Puerto Rico, the study found, and the forest’s insect-eating animals have gone missing, too.

In 2014, an international team of biologists estimated that, in the past 35 years, the abundance of invertebrates such as beetles and bees had decreased by 45 percent. In places where long-term insect data are available, mainly in Europe, insect numbers are plummeting. A study last year showed a 76 percent decrease in flying insects in the past few decades in German nature preserves."

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on October 17, 2018, 06:50:57 PM
https://phys.org/news/2018-10-root-long-term-tree-swallow-declines.html

Aerial insectivores—birds that hunt for insect prey on the wing—are declining across North America.

... Cox and her colleagues believe that increasingly unfavorable weather conditions and declines in insect availability may be behind the demographic shifts they found. "I hope that our results will spur more research into the environmental causes of Tree Swallow declines and declines of other similar species. Our research points the finger at poor survival overwinter and poor fledging as the probable demographic causes of population declines," says Cox.
Quote
"It was an incredible opportunity to analyze a dataset that started before I was born," adds Taylor. "Working with these long-term data had an emotional connection for me as a researcher and birder. My own fieldwork on Kent Island took place during the summers of 2014 and 2015, by which time most of the swallow nest boxes on the island were empty. For me, it was sobering to look back through the data and envision those nest boxes full of activity and life."
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on November 14, 2018, 12:46:38 PM
Flour beetle sperm cells in a simulated heatwave don't do well.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-07273-z
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: dnem on November 14, 2018, 04:29:10 PM
Flour beetle sperm cells in a simulated heatwave don't do well.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-07273-z

An a popular press account in the New York Times:
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/13/science/sperm-infertility-insects-heat.html?action=click&module=Discovery&pgtype=Homepage
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Sigmetnow on November 18, 2018, 04:16:09 PM
Some “insect decline” is by design — but the side effects are still significant.

New Smithsonian Study Links Declines in Suburban Backyard Birds to Presence of Nonnative Plants
Quote
Insect-eating birds that depend on the availability of high-calorie, high-protein cuisine — namely caterpillars and spiders — during the breeding season to feed their young are finding the menu severely lacking in backyards landscaped with even a small proportion of nonnative plants, according to a new study from the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute. This reduction of food availability has led to a decline in the breeding success and population growth of the Carolina chickadee, the study found.

“Landowners are using nonnative plants in their yards because they’re pretty and exotic, they’re easy to maintain, and they tend to have fewer pests on them,” said Desirée Narango, a graduate student researcher at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute and first author of the study published Oct. 22 in PNAS. “But it turns out that a lot of those insects they see as pests are actually critical food resources for our breeding birds. For landowners who want to make a difference, our study shows that a simple change they make in their yards can be profoundly helpful for bird conservation.”
https://nationalzoo.si.edu/news/new-smithsonian-study-links-declines-suburban-backyard-birds-presence-nonnative-plants
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: dnem on November 18, 2018, 05:09:59 PM
Some “insect decline” is by design — but the side effects are still significant.

Isn't it ALL "by design"?  How is landscaping with exotics different from other anthropogenic landscape changes, and the overuse of pesticides and herbicides, that are all cumulatively causing the decline?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Sigmetnow on November 18, 2018, 06:23:00 PM
Some “insect decline” is by design — but the side effects are still significant.

Isn't it ALL "by design"?  How is landscaping with exotics different from other anthropogenic landscape changes, and the overuse of pesticides and herbicides, that are all cumulatively causing the decline?

Valid points.  In this instance, insect decline is not the primary goal (unlike applying chemicals), but a secondary effect, anticipated to be a “benefit,” but which turns out to be a drawback — a common occurance when humans attempt to adjust nature to be more to their liking.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Ktb on November 19, 2018, 11:41:43 PM
Externalaties, Externalaties.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on November 26, 2018, 06:35:50 PM
South African bees: 'One million die in Cape Town'
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-46345127

At least one million bees are suspected to have died of poisoning in a wine-producing area of South Africa.

Brendan Ashley-Cooper told the BBC that an insecticide used by wine farmers, Fipronil, was thought to have killed the insects on his farm. Other honey bee farmers in the area around Cape Town have also been affected, but it is still unclear how many of the insects have died, he said.

Fipronil has been blamed for the deaths of millions of honey bees in Europe. Campaigners say Fipronil is highly toxic to insects, and its use was restricted in Europe in 2013. Fipronil is commonly used to get rid of fleas, lice and ticks but is banned by the European Union for use on animals destined for human consumption, such as chickens.

About 100 of his bee hives, or 35% to 40% of those he owned in the affected areas, had been hit by the disaster, said Mr Ashley-Cooper, the vice-chairman of the Western Cape Bee Industry Association. He estimated this meant between 1-1.5 million bees had been killed.

Both managed and wild bee hives in Cape Town's southern areas had been affected, Mr Ashley-Cooper said. "A week ago we started getting calls that beekeepers were finding dead bees in front of their hives," he added. "A large majority of hives have been affected," Mr Ashley-Cooper said.

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Red on November 29, 2018, 11:25:22 AM
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/27/magazine/insect-apocalypse.html
When entomologists began noticing and investigating insect declines, they lamented the absence of solid information from the past in which to ground their experiences of the present. “We see a hundred of something, and we think we’re fine,” Wagner says, “but what if there were 100,000 two generations ago?” Rob Dunn, an ecologist at North Carolina State University who helped design the net experiment in Denmark, recently searched for studies showing the effect of pesticide spraying on the quantity of insects living in nearby forests. He was surprised to find that no such studies existed. “We ignored really basic questions,” he said. “It feels like we’ve dropped the ball in some giant collective way.”
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: josh-j on December 01, 2018, 12:16:11 PM
Quote
“It feels like we’ve dropped the ball in some giant collective way.”

Ain't that the truth!  :(

Systems thinking is so important; nothing exists in isolation. A pesticide might work great under test conditions but once spread over huge areas... A crop might grow nicely and without affecting much of anything around it, but once there are millions of square miles of the crop replacing everything else...

edit: Wow, this is really a very good (and worrying) article. I'm almost lost for words.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on December 08, 2018, 04:30:18 PM
'It's a Sad Reality': A Troubling Trend Sees a 97% Decline in Monarch Butterflies
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/dec/07/its-a-sad-reality-a-troubling-trend-sees-a-97-decline-in-monarch-butterflies

Quote
In the 1980s, roughly 4.5 million monarchs wintered in California, but at last count, there may be as few as 30,000

... According to the Xerces Society, a conservation organization, in the 1980s between 10 million and 4.5 million monarchs spent the winter in California. The last count, conducted annually by volunteers each November, showed that in 2018 there may be as few as 30,000 across the state – a number that’s 87% lower than just the year before.

Anurag Agrawal, an ecology and evolutionary biology professor at Cornell University, suggests that the butterflies are like the canary in the coal mine. In a blog about his work, he said that because they travel across North America every year, monarch migration can be helpful in determining the “health of our entire continent”. But saving them could require big changes. “We have to take a step back and ask ourselves the harder questions that none of us want to deal with.”He said monarchs are “are exhibiting multi-decadal declines that point to very big systemic problems. We shouldn’t fool ourselves”.

Samantha Marcum, a Coastal Program Regional coordinator for the US Fish and Wildlife Service agrees. “Monarch declines give us a clue to the health of ecosystems across North America and declines are being detected across many other pollinator species as well,” she said.

(https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/Monarch_Butterfly/images/report_sightings_embed.gif)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on December 08, 2018, 05:12:01 PM
Monarch decline is hardly surprising.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on December 08, 2018, 06:16:27 PM
Surprising or not, the loss of those 30,000 survivors in one season would mean the extirpation of the western clade from half the country. They would not return. Ever.

They would be missed.

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: bligh8 on December 08, 2018, 07:13:51 PM
Some or perhaps most of this rapid decline in Monarch butterflies can be blamed directly on urban or human sprawl.  Roadways across the mid and south west USA are routinely cleared of vegetation along the sides or shoulders to improve visibility, this includes Milk Weed a primary source of food for Monarchs.  I could be wrong here but I think milk weed could be the only food source for Monarchs at some point in their life cycle. Milkweed is well...a weed, so we keep cutting it down.

https://monarchbutterflygarden.net/monarch-caterpillar-food-milkweed-cuttings/

bligh
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on December 08, 2018, 07:25:47 PM
Some or perhaps most of this rapid decline in Monarch butterflies can be blamed directly on urban or human sprawl.  Roadways across the mid and south west USA are routinely cleared of vegetation along the sides or shoulders to improve visibility, this includes Milk Weed a primary source of food for Monarchs.  I could be wrong here but I think milk weed could be the only food source for Monarchs at some point in their life cycle. Milkweed is well...a weed, so we keep cutting it down.

https://monarchbutterflygarden.net/monarch-caterpillar-food-milkweed-cuttings/

bligh
Round up ready crops, neonicotinods, clearance of road shoulders, and lastly the drought which has probably had a minor effect. The 30000 left might indeed be dead in few years. Maybe there's enough moisture for milkweed on some organic wine producing farms but they do cut away those as well killing the caterpillars as they go.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on December 12, 2018, 06:18:05 PM
European Network of Protected Areas Has Not Been Able To Stop Decline of Butterflies In Germany
https://phys.org/news/2018-12-european-network-areas-decline-butterflies.html

Quote
The Natura 2000 network of protected areas runs across the EU as a conservation network for biodiversity. However, only a few studies have so far analysed whether these refuges actually have a positive effect on species diversity. Using long-term data from the "Butterfly Monitoring Germany (http://www.bc-europe.eu/index.php?id=339)" citizens' research project, scientists from the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) in Halle, Germany, and the Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic, have now investigated the matter using butterflies as an example.

... The researchers analysed how butterfly populations have changed between 2005 and 2015. According to the results, at the beginning of this period, an average of more than 19 species fluttered over the transects, but by the end of the period this number had fallen to 17. "This is a significant decline of around ten percent," says Elisabeth Kühn. "And this was observed both inside and outside the protected areas." The Natura 2000 network does not yet appear to have had any effect – at least in the case of butterflies – on its actual task of halting species decline.

Stanislav Rada et al. Protected areas do not mitigate biodiversity declines: A case study on butterflies (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ddi.12854), Diversity and Distributions (2018)

Bulldozers to Plow Through National Butterfly Center for Trump’s Border Wall
http://www.desdemonadespair.net/2018/12/bulldozers-soon-to-plow-through.html

Quote
Bulldozers are expected to soon plow through the protected habitat of the National Butterfly Center along the Rio Grande to clear the way for President Trump’s border wall, which got a green light from the Supreme Court this week.

Hundreds of thousands of butterflies flit through the center’s 100-acre sanctuary in Mission. But 70 percent of the land will eventually be on the other side the wall, said Marianna Wright, the executive director.

Just like farmers get crop yield in acres and inches, we get butterflies based on what we have planted in acres and inches,” Wright said. “So having a wide swath of our property bulldozed is going to negatively impact the volume of the species and diversity of the species.”

The wall could be up to three stories tall, with 18-foot steel beams, called bollards, rising from a concrete base. Construction through the refuge could start in February.

The high court let stand an appeals ruling that lets the administration bypass 28 federal laws, mostly to protect the environment, to build the wall in the Rio Grande Valley. Some of the laws that were waived include the Endangered Species Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. Other laws being waived for this construction include the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act and the Clean Air Act.

(https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fcprtx.wpengine.com%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2015%2F08%2FButterflies1.jpg&hash=974a9a755fba76112547fda3666a868f)

Climate Change Affecting Insects’ Ability To Evade Predators
http://www.desdemonadespair.net/2018/12/climate-change-affects-insects-ability.html

Quote
Many species have adopted a form of the yellow and black banding commonly seen on stinging insects, which predators such as birds and spiders have learnt to avoid, but now University of Leeds scientists say global warming may compromise that defence.

For the first time, researchers have shown that predators can learn during which seasons they should avoid eating yellow and black striped insects, based on when stinging insects are born and active.

They understand they can target them at other times because they will be non-stinging flies.

Dr Christopher Hassall from Leeds’ School of Biology, who led the study, says the Earth’s temperature is crucial to when insects emerge and, as it warms, stinging insects are emerging first.

“The patterns of hatching we have studied suggest that stinging insects are benefiting from climate change because they are born earlier each year.

"There is less randomness in the cycles than in the past, which benefits stinging insects the most, followed by predators who have learnt the seasons when they can eat or should avoid striped insects, but it helps the ‘mimics’ least.

(https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fthumb%2F9%2F93%2FBatesian_vs_M%25C3%25BCllerian_Mimicry.svg%2F400px-Batesian_vs_M%25C3%25BCllerian_Mimicry.svg.png&hash=46f7cfa462e76ad749a4e2b23a809df7)

Christopher Hassall et al. Climate-induced phenological shifts in a Batesian mimicry complex (https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/11/26/1813367115), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on December 13, 2018, 02:58:10 PM
Study Reveals Striking Decline of Vermont's Bumble Bees
https://m.phys.org/news/2018-12-reveals-decline-vermont-bumble-bees.html

Quote
A new study examining 100 years of bumble bee records reveals that almost half of Vermont's species, which are vital pollinators, have either vanished or are in serious decline.

After conducting the state's most extensive search for bumble bees, and combing through historical records from museum collections, the team has concluded that four of Vermont's 17 bumble bee species appear to have gone extinct

Leif L. Richardson et al. Bumble bee (Bombus) distribution and diversity in Vermont, USA: a century of change (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10841-018-0113-5), Journal of Insect Conservation (2018)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: jai mitchell on December 15, 2018, 07:01:38 PM
This black swan of climate change is already here and its impacts cannot be fully gauged. 

The summary presentation by Thom Hartmann from November 30, 2018 has several scientific study references that indicate we have reached a biomass tipping point with cascading failures of the land-based food web.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H6EXFpnjXNc
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on January 02, 2019, 06:10:47 PM
Fewer Monarch Butterflies are Reaching Their Overwintering Destination

Quote
... The dwindling numbers of overwintering monarchs in the mountains of central Mexico have been the subject of debate among researchers, with some arguing it reflects a large-scale drop in numbers of breeding adults, while others point to increasingly perilous migration as the cause. Now, a new research study "Alternate migration strategies of eastern monarch butterflies revealed by stable isotopes" led by Dr. Hannah Vander Zanden, from the University of Florida, throws another potential explanation into the mix—perhaps the monarchs are simply travelling elsewhere to overwinter, like to the balmy coast of southern Florida.

Dr. Vander Zanden and her team captured and examined monarchs that wintered in South Florida, using a special analytical technique that can pinpoint where the monarchs came from based on a sample of their wing or body tissue. Amazingly, they discovered that half of the monarchs sampled appeared to originate from the American Midwest, which is typically thought to represent the core breeding range of the eastern population. For years, researchers assumed that monarchs from this region only travel to the mountainous region of Mexico each fall. But, this new discovery means that at least some of the Midwestern monarchs are choosing not to fly to Mexico after all, and instead they appear to fly in nearly the opposite direction until they reach southern Florida.

"Previous research had suggested that some migrating monarchs may wind up in southern Florida if they become waylaid by strong westerly winds, but this evidence makes it seem like they purposely travelled to this location," says Andy Davis, noted expert in monarch migration from University of Georgia and editor of the journal. This discovery could bear on the issue of the shrinking overwintering population in Mexico, especially if more of these "alternative" overwintering locations are found.

Open Access: Hannah B. Vander Zanden et al, Alternate migration strategies of eastern monarch butterflies revealed by stable isotopes (https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ami.2018.5.issue-1/ami-2018-0006/ami-2018-0006.xml), Animal Migration (2018)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on January 15, 2019, 12:38:08 PM
When decline morphs towards extinction....

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jan/15/insect-collapse-we-are-destroying-our-life-support-systems
Quote
Insect collapse: ‘We are destroying our life support systems’

Scientist Brad Lister returned to Puerto Rican rainforest after 35 years to find 98% of ground insects had vanished


“We knew that something was amiss in the first couple days,” said Brad Lister. “We were driving into the forest and at the same time both Andres and I said: ‘Where are all the birds?’ There was nothing.”

His return to the Luquillo rainforest in Puerto Rico after 35 years was to reveal an appalling discovery. The insect population that once provided plentiful food for birds throughout the mountainous national park had collapsed. On the ground, 98% had gone. Up in the leafy canopy, 80% had vanished. The most likely culprit by far is global warming.

“It was just astonishing,” Lister said. “Before, both the sticky ground plates and canopy plates would be covered with insects. You’d be there for hours picking them off the plates at night. But now the plates would come down after 12 hours in the tropical forest with a couple of lonely insects trapped or none at all.”

“It was a true collapse of the insect populations in that rainforest,” he said. “We began to realise this is terrible – a very, very disturbing result.”....

...“We are essentially destroying the very life support systems that allow us to sustain our existence on the planet, along with all the other life on the planet,” Lister said. “It is just horrifying to watch us decimate the natural world like this.”......

Data on other animals that feed on bugs backed up the findings. “The frogs and birds had also declined simultaneously by about 50% to 65%,” Lister said. The population of one dazzling green bird that eats almost nothing but insects, the Puerto Rican tody, dropped by 90%.....

......Lister calls these impacts a “bottom-up trophic cascade”, in which the knock-on effects of the insect collapse surge up through the food chain.

“I don’t think most people have a systems view of the natural world,” he said. “But it’s all connected and when the invertebrates are declining the entire food web is going to suffer and degrade. It is a system-wide effect.”

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on January 15, 2019, 02:48:46 PM
Those numbers are scary...and to think that even a relatively untouched rainforest does not escape.

Quote
“If you go a little bit past the thermal optimum for tropical insects, their fitness just plummets,” he said.

As the data came in, the predictions were confirmed in startling fashion. “The number of hot spells, temperatures above 29C, have increased tremendously,” he said. “It went from zero in the 1970s up to something like 44% of the days.”

I guess this will also spells trouble for a whole bunch of plants that lose their main pollinators.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on January 15, 2019, 04:33:34 PM
Of course Puerto Rico has been slammed by pretty vicious hurricanes, but these shouldn't kill but the creatures in flight or feeding openly during the storm. So species breeding on other season shouldn't be affected.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on January 15, 2019, 07:16:22 PM
French Court Axes Market Approval of Bayer's Roundup Weed-Killer
https://phys.org/news/2019-01-french-court-axes-bayer-roundup.html

Quote
A French court on Tuesday struck down market approval for the controversial weed-killer Roundup, saying regulators had failed to take safety concerns into account when clearing the widely used herbicide.

... Environmental activists hailed the French decision, noting a 2015 study by a World Health Organization (WHO) agency which concluded that glyphosate was "probably carcinogenic."

"It's a major ruling because it should eventually cover all versions of Roundup, as the court determined that all products with glyphosate are probably carcinogens," said Corinne Lepage, a lawyer for the CRIIGEN genetics research institute.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: oren on January 16, 2019, 04:24:21 AM
Of course Puerto Rico has been slammed by pretty vicious hurricanes, but these shouldn't kill but the creatures in flight or feeding openly during the storm. So species breeding on other season shouldn't be affected.
I was wondering about that myself as I read that article. I recall Maria was so powerful that it stripped the bark off the trees. Could it have been powerful enough to kill off a whole ecosystem  of insects, that simply hasn't had enough time to recover yet?
Of course, Maria's ferocity came as a result of climate change, so the root cause remains the same, but the mechanism is possibly different.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: TerryM on January 16, 2019, 08:05:59 AM
Monarch butterflies at <.05% of historic levels, and down 85% from last year.

https://xerces.org/2018/11/29/critically-low-monarch-population-in-california/#

As a child the monarchs would darken the sky here in Cambridge Ontario, a few years back they did a count and recorded less than 40 of the beautiful insects. I personally saw but one last year.

Terry
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on January 20, 2019, 10:16:11 AM
What 88 Bee Genomes and 10 Years of Studying Apples Tell Us About the Future of Pollinators


The team surveyed bees in 27 orchards in New York for over 10 years, identifying over 8,700 individual bees. We’re not talking domesticated honey bees — they found an amazing 88 different species of wild native bees.

Over those years, they watched the landscapes around the orchards become more and more cultivated. Natural spaces like woodlands were replaced by alfalfa, corn and soybeans. And they saw fewer and fewer bee species in the orchards as the habitat around them disappeared.

Then they sequenced the genomes of all the species to make a phylogeny — an evolutionary family tree — to see how related the different bees were. They learned that the species that disappeared weren’t a random pick from the 88. Instead, the species lost were closely related to one another. Likewise, the species left behind were closely related to one another. Habitat losses had led to entire branches of the tree of life being pruned away — meaning phylogenetic diversity took a major hit.

The researchers estimate that for every 10 percent of land area that gets converted to agriculture, 35 million years of evolutionary history are lost from the bee community.

...

They found that the number of bee species didn’t matter for pollination. But the phylogenetic diversity did. Their giant dataset allowed them to learn that although more agriculture in the landscape decreases both, the latter is what really hurts the fruit. Cutting away whole branches from the tree of life hurts the whole ecosystem.

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2019/01/18/bees-diversity-loss-pollinators-death/#.XEQvF1xKjcs
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Klondike Kat on January 22, 2019, 01:01:54 AM
When decline morphs towards extinction....

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jan/15/insect-collapse-we-are-destroying-our-life-support-systems
Quote
Insect collapse: ‘We are destroying our life support systems’

Scientist Brad Lister returned to Puerto Rican rainforest after 35 years to find 98% of ground insects had vanished


“We knew that something was amiss in the first couple days,” said Brad Lister. “We were driving into the forest and at the same time both Andres and I said: ‘Where are all the birds?’ There was nothing.”

His return to the Luquillo rainforest in Puerto Rico after 35 years was to reveal an appalling discovery. The insect population that once provided plentiful food for birds throughout the mountainous national park had collapsed. On the ground, 98% had gone. Up in the leafy canopy, 80% had vanished. The most likely culprit by far is global warming.

“It was just astonishing,” Lister said. “Before, both the sticky ground plates and canopy plates would be covered with insects. You’d be there for hours picking them off the plates at night. But now the plates would come down after 12 hours in the tropical forest with a couple of lonely insects trapped or none at all.”

“It was a true collapse of the insect populations in that rainforest,” he said. “We began to realise this is terrible – a very, very disturbing result.”....

...“We are essentially destroying the very life support systems that allow us to sustain our existence on the planet, along with all the other life on the planet,” Lister said. “It is just horrifying to watch us decimate the natural world like this.”......

Data on other animals that feed on bugs backed up the findings. “The frogs and birds had also declined simultaneously by about 50% to 65%,” Lister said. The population of one dazzling green bird that eats almost nothing but insects, the Puerto Rican tody, dropped by 90%.....

......Lister calls these impacts a “bottom-up trophic cascade”, in which the knock-on effects of the insect collapse surge up through the food chain.

“I don’t think most people have a systems view of the natural world,” he said. “But it’s all connected and when the invertebrates are declining the entire food web is going to suffer and degrade. It is a system-wide effect.”

I find it rather suspect to conclude that the most likely culprit is global warming, especially considering that the temperature in the study area has actually show a slight decline over the time frame mentioned.

http://luq.lternet.edu/data/luqmetadata16
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Bernard on January 22, 2019, 09:47:53 AM

I find it rather suspect to conclude that the most likely culprit is global warming, especially considering that the temperature in the study area has actually show a slight decline over the time frame mentioned.


I tend to agree. This is just waving over our ignorance. Can't find the reference now, but I read in some article on this topic a scientist saying "there's no obvious smoking gun". If I was researching this subject, I would look closely at the global diffusion of many molecules known as potential endocrine disruptors. Insects behaviour, including mating, relies heavily on chemical signals (e.g., pheromones) acting at very low concentrations, which can be blurred by the presence in the environment of similar molecules. Just an idea.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on January 22, 2019, 02:21:20 PM
The way they explain it in the article:

“If you go a little bit past the thermal optimum for tropical insects, their fitness just plummets,” he said.

As the data came in, the predictions were confirmed in startling fashion. “The number of hot spells, temperatures above 29C, have increased tremendously,” he said. “It went from zero in the 1970s up to something like 44% of the days.”

The temperature data linked by Klondike Kat only cover the last 26 years of the period. Their old count was 35 years ago (so 1983)

However it is a problem that this is just two snapshots. We don´t know what species started disappearing at which years so all we have left is a scary number.

Then again someone else must have done some insect counting there in all the time in between.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on January 22, 2019, 02:39:04 PM
re :- Insect collapse: ‘We are destroying our life support systems’
Scientist Brad Lister returned to Puerto Rican rainforest after 35 years to find 98% of ground insects had vanished

Then the question is - will the insect population recover?
If yes, could be the hurricane. Recovery should be quick.
If not, another nail in our coffin.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on January 22, 2019, 03:27:36 PM
(https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Roberto_Sanchez-Rodriguez/publication/311824173/figure/fig6/AS:442166318243845@1482432073643/Daily-average-by-year-for-the-last-40-years-of-minimum-maximum-and-average.png)

Daily average by year (for the last 40 years) of minimum, maximum, and average temperature values, in urban and rural locations of the northern coast of the island of Puerto Rico. The solid, broken, and dotted lines represent the projections for minimum, maximum, and average temperatures, respectively. 

Urbanization, Global Environmental Change and Sustainable Development in Latin America. An Introduction
Chapter (PDF Available) · July 2007
Editors: Roberto Sanchez Rodriguez and Adriana Bonilla, pp.7-30
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on February 10, 2019, 08:28:23 PM
Plummeting Insect Numbers 'Threaten Collapse of Nature
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/feb/10/plummeting-insect-numbers-threaten-collapse-of-nature

The world’s insects are hurtling down the path to extinction, threatening a “catastrophic collapse of nature’s ecosystems”, according to the first global scientific review.

More than 40% of insect species are declining and a third are endangered, the analysis found. The rate of extinction is eight times faster than that of mammals, birds and reptiles. The total mass of insects is falling by a precipitous 2.5% a year, according to the best data available, suggesting they could vanish within a century.

Insect population collapses have recently been reported in Germany and Puerto Rico, but the review strongly indicates the crisis is global. The researchers set out their conclusions in unusually forceful terms for a peer-reviewed scientific paper: “The [insect] trends confirm that the sixth major extinction event is profoundly impacting [on] life forms on our planet.

Quote
“Unless we change our ways of producing food, insects as a whole will go down the path of extinction in a few decades,” they write. “The repercussions this will have for the planet’s ecosystems are catastrophic to say the least.”

(https://previews.123rf.com/images/victorass88/victorass881406/victorass88140600005/28937992-macro-shot-of-a-group-of-dead-insects-isolated-on-white.jpg)

The analysis, published in the journal Biological Conservation, says intensive agriculture is the main driver of the declines, particularly the heavy use of pesticides. Urbanisation and climate change are also significant factors.

“If insect species losses cannot be halted, this will have catastrophic consequences for both the planet’s ecosystems and for the survival of mankind,” said Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, at the University of Sydney, Australia, who wrote the review with Kris Wyckhuys at the China Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Beijing.

The 2.5% rate of annual loss over the last 25-30 years is “shocking”, Sánchez-Bayo told the Guardian: “It is very rapid. In 10 years you will have a quarter less, in 50 years only half left and in 100 years you will have none.”

One of the biggest impacts of insect loss is on the many birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish that eat insects. “If this food source is taken away, all these animals starve to death,” he said. Such cascading effects have already been seen in Puerto Rico, where a recent study revealed a 98% fall in ground insects over 35 years.

Quote
... “When you consider 80% of biomass of insects has disappeared in 25-30 years, it is a big concern.”

The new analysis selected the 73 best studies done to date to assess the insect decline.

(https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/gfx/news/2019/chartsshowin.jpg)

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320718313636
Worldwide decline of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers 
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on February 10, 2019, 09:51:29 PM
Plummeting Insect Numbers 'Threaten Collapse of Nature
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/feb/10/plummeting-insect-numbers-threaten-collapse-of-nature

The world’s insects are hurtling down the path to extinction, threatening a “catastrophic collapse of nature’s ecosystems”, according to the first global scientific review.
"Silent Spring" warned us.
So what is going to do for us?
- climate change?
- deforestation?
- pesticides and fertilisers?
- collapse of the ocean web of life?
- pick'n'mix of the above and all sorts of other screw-ups?

And the IPCC system still looks at 2100 when
- the tragedy of the commons will arrive so much earlier,
- the effects will continue for n years, where n has a few noughts on the end of the number.

Shock? Horror?
No. All you have to do is wander through the highways and byways of this forum and there it is for all to see.

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Sebastian Jones on February 10, 2019, 10:38:25 PM
Plummeting Insect Numbers 'Threaten Collapse of Nature
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/feb/10/plummeting-insect-numbers-threaten-collapse-of-nature

The world’s insects are hurtling down the path to extinction, threatening a “catastrophic collapse of nature’s ecosystems”, according to the first global scientific review.
"Silent Spring" warned us.
So what is going to do for us?
- climate change?
- deforestation?
- pesticides and fertilisers?
- collapse of the ocean web of life?
- pick'n'mix of the above and all sorts of other screw-ups?

And the IPCC system still looks at 2100 when
- the tragedy of the commons will arrive so much earlier,
- the effects will continue for n years, where n has a few noughts on the end of the number.

Shock? Horror?
No. All you have to do is wander through the highways and byways of this forum and there it is for all to see.



The destruction of the holocene climate caused by GHGs is far less easy to see, to intuit, than the destruction of life caused by drenching the land (and our food) with poisons. Yes, Rachel Carson warned us very clearly, but honestly, what kind of idiot really thinks that literally spraying poison on fields and forests is a good strategy for survival? Why do we even need to argue this still? Why are these poisons still even legal?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on February 10, 2019, 11:57:54 PM
Quote
... And on the pedestal, these words appear:
My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings;
Look on my Works, ye Mighty, and despair!

Nothing beside remains. Round the decay
Of that colossal Wreck, boundless and bare
The lone and level sands stretch far away.”
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on February 11, 2019, 03:06:29 PM
On the upside not all insects are effected...  ::)

Quote
But researchers say that some species, such as houseflies and cockroaches, are likely to boom.

...

"Fast-breeding pest insects will probably thrive because of the warmer conditions, because many of their natural enemies, which breed more slowly, will disappear, " said Prof Dave Goulson from the University of Sussex who was not involved in the review.

"It's quite plausible that we might end up with plagues of small numbers of pest insects, but we will lose all the wonderful ones that we want, like bees and hoverflies and butterflies and dung beetles that do a great job of disposing of animal waste."

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-47198576
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on February 11, 2019, 05:03:54 PM
Add scorpions to the list kassy ...

Quote
Brazil's cities provide an excellent habitat for scorpions, experts say. They offer shelter in sewage networks, plenty of water and food in the garbage that goes uncollected, and no natural predators.

... Scorpions, like the cockroaches they feast on, are an incredibly adaptable species. As the weather in Brazil gets hotter due to climate change, scorpions are spreading across the country – including into its colder southern states that rarely, if ever, had reports of scorpions prior to this millennium.

The number of people stung by scorpions across Brazil has risen from 12,000 in 2000 to 140,000 last year, according to the health ministry.

... the species terrorizing Brazilians is the highly poisonous yellow scorpion, or tityus serrulatus. It reproduces through the miracle of parthenogenesis, meaning a female scorpion simply generates copies of herself twice a year – no male participation required.

Each parthenogenesis can spawn up to 20 to 30 baby scorpions.

Brazil's urban scorpion infestation is the result of poor garbage management, inadequate sanitation, rapid urbanization and a changing climate.

It is likely too late to stop the spread of scorpions across Brazilian cities.

https://m.phys.org/news/2019-02-venomous-yellow-scorpions-brazil-big.html

Always look on the bright side of life - Monty Python - Life of Brian ...
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://m.youtube.com/watch%3Fv%3DWoaktW-Lu38&ved=2ahUKEwjBg_fmh7TgAhVGmeAKHfpIAMgQ3ywwAnoECAsQHw&usg=AOvVaw1uslggdIchENVlmwYDh-Ay

Quote
... Life's a piece of shit,
When you look at it.
Life's a laugh and death's a joke it's true.
You'll see it's all a show.
Keep 'em laughing as you go.
Just remember nature's last laugh is on you.
And...
Always look on the bright side of life.
Always look on the right side of life.
[whistle] ...
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on February 12, 2019, 01:44:24 PM
Those scorpions eat cockroaches so they have a bright future ahead...

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: rboyd on February 12, 2019, 04:57:56 PM
So I will need cats for the rodent control and scorpions for the cockroach control. Will just have to remember to look inside my shoes before I put them on.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Tor Bejnar on February 12, 2019, 06:10:22 PM
I was thinking, "the return of the eurypterids (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurypterid)", except we need lots of free O2 for that. I guess I'll just check my shoes more often.  (I grew up with scorpions but rarely checked my shoes, but once when I did check, out came a little yellow fellow.  We had centipedes and black widows, too, but the worst 'neighbors' were discussed in this [functionally unavailable, but 'tags' give a clue] article (https://harpers.org/archive/1974/02/smack-city/).)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on February 12, 2019, 09:39:23 PM
Politicians are Complicit in the Killing of Our Insects – We Will Be Next
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/feb/12/politicians-killing-insects-ecosystems

(https://dissidentvoice.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Pesticide-Dogs.jpg)

... Some of the members of the European parliament’s agriculture committee are themselves farmers who have grown increasingly dependent on powerful and toxic pesticides. But others have taken the agribusiness shilling and believe that their role in policymaking is simply to support the corporations that sell these poisons.

... the agrichemical industry is literally writing pesticide assessments that are then presented as the work of regulators.

For example, a recent report exposed how EU regulators based a decision to relicense controversial glyphosate on an assessment plagiarised from industry reports.

Around 50% of some chapters were actually a copy-and-paste job from papers Monsanto and other agrichemical corporates had written.

The European Food Safety Authority (Efsa), based its recommendation that glyphosate was safe for public use on this industry assessment. 

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jan/15/eu-glyphosate-approval-was-based-on-plagiarised-monsanto-text-report-finds

... Tearing apart the web of life damages us all. Only a farming system that views itself as part of this web has a long-term future.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: magnamentis on February 12, 2019, 11:02:30 PM
just to remind you that the killing of people in the millions is not next but is an ongoing truth for thousands of years. only because it currently does not happen on big scale where we live does not mean that it does not happen at all.

the biggest killers are our governments and it has been that way for a long time, only that they learned to do it smarter and more often elsewhere and nowadays they first try to "kill" non-conformist's reputation and wealth before they take physical action. nevertheless not much changed and it's not restricted to the declared evil doers, happens where the hypocrites live ;)

in short, we are not only next but are right now and in the past.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on February 14, 2019, 05:07:15 PM
Germans in Bavaria Rally to Save the Bees
https://www.dw.com/en/germans-in-bavaria-rally-to-save-the-bees/g-47494191

A record 1.75 million Bavarians signed a petition to seek a referendum to "save the bees," a move that could have huge consequences for the German farming industry and environmental protection.

The proposal for a vote to protect species diversity sets a target to have 20 percent of farmland meeting organic standards by 2025, before reaching 30 percent by 2030.

Ten percent of green spaces in Bavaria should also be turned into flowering meadows, while rivers and streams must be better protected from pesticides and organic fertilisers.

(https://i.pinimg.com/236x/48/b5/76/48b576fd29600d70b0dfab4c08f7d6fb--bee-quotes-nature-quotes.jpg)

-----------------------------------

Border Wall Construction Threatens Texas Butterfly Sanctuary
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/border-wall-construction-threatens-texas-butterfly-sanctuary-180971416/

... U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) designs indicate that the wall will extend to the height of an existing flood control levee next to the Rio Grande river, and be crowned with 18-foot steel posts. CBP also intends to clear a 150-foot “enforcement zone” in front of the wall. Seventy of the National Butterfly Center’s 100 acres will lie south of this new barrier, as will much of the land belonging to the Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, which is home to more than 500 bird species, according to Waters.

... the center said that a police officer told them they would not have access to this land, and that the authorities were ordered to stop anyone who tried to set foot on the levee. “Effective Monday morning, it is all government land,” the officer reportedly said.

(https://i.pinimg.com/originals/0e/a4/6e/0ea46e6dab1966033cdb31f61fedb5ef.gif)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on February 15, 2019, 03:23:08 PM
US Judge Rules Against Butterfly Sanctuary Opposed to Trump's Wall
https://m.phys.org/news/2019-02-butterfly-sanctuary-opposed-trump-wall.html
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on March 07, 2019, 05:59:17 PM
Improved Regulation Needed as Pesticides Found to Affect Genes in Bees
https://phys.org/news/2019-03-pesticides-affect-genes-bees.html

For the first time, researchers applied a biomedically inspired approach to examine changes in the 12,000 genes that make up bumblebee workers and queens after pesticide exposure.

The study, published in Molecular Ecology, shows that genes which may be involved in a broad range of biological processes are affected.

They also found that queens and workers respond differently to pesticide exposure and that one pesticide they tested had much stronger effects than the other did.

Other recent studies, including previous work by the authors, have revealed that exposure even to low doses of these neurotoxic pesticides is detrimental to colony function and survival as it impairs bee behaviours including the ability to obtain pollen and nectar from flowers and the ability to locate their nests.

Open Access: Thomas J. Colgan, Isabel K. Fletcher, Andres N. Arce, Richard J. Gill, Ana Ramos Rodrigues, Eckart Stolle, Lars Chittka and Yannick Wurm, 'Caste- and pesticide-specific effects of neonicotinoid pesticide exposure on gene expression in bumblebees' (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.15047), Molecular Ecology 2019.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on March 27, 2019, 10:48:42 AM
Widespread Losses of Pollinating Insects in Britain 
https://phys.org/news/2019-03-widespread-losses-pollinating-insects-britain.html

https://www.ceh.ac.uk/our-science/projects/pollinator-monitoring

... The research, led by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, measured the presence of 353 wild bee and hoverfly species across the country, from 1980 to 2013. It showed one third of species experienced declines in terms of areas in which they were found, while one tenth increased. For the remainder of species, their distribution was either stable or the trend was inconclusive.

The research, published in the journal Nature Communications, also showed that on average, the geographic range of bee and hoverfly species declined by a quarter. This is equivalent to a net loss of 11 species from each 1km square.

Overall losses were more notable for pollinator species found in northern Britain. This may be a result of climate change, with species that prefer cooler temperatures reducing their geographical spread in response to less climatically suitable landscapes.

Open Access: Gary D. Powney, Claire Carvell, Mike Edwards, Roger K. A. Morris, Helen E. Roy, Ben A. Woodcock and Nick J. B. Isaac. Widespread losses of pollinating insects in Britain (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-08974-9), Nature Communications (2019)

---------------------------

Worrying Long-Term Stability of Pesticides in Honey
https://phys.org/news/2019-02-long-term-stability-pesticides-honey.html

Researchers from the University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland have developed an ultra-sensitive method to quantify extremely low concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides in honey. This is a follow up to their study on the global contamination of honey by these pesticides published in the Journal Science in October 2017. The authors, which also include colleagues from the Botanical Garden of Neuchâtel, found that these pesticides did not degrade in honey over a period of 40 months. These results were published in the journal Environmental Pollution.

The long-term stability of these molecules is worrying: "if these pesticides are brought back to the hive with nectar, this implies that the entire colony, including the queen, is exposed during its entire life to these neurotoxins", points out Blaise Mulhauser, director of the Botanical Garden of Neuchâtel.

"Likewise, the concentration of these pesticides will be stable over a period of several years also in honey destined to human consumption"

---------------------------

Interior Nominee Intervened to Block Report on Endangered Species   
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.nytimes.com/2019/03/26/us/politics/endangered-species-david-bernhardt.amp.html

... Fish and Wildlife Service analysis found that two of the pesticides, malathion and chlorpyrifos, were so toxic that they “jeopardize the continued existence” of more than 1,200 endangered birds, fish and other animals and plants, a conclusion that could lead to tighter restrictions on use of the chemicals.

But just before the team planned to make its findings public in November 2017, something unexpected happened: Top political appointees of the Interior Department, which oversees the Fish and Wildlife Service, blocked the release and set in motion a new process intended to apply a much narrower standard to determine the risks from the pesticides.

Leading that intervention was David Bernhardt, then the deputy secretary of the interior and a former lobbyist and oil-industry lawyer. In October 2017, he abruptly summoned staff members to the first of a rapid series of meetings in which the Fish and Wildlife Service was directed to take the new approach, one that pesticide makers and users had lobbied intensively to promote.

Mr. Bernhardt is now President Trump’s nominee to become interior secretary. The Senate is scheduled to hold a hearing on his confirmation Thursday.

... A Dow spokesman said the shift in policy was unrelated to the $1 million contribution to Trump’s inauguration committee. 
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on March 27, 2019, 11:42:10 AM
Quote
malathion and chlorpyrifos, were so toxic that they “jeopardize the continued existence” of more than 1,200 endangered birds, fish and other animals and plants

Top political appointees of the Interior Department set in motion a new process intended to apply a much narrower standard to determine the risks from the pesticides

What is narrower than extinction?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: pietkuip on March 27, 2019, 08:24:47 PM
But one species is thriving: the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus). Today it was on the evening tv news here in Sweden: because of last year's heat and drought there are now infestations with this insect that are difficult to contain. It is causing great economic damage in forestry.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Tor Bejnar on March 27, 2019, 09:04:03 PM
If you want to root for a winner:  Go Bark Beetle!  ("Go Isp typographus!" sounds pretty good to ...)

Americans love a winner, so we join whatever bandwagon is around.
 :'(
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on April 03, 2019, 09:33:32 PM
German State to Accept Environmentalists' Bee-Saving Plan
https://phys.org/news/2019-04-german-state-environmentalists-bee-saving.html

The German state of Bavaria is set to accept in large part a plan by environmentalists to save bees and protect biodiversity, averting a referendum on the issue.

In February, backers of the plan collected nearly 1.75 million signatures, over 18% of the region's electorate and enough to force a vote. It would set aside more space to protect imperiled insects and banish many pesticides from a third of Bavaria's agricultural land. ... there would be payments to farmers to cushion the impact.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: josh-j on April 10, 2019, 09:14:38 AM
Potentially good news there Vox!

By eating less meat and paying farmers to give land over to nature I think we humans can really significantly lessen the burden on insects, indeed on all sorts of creatures. All around where I live is open moorland (see photo), whose only agricultural value is for grazing a small number of sheep - yet those sheep mean there are no trees and very little else for miles at a time. Sheep farming in such areas (Im in the UK by the way) is not profitable and is subsidised heavily by the government; I do wonder whether some farmers might be willing to be paid instead to oversee the restoration of this land?

There seems to be an attachment to preserving things "as they are" in nature orgaisations here, rather than seeing that the land is in a bad state which is not natural.

Trees, birds, animals, insects. It can be done I'm sure. Rewilding needs to happen.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Avalonian on April 10, 2019, 09:42:12 AM
There is increasing local pressure in Mid Wales for rewilding as well, ideally to create an equivalent to the Caledonian forest. The sheep-wreck covers almost all of the high ground at the moment, and I completely agree with you, josh-j about the concept of subsidising farmers to produce something other than sheep, or at least changing the system radically to allow large chunks of upland to rewild. Something Brexit might (possibly) end up being good for!  :o

One thing to bear in mind for insect diversity is that total forest coverage isn't as good as some might think. I did some surveys for Trees for Life in the Scottish Highlands a few years back, and one of the key points was that it is the mosaic landscape that is insect-rich. Blanket forest is better than blanket moor, but the real diversity comes in where you get sheltered clearings, gradients in temperature and moisture, pockets of different vegetation, and patchiness overall. To keep that, of course, you need a sustainable population of herbivores... and for those to be managed by specialist predators. Part-measure rewilding is only of very limited use, I fear, but when it's done well, there's no reason that it can't work.

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on April 10, 2019, 12:51:24 PM
Quote from: josh-j
... Trees, birds, animals, insects. It can be done I'm sure. Rewilding needs to happen.

I agree. See the article below on China,s effort to integrate nature into commercial agriculture.

Quote from: Avalonian
...  one of the key points was that it is the mosaic landscape that is insect-rich. Blanket forest is better than blanket moor, but the real diversity comes in where you get sheltered clearings, gradients in temperature and moisture, pockets of different vegetation, and patchiness overall.

Exactly. This is a fundamental concept in permaculture - that edges between two environments are the most biodiverse and productive. And maximizing edges - like a mosaic- maximizes biodiversity.

---------------

Cuba's Thriving Honey Business 
https://phys.org/news/2019-04-cuba-worker-bees-boost-honey.html

Shrinking bee populations around the world have caused scientists and conservationists to sound the alarm over the effects of intensive agriculture, disease and pesticides.

But not in Cuba, a Communist-run island nation that has become a kind of apicultural paradise, thanks to the purity of its countryside.

That environmental integrity dates back to Cuba's crippling economic crisis of the 1990s, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, which once provided the island with thousands of tonnes of pesticides, fertilizers and herbicides.

Deprived of that support, Cuba had no choice but to develop natural alternatives. In the process, it reduced to almost zero the use of chemicals, so harmful to bee populations and the quality of their honey.


Average production is 51 kilograms (112 pounds) of honey per hive, a level considered high. ... some show yields of up to 160 kilos of honey per hive—triple the national average.

... "We don't use any chemicals when fumigating apiaries or weeding," and "no antibiotics"—products that are anyhow hard to come by because of the US trade embargo in place since 1962.

--------------------

Farming for Natural Profits in China 
https://phys.org/news/2019-04-farming-natural-profits-china.html

A new strategy being rolled out in China relies on the idea that farmers can harvest much more than crops. The idea is that well-managed, diverse agricultural lands can provide flood control, water purification and climate stabilization, among other valuable services.

A recent case-study by researchers at Stanford, McGill University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences provide a promising demonstration of this approach—farmers who took environmental concerns into account doubled their incomes and reduced reliance on a single harvest while also gaining environmental benefits from the land. The group said the approach could help farmers worldwide protect both the environment and their livelihoods.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on April 18, 2019, 09:38:44 PM
(https://richardbrenneman.files.wordpress.com/2014/11/blog-toles4.jpg)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on May 01, 2019, 05:41:17 PM
The Hunger Gaps: How Flowering Times Affect Farmland Bees 
https://phys.org/news/2019-05-hunger-gaps-affect-farmland-bees.html

For the very first time, researchers from the University of Bristol have measured farmland nectar supplies throughout the whole year and revealed hungry gaps when food supply is not meeting pollinator demand. This novel finding reveals new ways of making farmland better for pollinators, benefitting the many crop plants and wildflowers that depend on them.

... "It's not just how much nectar there is that matters, but what time of year that nectar is available.

"If a bumblebee queen comes out of hibernation in March and finds nothing to eat, it doesn't matter how much nectar there is in summer, because she won't be alive."


T.P. Timberlake et al. Phenology of farmland floral resources reveals seasonal gaps in nectar availability for bumblebees, Journal of Applied Ecology (2019).
https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1365-2664.13403
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: bbr2314 on June 01, 2019, 10:02:09 PM
I have returned to Versailles for my annual pilgrimage (RIP Marie). The number of insects here is insane. They are everywhere! In the evening the air is full of life. I don't get out of cities too often so I wonder if this is atypical and due to all the meadows and gardens and flora and fauna in the vicinity, or if it is still normal. The numbers definitely seem much higher than around my neighborhood in Battery Park (Manhattan).
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on June 13, 2019, 01:31:50 AM
Brazil's Bolsonaro Green-Lights 150+ Pesticides This Year
https://www.ecowatch.com/brazil-bolsonaro-pesticides-2636194015.html

With the ruralist lobby now in control of key sectors of the federal government, Brazil is rapidly approving new pesticides for use, some of which critics say are either unnecessary or excessively toxic. During the first 100 days of the Jair Bolsonaro administration, the Agriculture Ministry authorized the registration of 152 pesticides, putting Brazil on course to authorize more pesticides this year than in any previous year. Brazil is already the world's largest user of pesticides.

The number of pesticides authorized each year has risen rapidly, from 139 in 2015 under the Dilma Rousseff administration, to 450 in 2018 under the Michel Temer government (see graph). An even higher number is expected to enter the Brazilian market this year, as the Agriculture Ministry considers registration of roughly another 1,300 pesticides. Most of these requests are coming from foreign multinational companies, mainly based in the U.S., Germany and China, which is increasingly becoming an important supplier.

Despite the rapid rise in authorizations, Bolsonaro's agriculture minister, Tereza Cristina, said "there is no general liberation" of new pesticide registrations. According to her ministry, the products will merely give farmers a greater choice of existing pesticides, and access to new chemicals and there is no reason to be concerned: "The use [of pesticides] is completely safe, provided they are applied as instructed, within a context of good farming practice and with the use of individual protective equipment," said the government.

(https://www.latimes.com/resizer/wXw3ieAx51Re9g7XgREHcQS2HBg=/800x0/arc-anglerfish-arc2-prod-tronc.s3.amazonaws.com/public/YLOIDKPH4NFQDKLH2NV5HGJXUE.jpg)

---------------------------------------

Brazil’s Pesticide Industry Is Creating Massive PFOS Contamination
https://theintercept.com/2019/04/29/brazil-pfos-sulfluramid-pesticide/

WHILE MUCH OF the world struggles to clean up contamination from the toxic industrial compound PFOS, Brazil is still adding to the massive environmental mess with its large-scale production, use, and export of sulfluramid, a pesticide that degrades into PFOS (Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid).

Linked to low birth weight, weakened immune response, liver effects, high cholesterol, thyroid dysfunction, cancer, and other health problems, PFOS is no longer made or used in most countries. The chemical, which was phased out in the U.S. by 2015, was originally developed by 3M and was a critical component of Scotchgard and firefighting foam. In the 182 countries that are party to the Stockholm Convention, an international treaty (unsigned by the U.S.) that governs persistent pollutants, the use of PFOS has been severely restricted since 2009.

But the Stockholm Convention carved out several loopholes for PFOS, including one for its use in killing leaf-cutting ants. Sulfluramid is made from PFOS and breaks down into that and several other chemicals within weeks. Brazil, the only country governed by the treaty that has permission to produce the pesticide, has been able to export it without notifying the convention because the treaty restricts PFOS, but makes no mention of sulfluramid, which is now used widely in Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Colombia, and Venezuela, among other countries.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on June 13, 2019, 10:35:27 PM
Migratory Hoverflies 'Key' as Many Insects Decline
https://phys.org/news/2019-06-migratory-hoverflies-key-insects-decline.html

Migratory hoverflies are "key" to pollination and controlling crop pests amid the decline of many other insect species, new research shows.

University of Exeter scientists studied the movements of migratory hoverflies and were surprised to find up to four billion migrate to and from Britain each year.

The study shows these numbers have been relatively stable over the last decade, and such abundance means migratory hoverflies pollinate many billions of flowers and produce larvae that eat up to ten trillion aphids.

"They are widely considered to be the second most important pollinators, after bees.

"They are especially important pollinators of wildflowers, soft fruits and brassica crops, and their larvae prey on various species of aphids—which are the key crop pest in Europe.

"This dual role makes them uniquely beneficial to humans."

... "As well as their vital pollinating and aphid-eating roles, migrating hoverflies provide food for a range of predators including birds."


(https://els-jbs-prod-cdn.literatumonline.com/cms/attachment/f7927209-95b3-4047-9a00-18736da8573a/gr2.jpg)
Seasonally Beneficial Migration Distance & Directions

Open Access: Karl R. Wotton, et.al., Mass seasonal migrations of hoverflies provide extensive pollination and crop protection services (https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(19)30605-0), Current Biology (2019).

Quote
... We estimate that the contribution to pest aphid control is likely to be in excess of 1 million cereal aphids ha−1 of arable cropland, which is about 20% of typical aphid population densities in fields early in the season when hoverflies first appear.

In addition, species such as E. balteatus visit flowers in very high numbers, rivaling managed honeybees in numerical abundance during the summer (up to 4 billion migrant hoverflies in southern Britain during May–September versus ∼5 billion managed honeybees at peak abundance for the whole of Britain.

Second, long-range migrants have the potential to successfully transport viable pollen between conspecific flowering plants over large spatial scales, which will lead to impacts on gene flow and population genetic structure
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on June 15, 2019, 07:40:01 PM
This decline will hurt ecosystems:
https://www.theneweconomy.com/business/declining-insect-numbers-will-have-devastating-effects-on-ecosystems

Interview on insect dieoff:
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/06/the-great-insect-dying-how-to-save-insects-and-ourselves/

EDIT: The Great Insect Dieoff:
https://focusingonwildlife.com/news/the-great-insect-dying-a-global-look-at-a-deepening-crisis/
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on June 20, 2019, 04:43:38 AM
Survey Sees Biggest US Honeybee Winter Die-Off Yet 
https://phys.org/news/2019-06-survey-biggest-honeybee-winter-die-off.html

The annual nationwide survey by the Bee Informed Partnership found 37.7% of honeybee colonies died this past winter, nearly 9 percentage points higher than the average winter loss.

The survey of nearly 4,700 beekeepers managing more than 300,000 colonies goes back 13 years and is conducted by bee experts at the University of Maryland, Auburn University and several other colleges.

... Year-to-year bee colony losses, which include calculations for summer, were 40.7%, higher than normal, but not a record high, the survey found.

"The beekeepers are working harder than ever to manage colonies but we still lose 40-50% each year... unacceptable," Swiss bee expert Jeff Pettis, who wasn't part of the survey, said in an email.

This past winter's steep drop seems heavily connected to the mites, vanEngelsdorp said. Beekeepers report that chemicals that kill mites don't seem to be working quite as well and mite infestation is worsening, he said. Those mites feed on the bees' fats and that's where the insects store protein and center their immune response
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on June 21, 2019, 05:48:57 PM
Bee Populations In Trouble Following EPA Pesticide Decision
https://phys.org/news/2019-06-bee-populations-epa-pesticide-decision.html

Just a few weeks ago, the Environmental Protection Agency announced it was pulling 12 products off the market that contained pesticides that were harmful to the honeybee. This week, the agency made an emergency exception for nearly a dozen states to use a pesticide called sulfoxaflor on certain crops. Environmental advocates worry about the chemical's harmful impact on bees.

Segraves says, "The release of the Environmental Protection Agency's announcement is ironically timed with 'Pollinator Week". Unfortunately, the new policy will have strong negative impacts on pollinator populations.

"Sulfoxaflor is quite toxic to native bees such as bumblebees that are key pollinators of many native and rare plant species as well as crop plants. Moreover, other pollinating insects and natural enemies of herbivores can also be affected. ... "We should follow the lead of the European Union and ban these chemicals."
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on June 25, 2019, 06:27:03 PM
Bad Weather Causing 'Catastrophic' French Honey Harvest
https://phys.org/news/2019-06-bad-weather-catastrophic-french-honey.html

Alarmed French beekeepers and farming groups warned Tuesday of a "catastrophic" honey harvest this year due to adverse weather.

"For honey producers the season risks being catastrophic. Bees are collecting nothing!" French farming union MODEF said in a statement.

"In the hives, there is nothing to eat, beekeepers are having to feed them with syrup because they risk dying from hunger," added the union, which represents many small farms in honey-producing regions.

Henri Clement, secretary-general for the National Union of French Beekeepers (UNAF), said that by June his members had normally harvested 40-50 percent of their annual output, but they had collected very little so far.

He blamed the weather after a highly changeable winter which saw frost in many regions damage acacia trees, which bees like, followed by a rainy spring.

"We've had catastrophic weather conditions," Clement said. "We've been alarmed for a while now about the impact of climate change which is having a major impact on production."

The onset of intense summer heat in France, which could lead to record temperatures being set this week for the month of June, is another source of worry.

(https://geneticliteracyproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/636427250242398513-flooded-hives.jpg)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: bluice on June 26, 2019, 08:58:37 AM
That must be equally bad for wild bees and other pollinator species.

I wonder how much of the damage to insect populations is in fact caused by climate change related weird weather events. If weather is out of sync with the seasons insects cannot find food.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on June 26, 2019, 03:00:23 PM
See reply #840 here where Avalonian posts about the situation in Wales:

https://forum.arctic-sea-ice.net/index.php/topic,428.800.html
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on July 01, 2019, 09:28:42 AM
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-insect-apocalypse-german-bug-watchers.html (https://phys.org/news/2019-07-insect-apocalypse-german-bug-watchers.html)
Quote
"The conclusion is clear," they wrote. "Unless we change our ways of producing food, insects as a whole will go down the path of extinction in a few decades."
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on July 05, 2019, 06:28:15 PM
Effect of Insecticides on Damselflies Greater than Expected
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-effect-insecticides-damselflies-greater.html

(https://www.wildlifetrusts.org/sites/default/files/styles/node_hero_default/public/2018-01/Common_Blue_Damselfly_cpt_Les_Binns.jpg?h=82dbd121&itok=5MICpKav)

The latest research from the Leiden outdoor laboratory "Living Lab' shows that the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid strongly influences even the most common and robust dragonfly species in the Netherlands. The study was published in the Journal of Applied Ecology.

Open Access: S. Henrik Barmentlo et al. Environmental levels of neonicotinoids reduce prey consumption, mobility and emergence of the damselfly Ischnura elegans (https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1365-2664.13459), Journal of Applied Ecology (2019).
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: maltose on July 06, 2019, 07:05:20 PM
Honeybee research hit by Trump budget cuts

https://www.cnn.com/2019/07/06/politics/honeybees-study-usda-donald-trump-budget-cuts/index.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+rss%2Fcnn_allpolitics+%28RSS%3A+CNN+-+Politics%29
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Rod on July 08, 2019, 05:24:39 AM
This just pisses me off 😡

https://www.ecowatch.com/emergency-trump-epa-pesticides-2638979880.html
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on July 09, 2019, 07:32:00 PM
Russian Officials Raise Alarm Over Bee Deaths
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-russian-alarm-bee-deaths.html

The Russian Agricultural Ministry said in a statement on Tuesday that bees have been dying in large numbers in at least seven regions this year. Experts attribute the deaths to a careless and excessive use of pesticides at nearby fields.

Rossiya 1 in a TV report on Monday quoted one farmer outside Moscow who said he had lost 100,000 bees in the past week. The footage showed the ground by the hives covered by a layer of dead bees.

The ministry said that the mass deaths recorded from western Russia to Siberia have had a "substantial financial impact" on beekeeping in Russia but did not provide any figures.

------------------------------

USDA Indefinitely Suspends Honey Bee Tracking Survey as States Get Approval to Use Bee-Killing Pesticide
https://www.rawstory.com/2019/07/usda-indefinitely-suspends-honey-bee-tracking-survey-as-states-get-approval-to-use-bee-killing-pesticide/

On the heels of the EPA’s June approval of a bee-killing pesticide, the White House said it would stop collecting data on declining honey bee populations—potentially making it impossible to analyze the effects of the chemical and the administration’s other anti-science policies on the pollinators.

The number of honey bee hives in the U.S. dropped from about six million in 1947 to just 2.4 million in 2008, with 2018 being the worst year on record for hive loss. Beekeepers reported last year that 40 percent of honey bee hives had collapsed, due to a combination of factors including the use of pesticides.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on July 10, 2019, 12:23:05 AM
Decades-Long Butterfly Study Shows Common Species on the Decline
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-decades-long-butterfly-common-species-decline.html

The most extensive and systematic insect monitoring program ever undertaken in North America shows that butterfly abundance in Ohio declined yearly by 2%, resulting in an overall 33% drop for the 21 years of the program.

The data from Ohio enabled population trends to be estimated for 81 butterfly species and found three times as many species were trending downward as upward—three out of every four species with a positive or negative trend grew less abundant over the course of the monitoring. Forty of the analyzed species had no significant trend up or down.

  The rate of butterfly decline in Ohio is greater than the global rate of 35% over 40 years, Wepprich said, and is closer to the estimated rate for insects in general: a 45% decline over 40 years.

Quote
... "These declines in abundance are happening in common species," ... "Declines in common species concern me because it shows that there are widespread environmental causes for the declines affecting species we thought were well adapted to share a landscape with humans. Common species are also the ones that contribute the bulk of the pollination or bird food to the ecosystem, so their slow, consistent decline is likely having ripple effects beyond butterfly numbers."

Findings were published today in PLOS ONE.

(https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/figure/image?size=medium&id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216270.g002)
  Fig 2. The statewide relative abundance of butterflies (all species aggregated) in Ohio declined by 33% over 1996–2016.

Open Access: Tyson Wepprich, et.al. Butterfly abundance declines over 20 years of systematic monitoring in Ohio, USA (https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216270), PLOS ONE, 2019
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: dnem on July 10, 2019, 01:46:07 PM
I have a bucket of watermelon rinds on my kitchen counter.  Four days now and not a single fruit fly. WTAF?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: bligh8 on July 10, 2019, 02:29:10 PM
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/06/cicadas-high-fungi-drugs-won-t-stop-mating?utm_campaign=news_daily_2019-07-09&et_rid=54875624&et_cid=2898708

Cicadas high on fungus drugs won’t stop mating

In a scene fit for a horror film, paperclip-size cicadas sexually transmit a fungus attached to their bodies from one mate to another, sometimes losing parts of their abdomens along the way. Now, new research reveals just how the fungus keeps those cicadas mating, Science News reports. Massospora cicadina, which forms a spore that erupts through the insects’ abdomen, produces the hallucinogen psilocybin and the amphetamine cathinone. These two drugs curb the critters’ appetites, letting them mate over and over again even after losing parts of their bodies, researchers report this week in Fungal Ecology. Scientists plan to next study how the fungus produces the drugs—and whether they influence other aspects of insects’ behavior.

On the streets: word is several large drug company's are in phase one human trials with this
new drug  ;)




 

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: SteveMDFP on July 10, 2019, 05:44:22 PM
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/06/cicadas-high-fungi-drugs-won-t-stop-mating?utm_campaign=news_daily_2019-07-09&et_rid=54875624&et_cid=2898708

Cicadas high on fungus drugs won’t stop mating

In a scene fit for a horror film, paperclip-size cicadas sexually transmit a fungus attached to their bodies from one mate to another, sometimes losing parts of their abdomens along the way. Now, new research reveals just how the fungus keeps those cicadas mating, Science News reports. Massospora cicadina, which forms a spore that erupts through the insects’ abdomen, produces the hallucinogen psilocybin and the amphetamine cathinone. These two drugs curb the critters’ appetites, letting them mate over and over again even after losing parts of their bodies, researchers report this week in Fungal Ecology. Scientists plan to next study how the fungus produces the drugs—and whether they influence other aspects of insects’ behavior.

On the streets: word is several large drug company's are in phase one human trials with this
new drug  ;)

A few people are  known to eat cicadas, usually cooked, I think.  I wonder if cicadas will become the new party drug.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on July 11, 2019, 10:38:28 AM
Lack of Crop Diversity and Increasing Dependence on Pollinators Threatens Food Security
https://phys.org/news/2019-07-lack-crop-diversity-pollinators-threaten.html

A multinational team of researchers has identified countries where agriculture's increasing dependence on pollination, coupled with a lack of crop diversity, may threaten food security and economic stability.   

Using annual data from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization from 1961 to 2016, the study showed that the global area cultivated in crops that require pollination by bees and other insects expanded by 137%, while crop diversity increased by just 20.5%. This imbalance is a problem, according to the researchers, because agriculture dominated by just one or two types of crops only provides nutrition for pollinators during a limited window when the crops are blooming. Maintaining agricultural diversity by cultivating a variety of crops that bloom at different times provides a more stable source of food and habitat for pollinators.

Globally, a large portion of the total agricultural expansion and increase in pollinator dependence between 1961 and 2016 resulted from increases in large-scale farming of soybean, canola and palm crops for oil. The researchers expressed concern over the increase in these crops because it indicates a rapid expansion of industrial farming, which is associated with environmentally damaging practices such as large monocultures and pesticide use that threaten pollinators and can undermine productivity.

Particularly vulnerable to potential agricultural instability are Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia, where expansion of pollinator-dependent soybean farms has driven deforestation and replaced rich biodiversity that supports healthy populations of pollinators with large-scale single-crop agriculture (monoculture). Malaysia and Indonesia face a similar scenario from the expansion of oil palm farming.

According to the study, increasing need for pollination services without parallel increases in diversity puts agricultural stability at risk in places like Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Austria, Denmark and Finland.

In the U.S., agricultural diversity has not kept pace with expansion of industrial-scale soybean farming.   

Open Access: Marcelo Aizen, et al., Global agricultural productivity is threatened by increasing pollinator dependence without a parallel increase in crop diversification (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/gcb.14736), Global Change Biology , 2019
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on July 11, 2019, 11:42:14 AM
Ccd (aka modern insectisides) reach russia: http://www.pravdareport.com/science/142507-bees/
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Rod on July 12, 2019, 05:09:18 PM
Early arrival of spring disrupts the mutualism between plants and pollinators

Quote
Global warming has affected the phenology of diverse organisms, such as the timing of plant flowering and leafing, animal hibernation and migration. This is particularly so in cold ecosystems, increasing the risk of disturbing mutual relationships between living organisms. It could also affect the relationship between plants and insects that carry pollen, but few studies have been conducted and the subject remains largely unknown.

The researchers examined Corydailis ambigua growing in cold-temperature forests in Hokkaido in northern Japan, and bumblebees, which collect nectar from the flowers. Usually the bloom of the flowers and emergence of the bumblebees are in sync.

They monitored the plant and insect for 19 years in a natural forest of Hokkaido, recording the timing of snowmelt, flowering and emergence of bumblebees as well as the seed-set rate. In this way, they were able to observe how the snowmelt timing and ambient temperatures affect the local phenology.

Long-term monitoring revealed that snowmelt timing dictates when Corydailis ambigua flowers. The earlier the snowmelt, the earlier the flowering. The researchers also found that bumblebees, which hibernate underground during winter, become active when soil temperatures reach 6 C. When the snowmelt is early, flowering tends to occur before the bees emerge, creating a mismatch. The wider the mismatch, the lower the seed-set rate due to insufficient pollination.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-07/hu-eao071219.php

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on July 12, 2019, 06:25:03 PM
Why Fewer Bug Guts May Be Piling Up On Your Car Windshield
https://www.theverge.com/science/2019/7/9/20686603/insect-apocalypse-bug-splats-science-experiment-ecology

https://youtu.be/nMIifkRSs0I
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: petm on July 13, 2019, 12:47:12 AM
Long-term monitoring revealed that snowmelt timing dictates when Corydailis ambigua flowers. The earlier the snowmelt, the earlier the flowering. The researchers also found that bumblebees, which hibernate underground during winter, become active when soil temperatures reach 6 C. When the snowmelt is early, flowering tends to occur before the bees emerge, creating a mismatch.

This requires evolution. Plants that flower later will become more likely to be pollinated, passing on the alleles causing earlier pollination. Bumblebees that become active earlier will gather more pollen, similarly resulting in selection.

At the current rates of environmental change, is there sufficient time (generations of these species) for evolution to save this and other systems? It's becoming increasingly unlikely.

This should be the top argument for action, regardless of arbitrary temperature thresholds. The more GWGs we pump into the atmosphere, the greater the chance of complete ecosystem collapse.

But frankly those in power don't give a s**t.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on July 20, 2019, 10:47:41 AM
Russia alarmed by large fall in bee populations

Large areas of central and southern Russia have seen a major decline in their bee populations in recent months.

The head of the Russian beekeepers' union, Arnold Butov, said 20 regions had reported mass bee deaths.

The affected regions include Bryansk and Kursk, south of Moscow, and Saratov and Ulyanovsk on the Volga River.

Mr Butov, quoted by Russian media, said the crisis might mean 20% less honey being harvested. Some officials blamed poorly regulated pesticide use.

Yulia Melano, at the rural inspection service Rosselkhoznadzor, complained that her agency had lost most of its powers to control pesticide use since 2011.

Russia produces about 100,000 tonnes of honey annually. Mr Butov said the union's members were collecting data on bee losses, so that by 1 August a detailed report could be submitted to the Russian government.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-49047402
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on July 20, 2019, 02:16:10 PM
Russia alarmed by large fall in bee populations

Large areas of central and southern Russia have seen a major decline in their bee populations in recent months.

<Cliip>

Yulia Melano, at the rural inspection service Rosselkhoznadzor, complained that her agency had lost most of its powers to control pesticide use since 2011.
<Clip>
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-49047402

And an article from 2013 apparently claims otherwise
https://windowstorussia.com/russian-bees-save-world.html

It looks like this is not going to happen.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Tor Bejnar on July 20, 2019, 06:02:45 PM
From two recent posts:
Quote
[U.S.] States Get Approval to Use Bee-Killing Pesticide
https://www.rawstory.com/2019/07/usda-indefinitely-suspends-honey-bee-tracking-survey-as-states-get-approval-to-use-bee-killing-pesticide/
Quote
Large areas of central and southern Russia have seen a major decline in their bee populations in recent months.
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-49047402
Now, where did all those American bee-killing pesticides get sprayed???  :o
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on July 20, 2019, 06:04:15 PM
<clip>
It looks like this is not going to happen.
With "this" I assume you mean the 2013 article?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Rod on July 29, 2019, 04:53:14 AM
I live in the Midwest.  I specifically plant native wildflowers for the birds and insects. 

My anecdotal observations agree 100% with this article.  The monarch butterflies are nothing like they used to be.  Even my kids mentioned it the other day. 

I do have milkweed growing in my yard and a few monarchs, but it is nothing like it was even ten years ago.  Unfortunately, milkweed is a hard plant to cultivate and you can’t buy it at garden stores.  I dug up a few plants along the road about 15 years ago and planted them in my yard.  It is an annual so it spreads by seed and never pops up where you want it to.  Most people who want pretty manicured lawns and gardens will never propagate something like wild milkweed because it is really hard to control where it decides to sprout up each year. 

The herbicides around the farms have all but wiped it out in the wild.  After I read this article I drove around on gravel roads out in the country and could not find a single milkweed plant anywhere.   

It is sad what we are losing.  Monarchs are beautiful, but they are so specialized (between needing milkweed for larva and wintering in a small area in Mexico) that I am worried they are not going to be around much longer. 

Link to the full article:

https://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2019/07/22/Scientists-scramble-to-learn-why-monarch-butterflies-are-dying-so-quickly/6961563481223/
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on August 01, 2019, 05:32:45 PM
Continuing Slaughter: Mass Bee Deaths Sting Russian Beekeepers
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-mass-bee-deaths-russian-beekeepers.html

(https://grist.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/hive_dead-1.jpg?w=330&h=247)

... Rubtsov, who keeps a large honeybee farm on the edge of a small village in the Tula region south of Moscow, is one of hundreds of beekeepers across Russia to report mass bee deaths that have robbed them of their livelihood.

Eighty-two bee colonies—almost the entire farm—have died since early July, and the survivors will unlikely make it through the winter, he said.

That is over three million dead bees and Rubtsov estimated his losses at 1.6 million rubles ($25,000).

All the bees in the vicinity have met the same fate.

People around Bobrovka are certain that the culprit is a local company growing rapeseed, a cash crop with yellow flowers used for cooking oil, cattle feed, and biofuel, that treated its fields with insecticides on July 4.

Viktor Morozov, another beekeeper who kept hives in a nearby forest, filmed empty pesticide containers lying on the ground alongside the rapeseed fields, but said the workers denied using a strong insecticide that contains fipronil.

A lab in Moscow eventually confirmed the presence on the rapeseed plants of fipronil, which is legal in Russia provided certain precautions are taken but banned in the EU.

... "Flowering rapeseed is a big attraction for the bees, so it was like an ambush," said Rubtsov.

Russia's agriculture watchdog confirmed the bee deaths were caused by uncontrolled use of insecticides and acknowledged that their use is not being monitored closely.

"The volumes of pesticides being used and their quality aren't checked by the government," spokeswoman Yulia Melano told Russian news agencies.

Not only is use of pesticides not monitored, she noted, but nobody coordinates between beekeepers and farmers about their use.


Studies have shown that the neurotoxin fipronil, along with so-called neonicotinoid substances used in other pesticides, can cause bee colonies to collapse and harm other insects such as butterflies, as well as worms and fish.

The EU banned the use of fipronil and most neonicotinoids on outdoor crops in 2017 and 2018, respectively.

Russians are bitter that Europe makes environmentally-friendly biodiesel from Russian rapeseed grown with pesticides that the EU has banned for use at home.

Quote
"... The pesticides banned in Europe have all been dumped here in Russia"

Rapeseed cultivation has doubled in Russia over the past decade with most of the processed oil exported abroad.[/b]

... Brandorf believes that following the loss of their hives many beekeepers will simply quit, as with no government support, the profession is becoming unprofitable.

"It's becoming easier to just close bee farms," she said.

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on August 02, 2019, 05:58:47 AM
They're not insects but I put this best here I think.

I am worried about the spiders. It looks like a large loss of populations since a couple of years. You'd say with the loss of flying insects, one would expect a serious decline, but what I expect is adding to the pressure are predators that get creative in finding other foodsources. Predators such as birds and especially bats. Can someone confirm this? I haven't found articles on this in a quick search.

Personal emotional:
Please please come back, insects spiders fish birds mammals frogs! I miss you! Where has the living nature of my youth gone? And I'm only 53. I see some strange signs from trees as well. Aaargh.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: TerryM on August 02, 2019, 10:19:06 AM
Good news for a change!


I saw 2 apparently healthy Monarch Butterflys today. The first I've seen in years.


Locally here in Southern Ontario there used to be millions of them every year. A decade ago a local conservation site counted 14 over a week long count & everyone assumed that this was the end of an era.


A relative in Indiana reports that she too has seen Monarchs this last week.


Is it too much to hope?
Terry
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: DrTskoul on August 02, 2019, 12:20:54 PM
I am trying to save as much milkweed in my yard as I can for that reason...
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: be cause on August 02, 2019, 12:57:19 PM
I'm having to control some weeds .. by scythe and hand .. yesterday I pulled a benweed/ragwort . The insects that followed it to my compost heap have persuaded me to leave the rest ; it was like a funeral procession .. b.c.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: DrTskoul on August 02, 2019, 01:02:31 PM
I'm having to control some weeds .. by scythe and hand .. yesterday I pulled a benweed/ragwort . The insects that followed it to my compost heap have persuaded me to leave the rest ; it was like a funeral procession .. b.c.

Ragwort and mugwort are the worst. I do not like invasive weeds ..all work done by hand. No herbicides. I have a frog pond after all as a safe heaven for the local amphibian population. 
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Gray-Wolf on August 02, 2019, 01:07:31 PM
On a more positive note we , here in the UK, are in a bit of a 'Painted Lady' invasion!

Numbers were up in spring/early summer in the parts of Europe they come from so we are in a 'decadal' spike in numbers

My buddleia is earning its nickname this summer!!!
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on August 02, 2019, 07:40:00 PM
On a more positive note we , here in the UK, are in a bit of a 'Painted Lady' invasion!

Numbers were up in spring/early summer in the parts of Europe they come from so we are in a 'decadal' spike in numbers

My buddleia is earning its nickname this summer!!!
What a coincidence. This morning a painted lady (distelvlinder, Vanessa cardui) sat sometime on my windowsill and I have taken a nice photo.
This is in the North of the Netherlands.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: be cause on August 04, 2019, 06:22:18 PM
while thinking about painted ladies yesterday one landed beside me .. 5 years since I last played host to a few . In 2009 I watched thousands arrive in NE Donegal from Scotland  .. on 31st May .. b.c.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on August 13, 2019, 03:39:15 AM
Bolsonaro approves 290 new pesticide products.
Also, 1,942 registered pesticides were quickly reevaluated, with the number considered extremely toxic dropped from 702 to just 43.
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/08/bolsonaro-administration-approves-290-new-pesticide-products-for-use/
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: TerryM on August 13, 2019, 03:56:10 AM
Strictly anecdotal, but two friends complained bitterly about the swarms of mosquitoes that ruined their summer vacation in Prince Edward Island.


Locally (So. Ontario) there's no change, but for an unusual number of "tent caterpillars" seen from the road.
Terry
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on August 13, 2019, 06:42:42 AM
Interesting animals: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tent_caterpillar (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tent_caterpillar)

In '94 I had a nice drive with a friend in his jagV12convertible  :-X over the blue ridge mountains (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Ridge_Mountains) and saw many trees covered in these 'tent's'. I thought they were normal for North America. This was in may/june.
Terry, you write that it's unusual. Is that because of the timing? Since it's already mid august?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on August 13, 2019, 01:12:37 PM
Anecdotal but when I was a kid highway driving would spatter your windshield with bugs. Now there are hardly any.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on August 13, 2019, 01:44:20 PM
Interesting animals: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tent_caterpillar (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tent_caterpillar)

In '94 I had a nice drive with a friend in his jagV12convertible  :-X over the blue ridge mountains (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Ridge_Mountains) and saw many trees covered in these 'tent's'. I thought they were normal for North America. This was in may/june.
Terry, you write that it's unusual. Is that because of the timing? Since it's already mid august?
It looks very late to me for caterpillars of any description.

Quote
https://www.manitoulin.ca/predicting-the-forest-tent-caterpillar-population-in-2019/
The forest tent caterpillar is a common and natural insect herbivore across central and southern Canada. Its preferred hosts are aspen poplar, birch, maple and ash. In most years, populations remain low and small clusters are found widely dispersed in forests with rapid increases in populations usually prevented by the actions of parasitic wasps and flies.

However, for poorly understood reasons, the numbers start to increase dramatically every 10-12 years and host trees are heavily defoliated. Fortunately, healthy trees are usually not harmed during such outbreaks and produce new leaves about two weeks after the defoliation.

Caterpillars hatch in early spring and start feeding on newly flushed leaves. They grow rapidly in the next five to seven weeks becoming full grown by mid-June.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: TerryM on August 13, 2019, 02:15:28 PM
As kids (teens) we built small fires under affected trees, sawed off the branch carefully & incinerated the bugs that were thought of as tree killers.
Good to learn they don't actually do much harm to healthy trees.


I haven't seen these amounts since 2004 when I returned to Canada - actually I've seen very few since my return. Perhaps it is a natural cycle that I'm winessing.
Terry

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Sebastian Jones on August 13, 2019, 06:47:55 PM
Bolsonaro approves 290 new pesticide products.
Also, 1,942 registered pesticides were quickly reevaluated, with the number considered extremely toxic dropped from 702 to just 43.
https://news.mongabay.com/2019/08/bolsonaro-administration-approves-290-new-pesticide-products-for-use/
I think it is important to bear in mind that ALL pesticides are toxic. The reason is because they are literally designed to be toxic, so that they can kill things.

It is difficult to imagine that the liberal spraying of poisons all around the world could happen without actually killing a whole lot of organisms, and stupid to think that only the organism that has been condemned to death will be killed and naive to think that there will not be unintended consequences from removing a species from the biosphere.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on August 14, 2019, 12:38:12 AM
Goodbye Monarchs? Protection Changes Imperil Butterflies
https://m.phys.org/news/2019-08-goodbye-monarchs-imperil-butterflies.html

The Trump administration's new order weakening the Endangered Species Act could well make things worse for the monarch, one of more than 1 million species that are struggling around the globe.

With its count falling 99% to the low tens of thousands in the western United States last year, the monarch is now under government consideration for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. But if the Trump administration's latest action survives threatened legal challenges, there will be sweeping changes to how the government provides protections, and which creatures receive them.

Administration officials say the changes, expected to go into effect next month, will reduce regulation while still protecting animals and plants. But conservation advocates and Democratic lawmakers say the overhaul will force more to extinction, delaying and denying protections.

The administration will for the first time reserve the option to estimate and publicize the financial cost of saving a species in advance of any decision on whether to do so. Monarchs compete for habitat with soybean and corn farmers, whose crops are valued in the low tens of billions of dollars annually. For mountain caribou, sage grouse, the Humboldt marten in California's old-growth redwoods and other creatures, it's logging, oil and gas development, ranching, and other industry driving struggling species out of their ranges.

Another coming change will end across-the-board protections for creatures newly listed as threatened. Conservation groups say that will leave them unprotected for months or years, as officials, conservationists and industries and landowners hash out each species' survival plan, case by case.

The rule also will limit consideration of threats facing a species to the "foreseeable" future, which conservation groups say allows the administration to ignore the growing harm of global warming. Along with farming, climate change is one of the main drivers of the monarch's threatened extinction, disrupting an annual 3,000-mile migration synched to springtime and the blossoming of wildflowers. In 2002, a single wet storm followed by a freeze killed an estimated 450 million monarchs in their winter home in Mexico, piling wings inches deep on a forest floor.

A decision on whether the monarch will be listed as threatened is expected by December 2020.

--------------------

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=cudNm4r9NKo
So long, it's been good to know ya
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on August 14, 2019, 07:32:54 AM
Quote
the financial cost of saving a species
>:( :'(

We are a species. What is the financial cost of saving us? Can we afford it?
How would Rachel Carson (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rachel_Carson) have described this?
Sorry for the off-topic
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: TerryM on August 14, 2019, 08:33:27 AM
Quote
the financial cost of saving a species
 >:( :'(

We are a species. What is the financial cost of saving us? Can we afford it?
How would Rachel Carson (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rachel_Carson) have described this?
Sorry for the off-topic
Perhaps we could bid up some of our personal favorites?
I'll give you 3 black rhino herds and 7 Tazmanian devils for 10,000 monarchs butterflies.
Terry
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on August 14, 2019, 09:02:17 AM
That's not fair Terry. I give you 10000 and you only give me 10 back. Oh, you wrote "herds". Anyway they are far too expensive.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on August 20, 2019, 02:54:44 PM
500 Million Bees Died in Brazil
https://www.bbc.com/news/newsbeat-49406369

- More than 500 million bees have died in Brazil in the last three months.

- In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, 400 million dead bees were found - with beekeepers in four states reporting the mass deaths.

- Researchers have blamed the use of pesticides - chemical substances which are used to kill pests.

... in 2018 Brazil lifted restrictions on pesticides - despite opposition from environmentalists who called it the "poison package".

The use of pesticides in Brazil has increased, according to Greenpeace, with 193 products containing chemicals banned in the EU being registered in Brazil in the last three years.

(https://cdn.newspunch.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/france-ban-pesticides-bee-deaths-728x350.jpeg)

Things aren't looking good for bees around the world.

In the United States, beekeepers lost four in 10 of their honeybee colonies in the past year, making it the worst winter on record.

In Russia 20 regions reported mass bee deaths, with officials also warning it could mean 20% less honey being produced.

At least one million bees died in South Africa in November 2018, with fipronil being blamed.

And countries such as Canada, Mexico, Argentina and Turkey have all also reported mass die-offs of bees in the last 18 months
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Sebastian Jones on August 20, 2019, 05:24:59 PM
500 Million Bees Died in Brazil
https://www.bbc.com/news/newsbeat-49406369
<SNIP>
Things aren't looking good for bees around the world.

In the United States, beekeepers lost four in 10 of their honeybee colonies in the past year, making it the worst winter on record.

In Russia 20 regions reported mass bee deaths, with officials also warning it could mean 20% less honey being produced.

At least one million bees died in South Africa in November 2018, with fipronil being blamed.

And countries such as Canada, Mexico, Argentina and Turkey have all also reported mass die-offs of bees in the last 18 months

Bees are just the tip of the iceberg, so to speak. Domesticated honey bees are easy to monitor, and of course their loss has an economic  impact. The same poisons that are killing honey bees are almost definitely killing other bees and other insects and the flora and fauna that depends on them.
No wonder we cannot get a grip on GHGs if we cannot even see that literally spraying poisons into our environment is a bad idea.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on August 24, 2019, 08:23:45 AM
I notice here in the northern Netherlands an absence of ladybird beetles.
Years ago they were always abundant but I've only seen two this year  :(

Do any of you share this observation?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: blumenkraft on August 24, 2019, 09:24:14 AM
Yes, same here.

But another sort has become pretty common now. Apparently, they are from Japan.

Photos are OC.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Avalonian on August 24, 2019, 10:39:19 AM
I notice here in the northern Netherlands an absence of ladybird beetles.
Years ago they were always abundant but I've only seen two this year  :(

Do any of you share this observation?

Insect surveying is one of my things. Here in Mid Wales I'm monitoring an organic community orchard in a wildflower meadow, and we have about ten species of ladybirds recorded this year. The Harlequin is present, but in low numbers (doesn't like the cold and rain, it seems!), so the 2-spot and 7-spot (its main victims) are  not really affected. Nonetheless, numbers of those two species are very low indeed - I often see only one or two in a survey. The same goes for 10-spot, 14-spot, 22-spot and cream-spot: present, but numbers are very low. Even the herbivorous/fungivorous 24-spot, which lives among grasses and therefore should be abundant, is scarce. The only common one is Rhizobius litura, a small orange/brown one that also lives in grasses and doesn't really look like a ladybird.

And this, I might add, is in a site 40 miles from the nearest factories, managed by minimal scything, and where many insects (like grasshoppers, hairy shieldbugs and burnet moths) are actually thriving due to sensitive management. It is worrying, but I think it's tied to aphid populations, which are also in demand because the hoverflies and lacewings are doing quite well. It's going to take some time for all sides of the ecological balance to build up, even with ideal circumstances.

One thing to note: there are quite a few ladybird pupae around, and these should emerge around early September; perhaps more will become obvious then.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on August 24, 2019, 10:48:49 AM
We do have a problem with invasive ladybirds in Europe but i have not seen much of either here this year. Location is city in the middle of the Netherlands.

What i also ´miss´ is swarms of tiny insects above garbage cans and those swarms who fly above bicycle roads at the right height to get into your mouth.

The modern seasons are different from the old normal progression so summers might be too dry for them now?

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on August 25, 2019, 06:20:02 PM
We do have a problem with invasive ladybirds in Europe but i have not seen much of either here this year. Location is city in the middle of the Netherlands.

What i also ´miss´ is swarms of tiny insects above garbage cans and those swarms who fly above bicycle roads at the right height to get into your mouth.

The modern seasons are different from the old normal progression so summers might be too dry for them now?

I think we are witnessing ecosystems collapsing. At an accelerating pace.  >:( :'(
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on August 29, 2019, 10:43:36 PM
The Alarming Case of the Missing Insects
https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/08/are-puerto-ricos-insects-disappearing/597007/
Quote
In the biological wonderland of Puerto Rico’s Luquillo Mountains, slinky boas and emerald anoles hang out in lowland tabonuco trees, delicate bromeliads decorate the mountaintop cloud forests, and the island’s eponymous parrots forage in the canopy. At dawn, the rain forest swells with the mating calls of thousands of coquí frogs. Underpinning this ecological tapestry is a world teeming with arthropods—which is why, when a pair of scientists reported last fall that Luquillo’s arthropod populations were crashing due to climate change, the internet reacted with horror.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on August 30, 2019, 07:09:45 AM
    Why have 500m bees died in Brazil in the past three months?
   The likely culprit of the sudden deaths? The loosening of pesticide restrictions

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/aug/29/500-million-bees-brazil-three-months
by Thor Hanson

Some quotes:
Brazil faces a quieter tragedy playing out in farm country: the silence of empty hives. Earlier this year, beekeepers reported losing over 500m honeybees in only three months. The speed and scale of the die-offs recall colony collapse disorder, a malady that began decimating bees across North America and Europe in 2006. But the symptoms are tellingly different. Where colony collapse caused worker bees to abandon their hives and disappear, the bees in Brazil are dropping dead on the spot. And where scientists blamed colony collapse on a combination of factors, the evidence in Brazil points to one overarching cause: pesticides.

The parallels between Brazil’s Amazon crisis and its bee die-offs are many. Just as the relaxation of forestry rules has led to more fires, so have loosened pesticide restrictions exposed more bees to lethal doses.

And just as burning a rainforest impacts a lot more than trees, so does the loss of bees stretch far past the walls of the hive.


Buried in recent news coverage on Brazil is a remarkable uptick in the demand for organic foods, reflecting a global trend expected to double sales and production in less than five years. It’s a reminder that how we buy food directly impacts the way that we grow it, and organic methods – even if interspersed with conventional fields – support a far greater diversity of pollinators.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on September 03, 2019, 02:31:48 AM
Birds in Serious Decline at Lake Constance
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-birds-decline-lake-constance.html

Within 30 years, the bird population around Lake Constance declined with increasing rapidity. While in 1980 around 465,000 breeding pairs were still living in the region, by 2012 the number had fallen to 345,000—a loss of 25 percent. These are the findings of a study carried out by researchers from the Ornithological Working Group at Lake Constance and the Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior. Bird species that were once common like the house sparrow, the common blackbird, or the common starling have dwindled particularly rapidly. The numbers of many other species are too small for survival and their habitats in the Lake Constance region are shrinking.

... One of the main reasons for this decline is the scarcity of food. According to the ornithologists, 75 percent of the bird species that eat flying insects and 57 percent of those that eat terrestrial invertebrates have decreased in number around Lake Constance. "This confirms what we have long suspected: the human extermination of insects is having a massive impact on our birds," says Bauer.
In addition, today's efficient harvesting methods leave hardly any seeds behind for granivorous species. Moreover, the early, frequent mowing of large areas of grassland, the agricultural practice of monoculture, the early ripening of winter grains, the implementation of drainage measures and the shortage of fallow land are destroying the habitats of many species that live in the open countryside.

... "The increasing need for order and decreasing tolerance of dirt and noise are making life more and more difficult for local birds. It appears that successful breeding is becoming increasingly rare since the birds are being forced to nest amid tower blocks, ornamental trees and immaculate kitchen gardens," says Bauer. Even species that can survive virtually anywhere, such as blackbirds (down 28 percent), chaffinches and robins (each down 24 percent) are suffering greatly due to the deteriorating conditions in settled areas.

With its diverse structure and location in the foothills of the Alps, the Lake Constance region actually provides excellent living conditions for birds. However, the changes it has undergone over the last few decades are typical of densely populated regions with intensive farming and forestry. "This means that the rapid decline in the populations of many species that we have observed around Lake Constance is sure to be happening in other regions as well," says Bauer.

(https://www.travelydays.com/images/maps/map-8BOD.png)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on September 04, 2019, 04:10:53 PM
Germany to Ban Glyphosate to Protect Insects, Biodiversity
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-germany-glyphosate-insects-biodiversity.html

Germany said Wednesday it would phase out the controversial weed killer glyphosate because it wipes out insect populations crucial for ecosystems and pollination of food crops.

The chemical, which is also suspected by some experts to cause cancer in humans, is to be banned by the end of 2023 when the EU's current approval period for it expires, ministers said.

Herbicide and insecticide use will also be restricted or banned in more species-rich areas such as grasslands and orchard meadows, and along many river and lake shores.

... Austria became the first EU member to forbid all glyphosate use in July, with restrictions also in force in the Czech Republic, Italy and the Netherlands. France is phasing it out by 2023.

--------------------

3 Ways Insecticides Can Be Counterproductive in Agriculture
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-ways-insecticides-counterproductive-agriculture.html
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on September 04, 2019, 06:27:47 PM
Re: Birds in Serious Decline at Lake Constance
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-birds-decline-lake-constance.html

On the other hand
Climate change has created more bird winners than losers in England
https://www.newscientist.com/article/2214952-climate-change-has-created-more-bird-winners-than-losers-in-england/
Quote
Out of 68 species that breed in England, 23 had their number significantly affected by climate change between 1966 and 2015. There was a positive effect on 19 of the 23, but it was negative for the other four, researchers at the British Trust for Ornithology and at the government adviser Natural England found.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on September 11, 2019, 05:29:37 PM
Transgenic Mosquitoes Pass on Genes to Native Species
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-transgenic-mosquitoes-genes-native-species.html

Transgenic mosquitoes released in Brazil in an effort to reduce the population of disease-bearing insects have successfully bred and passed on genes to the native mosquito population, a new Yale research study published Sept. 10 in the journal Scientific Reports has found.

Tens of millions of genetically modified male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were released over more than two years in the city of Jacobina, in Bahia, Brazil. Females who mated with males carrying these modified genes were supposed to be unable to produce viable offspring, thereby reducing people's risk of contracting a host of dangerous diseases such as Zika, dengue fever, and yellow fever. However, samples of native mosquitoes harvested in the region and analyzed at Yale revealed that some members of the native population had retained genes from the transgenic release strain.

Quote
..."It is the unanticipated outcome that is concerning" ... "The claim was that genes from the release strain would not get into the general population because offspring would die, ... that obviously was not what happened."

- Jeffrey Powell - Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology - Yale Univ.

Mosquito-borne diseases are a huge public health problem in developing countries and is of increasing concern in more developed areas, such as the southern United States. In an effort to curtail use of insecticides in combating the threat, the Brazilian government purchased a new strain of transgenic mosquitoes originating from a strain that came from Cuba and was crossed with another from Mexico, which was developed by an English biotech company. Laboratory tests had shown the females that mated with the genetically modified males only produced offspring about 3 percent of the time, and the survivors were feeble and were believed to be unable to reproduce.

But the Yale study showed not only that offspring from the transgenic mosquitoes had reproduced but the population of mosquitoes in Jacobina is now a mix of their original types plus those from Cuba and Mexico, likely leading to a more robust population, according to the researchers. And the population of mosquitoes, after initial decline, had rebounded about 18 months after introduction of genetically modified males.

Open Access: Benjamin R. Evans et al. Transgenic Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Transfer Genes into a Natural Population (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-49660-6), Scientific Reports (2019)

---------------------------

https://youtu.be/oijEsqT2QKQ

Dr. Ian Malcolm: But again, how do you know they're all female? Does somebody go out into the park and pull up the dinosaurs' skirts?

Henry Wu: We control their chromosomes. It's really not that difficult. All vertebrate embryos are inherently female anyway, they just require an extra hormone given at the right developmental stage to make them male. We simply deny them that.

Dr. Ellie Sattler: Deny them that?

Dr. Ian Malcolm: John, the kind of control you're attempting simply is… it's not possible. If there is one thing the history of evolution has taught us it's that life will not be contained. Life breaks free, it expands to new territories and crashes through barriers, painfully, maybe even dangerously, but, uh… well, there it is.

John Hammond: [sardonically] There it is.

Henry Wu: You're implying that a group composed entirely of female animals will… breed?

Dr. Ian Malcolm: No. I'm, I'm simply saying that life, uh… finds a way.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on September 11, 2019, 08:07:58 PM
Quote
No. I'm, I'm simply saying that life, uh… finds a way.
Not usually, or extinction would never happen.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on September 12, 2019, 08:25:17 PM
Controversial Insecticides Shown to Threaten Survival of Wild Birds
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-controversial-insecticides-shown-threaten-survival.html

New research at the University of Saskatchewan (USask) shows how the world's most widely used insecticides could be partly responsible for a dramatic decline in songbird populations.

A study published in the journal Science on Sept. 13 is the first experiment to track the effects of a neonicotinoid pesticide on birds in the wild.

The study found that white-crowned sparrows who consumed small doses of an insecticide called imidacloprid suffered weight loss and delays to their migration—effects that could severely harm the birds' chances of surviving and reproducing.

"We saw these effects using doses well within the range of what a bird could realistically consume in the wild—equivalent to eating just a few treated seeds," said Margaret Eng, a post-doctoral fellow in the USask Toxicology Centre and lead author on the study.

Although the toxic effects of neonicotinoids were once thought to affect only insects, most notably pollinators such as bees, there is growing evidence that birds are routinely exposed to the pesticides with significant negative consequences.

"Our study shows that this is bigger than the bees—birds can also be harmed by modern neonicotinoid pesticides which should worry us all," said Stutchbury.

... results seem to be associated with the appetite suppression effect of imidacloprid. The dosed birds ate less food, and it's likely that they delayed their flight because they needed more time to recover and regain their fuel stores,"

Because the researchers used controlled dosing, they were able to confirm a cause and effect between neonicotinoid exposures and delayed migration, not just a correlation that is more typical of field studies.

... In North America, three-quarters of bird species that rely on agricultural habitat have significantly declined in population since 1966. The results of the new study show a mechanism by which pesticides could be directly contributing to this drop-off.


M.L. Eng el al., "A neonicotinoid insecticide reduces fueling and delays migration in songbirds (https://science.sciencemag.org/content/365/6458/1177)," Science (2019)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on October 09, 2019, 12:07:33 AM
Pesticide Companies Leverage Regulations for Financial Gains
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-pesticide-companies-leverage-financial-gains.html

A researcher at Princeton University shows that companies lobby for stricter standards on their less profitable products. By acquiring regulations that ban older, out-of-patent products, innovative companies can make room for more expensive, patented alternatives. They may also strategically provide and withhold data to produce more favorable results.

Take the chemical corporation Syngenta, for example, which sued the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for failing to ban a risky pesticide. Yet, Syngenta was the patent-holder and sole-seller of the product. Why would a company go against its own product in this way?

"While companies might claim this is corporate responsibility, my work suggests this is largely about increasing profits," said Rebecca Perlman, assistant professor of politics and international affairs at Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.

... The first part of the study was quantitative. Perlman's sample covered the years 1996 to 2015, and she used it to evaluate changes to the maximum amount of pesticide residue allowed to be present on food, standards known as "tolerances."

She found that after accounting for the primary safety characteristics of a pesticide, changes to these tolerances could be explained, in significant part, by companies' financial interests. In addition, she showed that companies strategically lobby for stricter tolerances on their own less profitable products.

The second part of the study was qualitative and involved a historical examination of pesticide regulation in the United States. After pouring through Congressional testimonies, Perlman found that innovative companies historically lobbied for regulations that—while seemingly intended to protect the public from dangerous pesticides—also made it easier for these companies to eliminate less profitable products (and the generic competition) on a more systematic basis.

"In a world in which some governments are moving to oust independent scientists from the regulatory process altogether, whereas others are requiring an ever-higher burden of scientific proof through the use of precaution, this article seeks to provide deeper insight into the interplay between science and regulation," Perlman said. "While much of the academic literature has focused on how companies 'capture' complicit regulators, more research is needed to understand how producers leverage information itself to win favorable regulations."

(https://scx2.b-cdn.net/gfx/news/2019/pesticidecom.jpg)

Open Access: R. Perlman, "For Safety or Profit? How Science Serves the Strategic Interests of Private Actors," (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ajps.12450) American Journal of Political Science (2019)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on October 26, 2019, 02:48:59 PM
What's Wrong With the Bees? A New Film, "The Pollinators," Seeks an Answer
http://smirkingchimp.com/thread/peter-nelson/87131/whats-wrong-with-the-bees-our-new-film-the-pollinators-seeks-an-answer

... Beekeepers are anxious about the alarming rate of the bee losses they face, which have been ranging from 33 to 50 percent annually and sometimes more. Not many businesses can sustain losses like this every year. ... Thirty years ago, losing 10 percent of one’s hives was alarming - now any commercial beekeeper would be happy to lose that few hives. They know this is not a sustainable situation and are desperate for other solutions.

... Beekeepers are eager to get the word out about their plight because their current methods are unsustainable and we are in serious trouble if we don’t come up with answers to stem these losses.

If these beekeepers are worried, we all should be: our diet depends upon pollination for one of every three bites we eat.

Quote
... “We really have to create a system, a pattern of eating that supports the kind of diversity and regenerative farm practices that the landscape needs to be healthy”

... Every one of us can do things big and small to make it better. This topic is completely actionable and our own choices really matter. We vote with our dollars when we buy food and make a difference by deciding what we grow in our own landscapes. A green grassy lawns is a monocultures and food desert for bees. Asking questions about our food and learning where our food comes from, supporting local farmers, educating our children and working with our legislators to create pollinator friendly policies in our communities are all key components to changing this broken system.

The answer is not going to come from the top, but is going to come from our own citizen actions on a grassroots level.

https://vimeo.com/341704838
A national screening day for "The Pollinators" in the U.S. is taking place on Wednesday, November 6. Find a screening near you here (https://us.demand.film/the-pollinators/). If there isn't a screening near you, find out how to request one here. (https://www.thepollinators.net/watch-the-pollinators)

-----------------------------

California Beekeeper Thinks 'Rewilding' Might Save Bees
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-california-beekeeper/rewilding-one-california-mans-mission-to-save-honey-bees-idUSKBN1X31CE

https://mobile.reuters.com/video/2019/10/24/rewilding-one-california-mans-mission-to?videoId=OVB2GP8Q3&jwsource=cl

Over the past 15 years, there has been a dramatic fall in the number of bees on the planets with 90 percent loss in some areas, a trend that's known as "colony collapse disorder." Now, a California-based apiculturist (beekeeper) has a new idea to help the long-suffering insects. He calls it "rewilding."

The apiculturist, Michael Thiele, describes his idea to Reuters. Instead of trying to control where bees live, Thiele says, let them form hives in logs above ground.

Once a hollowed-out log hive is attached to a tree, it becomes attractive to bee “scouts” looking for a nest site, who then alert their bee colonies to move into it. 

Thiele's strategy won't single-handedly revive bees worldwide. But his anecdotal evidence is compelling: he tells Reuters that within days of making his log hives they become colonized. Thiele doesn't look to make honey off his colonized logs unless the bees move away or die.

His hives, he said, are both a conservation project and a personal mission.

“It’s almost as if honey bees make the fragility of life so palpable,” he said. “And as if they are really mirroring where we are on this time on this planet.”

------------------------

Pesticides Deliver a One-Two Punch to Honey Bees
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-pesticides-one-two-honey-bees.html

Adjuvants are chemicals that are commonly added to plant protection products, such as pesticides, to help them spread, adhere to targets, disperse appropriately, or prevent drift, among other things. There was a widespread assumption that these additives would not cause a biological reaction after exposure, but a number of recent studies show that adjuvants can be toxic to ecosystems, and specific to this study, honey bees.

Jinzhen Zhang and colleagues studied the effects on honey bees when adjuvants were co-applied at "normal concentration levels" with neonicotinoids. Their research, recently published in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, found that the mixture of the pesticide and the adjuvant increased the mortality rate of honey bees in the lab and in semi-field conditions, where it also reduced colony size and brooding.

When applied alone, the three pesticide adjuvants caused no significant, immediate toxicity to honeybees. However, when the pesticide acetamiprid was mixed with adjuvants and applied to honeybees in the laboratory, the toxicity was quite significant and immediate. In groups treated with combined pesticide-adjuvant concentrates, mortality was significantly higher than the control groups, which included a blank control (no pesticide, no adjuvant, only water) and a control with only pesticide (no adjuvant). Further, flight intensity, colony intensity and pupae development continued to deteriorate long after the application comparative to the control groups.

https://setac.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/etc.4515
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on October 30, 2019, 10:49:34 PM
Munich Study Confirms Severe Decline in Insect Populations in Germany
https://dw.com/en/munich-study-confirms-severe-decline-in-insect-populations-in-germany/a-51052955

Two years ago, volunteer insectologists sounded the alarm — the number of flying insects had drastically fallen. Now a new study on three protected regions in Germany confirms these fears.

Now a research team led by Sebastian Seibold and Wolfgang Weisser, who teach terrestrial ecology at the Technical University of Munich, is confirming the reported decline. The biologists published their results on 30 October in the journal Nature.

"Previous studies have concentrated either exclusively on biomass, i.e. the total weight of all insects, or on individual species or groups of species," said Seibold, head of the research group, highlighting the special nature of his new research work. His group combined both approaches.

Between 2008 and 2017, the scientists regularly counted flying insects as well as other arthropods such as spiders and millipedes in three regions of the country. The study looked at 290 sites with forests and grasslands on the Swabian Alb in southern Germany, in Hainich - a wooded ridge in Thuringia - and in Schorfheide in the northern state of Brandenburg.

In total, the scientists analysed data from more than one million insects and other arthropods belonging to more than 2700 species. They also took fluctuations in the weather into account in order to exclude measurement errors as far as possible.

Both on meadows and in forests, the number of species decreased by about one third during the study period. Their total mass also decreased, especially in grasslands, by 67 percent. In the forests it shrank by about 40 percent. According to the researchers, the decline is presumably related to agriculture. "We did not expect such a decline to be observed over only a decade," Weisser said. "This is frightening, but it fits into the picture that more and more studies are drawing

The researchers were able to establish a connection with land use at the individual sites.

S. Seibold, et.al. Arthropod decline in grasslands and forests is associated with landscape-level drivers, (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1684-3) Nature, 2019

------------------------

Roundup Weedkiller: 42,000 Plaintiffs Sue Bayer Over Glyphosate
https://dw.com/en/roundup-weedkiller-42000-plaintiffs-sue-bayer-over-glyphosate/a-51043520

The number of plaintiffs, largely brought by US citizens, is now at 42,700 — more than double the 18,400 reported in the middle of July, Bayer announced on Wednesday.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on November 13, 2019, 05:31:00 PM
  ‘Insect apocalypse’ poses risk to all life on Earth, conservationists warn

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/nov/13/insect-apocalypse-poses-risk-to-all-life-on-earth-conservationists-warn
  by Damian Carrington

Report claims 400,000 insect species face extinction amid heavy use of pesticides

Excerpts:
The analysis, written by one of the UK’s leading ecologists, has a particular focus on the UK, whose insects are the most studied in the world. It said 23 bee and wasp species have become extinct in the last century, while the number of pesticide applications has approximately doubled in the last 25 years.

UK butterflies that specialise in particular habitats have fallen 77% since the mid-1970s and generalists have declined 46%, the report said. There are also knock-on effects on other animals, such as the spotted flycatcher which only eats flying insects. Its populations have dropped by 93% since 1967.

Studies of insect populations over decades are scarce, he said: “But the overwhelming weight of evidence that exists suggests the rapid decline is a real phenomenon. It really worries me to hear people say we need more long-term studies to be sure. That would be great, but we can’t wait another 25 years before we do anything because it will be too late.”

But he said: “The bigger challenge is farming – 70% of Britain is farmland. No matter how many gardens we make wildlife friendly, if 70% of the countryside remains largely hostile to life, then we are not going to turn around insect decline.”
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on November 23, 2019, 08:06:18 AM
   Light pollution is key 'bringer of insect apocalypse'

Exclusive: scientists say bug deaths can be cut by switching off unnecessary lights


https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/nov/22/light-pollution-insect-apocalypse
  by Damian Carrington


A few excerpts from an elaborate article:

Artificial light at night can affect every aspect of insects’ lives, the researchers said, from luring moths to their deaths around bulbs, to spotlighting insect prey for rats and toads, to obscuring the mating signals of fireflies.

“We strongly believe artificial light at night – in combination with habitat loss, chemical pollution, invasive species, and climate change – is driving insect declines,” the scientists concluded after assessing more than 150 studies. “We posit here that artificial light at night is another important – but often overlooked – bringer of the insect apocalypse.”

Insect population collapses have been reported in Germany and Puerto Rico, and the first global scientific review, published in February, said widespread declines threatened to cause a “catastrophic collapse of nature’s ecosystems”.

The latest review says: “Insects around the world are rapidly declining. Their absence would have devastating consequences for life on this planet.”

There are thought to be millions of insect species, most still unknown to science, and about half are nocturnal. Those active in the day may also be disturbed by light at night when they are at rest.

[..]But the daily cycle of light and dark had remained constant for all of evolutionary time, they said.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on November 23, 2019, 03:48:45 PM
   Light pollution is key 'bringer of insect apocalypse'

Exclusive: scientists say bug deaths can be cut by switching off unnecessary lights ... <Clip>

What should I say here... It's a nice time to put on Xmas lights. Should do it to our house next week. Maybe I'll get a grant for my study on insects made on dense suburban area having almost 5% of nearly unmanaged land area.


Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on November 23, 2019, 05:46:55 PM
You can't offset your carbon footprint. The same goes for the morality of ones behaviour.

If part of your house is on fire, you don't 'offset' your not-acting.. And you woudn't throw just 1 bucket of water on the flames and think you've done enough.
Ah well, who cares eh? One just spreads the effects of ones actions over the whole country or world and, voilá, it is not important anymore.

This is meant as a general, non-personal post.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: TerryM on November 24, 2019, 01:40:56 PM
^^
But - But you're trampling the garden of those invested in the GreenWashing Industry.


If conferences couldn't be flown to, indulgences couldn't be paid for, and harvestable woodlots couldn't be planted to atone for others ecological sins, how would the captains to these industries support themselves.


Without Greenwashing keeping them supplied with Cuban Cigars and Gulfstream Jets think of the mischief they'd get into!
Green BAU is obviously the only way we can make progress, without being crushed by our burgeoning burden of guilt.
Terry
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on January 06, 2020, 05:35:35 PM
Researchers United on International Road Map to Insect Recovery
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jan/06/urgent-new-roadmap-to-recovery-could-reverse-insect-apocalypse-aoe
https://phys.org/news/2020-01-international-road-insect-recovery.html

(https://scx2.b-cdn.net/gfx/news/2020/1-researchersu.jpg)

International scientists formulate a roadmap for insect conservation and recovery, Nature Ecology & Evolution (2020)
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-019-1079-8
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: dnem on January 07, 2020, 12:52:02 PM
The roadmap to insect recovery is essentially the same roadmap to avoiding environmental calamity overall.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: blumenkraft on January 14, 2020, 11:58:01 AM
Munich study confirms severe decline in insect populations in Germany, especially in grasslands by 67%

Link >> https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1684-3
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on January 14, 2020, 02:28:41 PM
In 30 forest sites with annual inventories, biomass and species number—but not abundance—decreased by 41% and 36%, respectively.

So over a third of the species are lost while abundance remains the same.
I wonder if they have a breakdown of species in the article.
Are we losing certain types of specialists over others?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: blumenkraft on January 14, 2020, 02:43:41 PM
I take it they only measured biomass in regards to decline.

Quote
... Here we analyse data from more than 1 million individual arthropods (about 2,700 species), from standardized inventories taken between 2008 and 2017 at 150 grassland and 140 forest sites in 3 regions of Germany. ...

Quote
... Our results show that there are widespread declines in arthropod biomass, ...
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on January 14, 2020, 03:04:28 PM
No they split it in three categories but sadly it is paywalled.

The difference between the forests and grasslands is interesting and i would like to see tables with a breakdown for both.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: blumenkraft on January 14, 2020, 03:58:26 PM
Kassy, there is a link to the dataset. I don't see a breakdown into categories.

>> https://www.bexis.uni-jena.de/PublicData/PublicDataSet.aspx?DatasetId=25786
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on January 14, 2020, 06:27:05 PM
We have here in Friesland ditches around our fields.
In my youth I loved to pole leap over ditches and I loved the beautiful biotope of life in those waters.

These days, in general all ditches are cleared. The whole biotope removed. Well, I mean the growing biotope from last years digging out.
There's hardly any life left. The fields are mono culture ryegrass, spread with biocides every year, that run-off into the ditches.

What this means in my understanding, is that because of this there are hardly any flying insects left.
I feel strongly about this.

Am I correct in assuming that most flying insects have their larvae stage under water (in a functioning biotope)?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Ktb on January 15, 2020, 12:49:50 PM
In 30 forest sites with annual inventories, biomass and species number—but not abundance—decreased by 41% and 36%, respectively.

So over a third of the species are lost while abundance remains the same.
I wonder if they have a breakdown of species in the article.

I take it they only measured biomass in regards to decline.

"We showed that arthropods declined markedly not only in biomass but also in abundance and the number of species, and that this affected taxa of most trophic levels in both grasslands and forests." - Siebold et al 2019.

No they split it in three categories but sadly it is paywalled.

The difference between the forests and grasslands is interesting and i would like to see tables with a breakdown for both.

I have access to the paper. What would you both like to see?
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: blumenkraft on January 15, 2020, 12:51:43 PM
Upload screenshots? ;)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Ktb on January 15, 2020, 12:58:39 PM
Quote
Much of the debate surrounding the human-induced biodiversity crisis has focused on vertebrates3, but population declines and extinctions may be even more substantial in small organisms such as terrestrial arthropods4. Recent studies have reported declines in the biomass of flying insects2, and in the diversity of insect pollinators5,6, butterflies and moths1,7,8,9,10, hemipterans11,12 and beetles7,13,14. Owing to the associated negative effects on food webs15, ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services16, this insect loss has spurred an intense public debate. However, time-series data relating to arthropods are limited, and studies have so far focused on a small range of taxa11,13,14, a few types of land use and habitat12—or even on single sites1,17. In addition, many studies lack species information2 or high temporal resolution2,12. It therefore remains unclear whether reported declines in arthropods are a general phenomenon that is driven by similar mechanisms across land-use types, taxa and functional groups.

The reported declines are suspected to be caused mainly by human land use2. Locally, farming practices can affect arthropods directly by application of insecticides18,19, mowing20 or soil disturbance, or indirectly via changes in plant communities through the application of herbicides or fertilizer21. Forestry practices can also affect local arthropod communities via changes in tree species composition or forest structure22. In addition, local arthropod populations can be affected by land use in the surrounding landscape; for example, through the drift and transport of pesticides and nitrogen by air or water23,24, through the effects of habitat loss on meta-communities (source–sink dynamics25) or by hampering dispersal.

To disentangle the local and landscape-level effects of land use on temporal trends in arthropod communities of grasslands and forests, we used data from the ‘Biodiversity Exploratories’ research programme that pertain to more than 1 million individual arthropods (2,675 species) (Extended Data Table 1). Arthropods were collected annually at 150 grassland sites by standardized sweep-net sampling in June and August from 2008 to 2017, and at 30 forest sites with flight-interception traps over the whole growing period from 2008 to 2016. An additional 110 forest sites were sampled in 2008, 2011 and 2014 to test for trends across a larger number of sites. Both the grassland and the forest sites cover gradients in local land-use intensity. Land-use intensity was quantified in the form of compound indices that are based on grazing, mowing and fertilization intensity in grasslands26, and on recent biomass removal, the proportion of non-natural tree species and deadwood origin in forests27. To analyse landscape-level effects, we quantified the cover of arable fields, grassland and forest in circles, with a radius between 250 m and 2 km, around each sampling site. We modelled temporal trends in arthropod biomass (estimated from body size; Methods), abundance and the number of species separately for grasslands and forests, and tested for the effects of local and landscape-scale land-use intensity on these trends, accounting for weather conditions. Analyses were conducted for all species together, and for different dispersal and trophic guilds.

The total number of arthropod species across all sites (gamma diversity) was substantially lower in later than in earlier years in both forests and grasslands (Fig. 1). Gamma diversity, biomass, abundance and number of species fluctuated over time but revealed an overall decrease with strongest declines from 2008 to 2010, especially in grasslands (Fig. 1). Year-to-year fluctuations in arthropod biomass, abundance and number of species were partially explained by weather conditions (Extended Data Fig. 1, Supplementary Table 1-1, Supplementary Information section 2). Accounting for weather, fitted trends from our models showed declines in biomass of 67% for grasslands and 41% for forests, declines in species numbers of 34% for grasslands and 36% for forests, and declines in abundance of 78% for grasslands, with no significant change in abundances for forests (−17%) (Fig. 1, Supplementary Table 3-1). In grasslands, declines occurred consistently across all trophic guilds (herbivores, myceto-detritivores, omnivores and carnivores), although the trend for carnivores was not significant (Supplementary Table 1-1). In forests, the patterns were more complex: herbivores showed an increase in abundance and species number, whereas all other trophic guilds declined. Temporal trends of arthropods on the basis of data recorded in 3-year intervals from all 140 forest sites were similar to the trends based on the 30 sites with annual data (Supplementary Table 1-1). Sensitivity analyses that removed or reshuffled years showed that the decline was influenced by, but not solely dependent on, high numbers of arthropods in 2008. Fluctuations in numbers (including the numbers from 2008) appear to match trends that have been observed in other studies2, which suggests that the recent decline is part of a longer-term trend that had begun by at least the early 1990s (Extended Data Fig. 2, Supplementary Information section 3). Further sensitivity analyses showed consistent declines when data from individual sampling dates were not aggregated per year, and also showed that declines concerned all three regions that we analysed (Supplementary Tables 3-2, 3-3, Supplementary Fig. 3-1).

Fig. 1: Temporal trends in arthropod communities.
figure1
a–d, Gamma diversity (total number of species across all grassland or forest sites) (a), biomass (b), abundance (c) and number of species (d) of arthropods were recorded in 30 forest and 150 grassland sites across Germany. Gamma diversity shows mean incidence-based, bias-corrected diversity estimates (Chao’s BSS, that is, the higher value of the minimum doubled reference sample size and the maximum reference sample size among years29) for q = 0 and 95% confidence intervals derived from bootstrapping (n = 200). Non-overlapping confidence intervals indicate significant difference30. Box plots show raw data per site and year (n = 1,406 (grassland) or 266 (forest) independent samples). Solid lines indicate significant temporal trends (P < 0.05) based on linear mixed models that included weather conditions, and local and landscape-level land-use intensity as covariates. Shaded areas represent confidence intervals. Boxes represent data within the 25th and 75th percentile, black lines show medians, and whiskers show 1.5× the interquartile range. Data points beyond that range (outliers) are not shown for graphical reasons. Plots for biomass and species number have separate y axes for grassland and forest.

Full size image
Linking changes in biomass, abundance and the number of species to one another enables further inferences regarding the mechanisms that drive arthropod declines. In grasslands, both abundant and less-abundant species declined in abundance (Fig. 2), but loss in the number of species occurred mostly among less-frequent species (Fig. 1, Extended Data Fig. 3, Supplementary Information section 4). This suggests that the decline in the number of species in grasslands was attributable mainly to a loss of individuals among rare species. In forests, species that were initially less abundant decreased in abundance, whereas some of the most abundant species—including invasive species and potential pest species—increased in abundance (Fig. 2, Supplementary Table 5-1). The loss of species was, however, irrespective of their frequency (Fig. 1, Extended Data Fig. 3, Supplementary Information section 4). This suggests that the decline of arthropods in forests is driven by mechanisms that negatively affect the abundances of many species, which leads to an overall decline in biomass and the number of species but favours some species that are able to compensate declines in abundance.

Fig. 2: Changes in the dominance of species.
figure2
Rank abundance curves of arthropod communities for the first two (2008–2009) and final two (2016–2017 for grasslands and 2015–2016 for forests) years of the study, from 150 grassland and 30 forest sites. The insets show enlarged curves for the 30 most-abundant species. Data from the first two and final two study years were pooled (abundances are the total number of individuals of a species observed over two years). Declines in abundance are highlighted by yellow shading, and increases in abundance are shaded in green. The y axes are log-scaled, but show untransformed values.

Full size image
The magnitudes of declines in biomass, abundance and the number of species in arthropod communities were independent of local land-use intensity (Supplementary Table 1-1) as well as changes in plant communities (Supplementary Information section 6) at all sites. However, in forests declines in the number of species were weaker at sites with high natural or anthropogenic tree mortality, possibly owing to increased heterogeneity in local habitats (Extended Data Fig. 4). Landscape composition had no effect on arthropod trends in forests (note that forest sites covered only limited gradients of the landscape variables, Extended Data Fig. 5), but it mediated declines in the number of species in grasslands: the magnitude of the declines increased with increasing cover of arable fields, and marginally increased with cover of grasslands in the surrounding landscape (Fig. 3, Supplementary Table 1-1). This suggests that major drivers of arthropod decline in grasslands are associated with agricultural land use at the landscape scale.

Fig. 3: Landscape effects on arthropod decline in grasslands.
figure3
a, Temporal changes in biomass, abundance and the number of species for all arthropod species. b, c, Temporal change in biomass of species with high (b) or low (c) dispersal ability, conditional on the cover of arable fields in the surrounding landscape (1-km radius). The decline in biomass increased significantly with the cover of arable fields for weak dispersers, but not for strong dispersers. Slopes were derived from models that included weather conditions and local land-use intensity as covariates. The y axes are log-scaled, but show untransformed values.

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The interaction between a species and the landscape around its habitat depends on its dispersal ability, which ultimately determines its occurrence and persistence28. In grasslands, taxa of high and low dispersal ability (Methods) both declined, but an increasing cover of arable fields—although not of grasslands—in the surroundings amplified declines in the biomass of weak dispersers more strongly than it did declines of strong dispersers (Fig. 3, Supplementary Table 7-1). Weak dispersers may experience higher mortality during dispersal, and thus have a lower chance of (re)colonization of a particular site when arable field cover is high. In forests, strong dispersers declined in biomass, abundance and the number of species, whereas weak dispersers increased in abundance and biomass—but less strongly when grassland cover in the landscape was high (Supplementary Table 7-1). This suggests that the drivers behind arthropod declines in forests also act at landscape-level spatial scales.

We showed that arthropods declined markedly not only in biomass but also in abundance and the number of species, and that this affected taxa of most trophic levels in both grasslands and forests. Declines in gamma diversity suggest that species might disappear across regions. Our results also indicate that the major drivers of arthropod decline in both habitat types act at landscape-level spatial scales, but that declines may be moderated by increases in heterogeneity of local habitats in forests. Although the drivers of arthropod decline in forests remain unclear, in grasslands these drivers are associated with the proportion of agricultural land in the landscape. However, we cannot ascertain whether the observed declines are driven by the legacy effects of historical land-use intensification or by recent agricultural intensification at the landscape level; for example, by the decrease of fallow land and field margins rich in plant species, the increased use of pesticides or use of more potent insecticides (Supplementary Information section 3). Time-series data relating to changes in the use of agrochemicals or the presence of fine-scale arthropod habitats would be necessary to answer this question. Furthermore, the extents to which changes in climate have reinforced the observed trends in arthropod biomass, abundance and number of species is unclear (Supplementary Information section 2). Our results show that widespread arthropod declines have occurred in recent years. Although declines were less pronounced during the second half of our study period, there is no indication that negative trends have been reversed by measures that have been implemented in recent years. This calls for a paradigm shift in land-use policy at national and international levels to counteract species decline in open and forested habitats by implementing measures that are coordinated across landscapes and regions. Such strategies should aim to improve habitat quality for arthropods and to mitigate the negative effects of land-use practices not only at a local scale (within isolated patches embedded in an inhospitable agricultural matrix) but also across large and continuous areas.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on January 15, 2020, 02:46:11 PM
Thanks blumenkraft.
Too bad the actual dataset did not extract (path too long).


And big thanks Ktb! I would like the post twice if that was not counterproductive.  :)

This was mostly what i was wondering about:

In grasslands, declines occurred consistently across all trophic guilds (herbivores, myceto-detritivores, omnivores and carnivores), although the trend for carnivores was not significant (Supplementary Table 1-1). In forests, the patterns were more complex: herbivores showed an increase in abundance and species number, whereas all other trophic guilds declined.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: wdmn on January 25, 2020, 06:18:31 AM
Mayfly numbers drop by half since 2012, threatening food chain

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2020/01/mayfly-insect-populations-in-decline

EVERY SUMMER, MAYFLIES burst forth from lakes and rivers, taking to the skies of North America. These insects, which are particularly abundant in the northern Mississippi River Basin and Great Lakes, live in the water as nymphs before transforming into flying adults. They synchronize their emergence to form huge swarms of up to 80 billion individuals—so massive that, in waterside towns, they are sometimes scooped up with snowplows.

These insect explosions provide food for a wide variety of animals, from perch and other commercially important freshwater fish to birds and bats. But new research shows that mayflies are in decline. Since 2012, mayfly populations have declined by more than 50 percent throughout the northern Mississippi and Lake Erie, likely due to pollution and algal blooms, according to a study published today in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

...

The study revealed that between 2015 to 2019, populations of burrowing mayflies in the genus Hexagenia declined by an incredible 84 percent in western Lake Erie. In the nearby northern Mississippi River Basin, from 2012 to 2019, they declined by 52 percent.

These dropping populations are significant because the insects are an important link in the food chain, serving as prey for a variety of predators. They also transfer tons of nutrients from the water to the land, a valuable ecological service.


edit: thanks for the heads up kassy
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on January 25, 2020, 10:23:40 AM
Those are some horrible numbers.  :(

Please edit the link down to this format since all the rest is tracking crap:
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2020/01/mayfly-insect-populations-in-decline
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: TerryM on January 25, 2020, 12:08:24 PM
We had a cottage at Lake Erie in the 50's. The screens had to be cleaned twice a season to clear out the dead mayflies. I was alarmed when I went back to the cottage in the early 2,000's and couldn't find a single one, alive or dead.


A friend of mine who makes movies in the North Bay region assures me that they're alive and well in the north. She apparently spends half her day cleaning lenses and shooting around the swarms. :)
The local loss of mayflies is a huge loss of available protein. I hope the predators have been able to follow their prey.


Last summer I spotted a single monarch butterfly at Port Dover. I hope they've found a new flyway.
Terry
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Tom_Mazanec on January 25, 2020, 01:24:52 PM
TerryM:
Are you sure it wasn’t a Viceroy? I almost got fooled by one in my grade school insect collection.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on January 25, 2020, 03:18:36 PM
^^
AHA!
Now we know why there's been a decline!

;) ;D
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: TerryM on January 25, 2020, 05:19:07 PM
TerryM:
Are you sure it wasn’t a Viceroy? I almost got fooled by one in my grade school insect collection.


I'd never heard of the "Viceroy", and can't tell the difference from the photos.


In the 50's we had millions of monarchs in the milkweed field just down from our property. I'd clap my hands loudly and they'd darken the sky, the caterpillars were everywhere.


This appeared to be a monarch that was totally exhausted. It alit on my towel to rest which gave me a chance to look it over before it took off. Parts of its wings were missing as if it had been caught out in a bad storm, I doubt that it lasted the day.


It's the only thing I've seen that looked like a monarch since I've been back, but a friend with a farm closer to the lake told me he'd sited plenty last spring.


Perhaps a return?
Terry
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on January 25, 2020, 06:35:08 PM
This happened in Mexico:

In Mexico, 53 local police officers are being questioned over the disappearance of environmental activist Homero Gómez.

Mr Gómez, who manages a butterfly sanctuary in the central town of Ocampo, was last seen on 13 January.

...

Mr Gómez is a tireless campaigner for the conservation of the monarch butterfly and the pine and fir forests where it hibernates.

...

The sanctuary Mr Gómez manages near Ocampo opened in November as part of a strategy to stop illegal logging in the area, which is a key habitat for the monarch butterfly.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-51205114

RIP Mr Gómez.

Ofc the next target is the trees...
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: nanning on January 26, 2020, 07:16:55 AM
^^
"Ofc the next target is the trees... "

In my view, loggers really don't see trees, which are lifeforms. They see only a job, resources, wood and dollar$.
Pressing buttons to let high tech do the difficult destruction for them. Without high tech humans can't fell a tree.

If there's opposition, no problem, the loggers'll start an old fashioned violent conquering. I ask myself, what's the difference with neo-colonialism? In the end it's all about resources and conquering, and grown-up's social hierarchy.

Loggers are another symptom of civilisation.
They use technology they don't understand and that they can't create themselves. That goes for almost all technology. Users don't understand it and can't create it themselves. Pressing or swiping or switching magic buttons.
e.g. Computertech is magic to >90% of humans.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: sidd on January 31, 2020, 11:42:19 PM
What could go wrong ?

https://edition.cnn.com/2020/01/29/us/genetically-engineered-moths-crop-protection-study-scn/index.html

sidd
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on February 01, 2020, 04:35:17 PM
Quote
When rearing the moths, developers incorporated what they call a self-limiting gene that makes female offspring die shortly after hatching.
Typically, tetracycline, an antibiotic used to suppress the gene, is included in the moths' diet so that female moths can be produced as well.
"However, when you want to release populations of males, you do not include tetracycline," Shelton said. "So all the female larvae that are feeding on the artificial diet will die. And then you'll just have thousands and thousands of males which you can release in the field."

They could maybe find some spot with tetracyclin pollution...

Paper is paywalled.

A review on pollution situation and treatment methods of tetracycline in groundwater

ABSTRACT
Tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) are widely used all over the world in recent decades. TCs are a family used as broadspectrum antibiotics and animal veterinary drugs. Among the TCs, tetracycline (TC) is the most use. Due to the rapid development of antibiotics industry, the dosage standards of TC are not yet clearly defined in most countries and regions. TC is hard to degrade in living organisms and can even be converted to more toxic substances. The overuse and wanton discharge of TC, also caused serious pollution of groundwater. This article attempts to summarize the latest knowledge on the nature, sources, pollution status, the impact on water environment toxicity of TC respectively. Meanwhile, there are many technologies to remove TC. This paper mainly included 12 kinds of degradation methods, including photodegradation, microbial removal, adsorption, electrochemical and sludge digestion. This review will provide a reference for the study of the basic properties and removal methods of TC.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on February 03, 2020, 12:48:22 PM
In a follow up to #219:

A second activist campaigning for the conservation of monarch butterflies and the woods in which they hibernate has been found dead in Mexico.

Raúl Hernández worked as a tour guide at a butterfly sanctuary in Michoacán state.

His body, which bore signs of beatings and a head injury, was found two days after the funeral of Homero Gómez.

Mr Gómez managed a monarch butterfly sanctuary in the same state and had received threats, his family said.

more on:
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-51356265
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Ktb on February 07, 2020, 07:15:57 AM
Ktb's note -- don't feel like adding the graphics at this time. Exhausted. May return at a later date to upload the graphs/images.

Paper is paywalled.

A review on pollution situation and treatment methods of tetracycline in groundwater

Introduction
In recent years, the use of drugs has increased yearly, and the situation of drug abuse has become more serious, which caused the drug remained in the environment. Meanwhile, the residual drug in the environment was relatively stable and difficult to handle by conventional methods. Among the numerous drugs which existed in the environment, antibiotics were widely used in the world.

In the past few decades, the use of drugs was growing rapidly. Tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) were the most common antibiotics all over the world. TCs are a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics produced or semi-synthesized by actinomycetes and they are effective against to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a variety of bacterial infections. TCs are a class of tetrahydrobenzene derivatives with a dibasic tetraphenyl base structure. TCs mainly contain TC, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline. The overall structure of oxytetracycline was found by Woodward et al. (1947) by chemical degradation and infrared spectroscopy.[1] Chlortetracycline is isolated from the culture medium of Streptomyces spp. TC is obtained by getting rid of the chlorine atom of the chlortetracycline.[2] TC plays an important role in TCs, it’s also the largest proportion of in TCs. TC also has many advantages, such as, low prices, high quality. TC has also many advantages such as low production prices and could be synthesized with great purity. However, TC is difficult to be absorbed by animal metabolism, most of which is in the form of maternal compounds discharged into the environment by the excrement. It can be residual in the water for a long-term.[3] The amount of TC in most countries of the world has no clear rules. The uncontrolled usage of TC and its arbitrary released into the environment pose a certain threat to the ecological environment. TC affects the development of teeth, bones and also has certain hepatotoxicity. The researcher found that high levels of fecal waste might bring huge pollution problems once they came into groundwater.[4] TC excreted by human and animal enters the water environment. It could cause water pollution, after infiltration, leaching, and other processes. The contents of TC in surface water and groundwater were more than 100.00 ng/L in the wet season in Hanjiang plain.[4]

Research of TC pollution to groundwater and its treatment technology are great significance to human health. TC was detected at a concentration of 184.2 ng/L in shallow groundwater in china.[5] Although TC is not easy to cause acute toxicity in normal circumstances, long-term exposure to TC in water environment may be the potential for chronic toxicity to non-target organisms.[3] In order to solve the residual TC, researchers used variety methods to deal with TCs in groundwater.[6] Most removal methods of TC could not directly remove groundwater pollution. Generally, TC is removed indirectly by wastewater, and the methods also applied to drinking water. There were various methods of TC removal in water environment, and their degradation efficiency was different. This article described the commonly used TC removal methods included, photodegradation, microbial degradation, phytodegradation, adsorption processes and electrochemical processes.[7] The new methods of TC degradation include sludge digestion technology, membrane processes, advanced oxidation processes, hydrolysis process, ultrasonic degradation, low-temperature plasma technology and soil infiltration system.[8] This article indicated the status, amount, source, toxicity, and removal methods of TC in groundwater. It would provide a reference for the property and treatment of TC in groundwater.

Physicochemical properties of TC
TC is mainly synthetized as an odorless yellow crystalline powder. TC is slightly soluble in water, lower in alcohols (methanol, ethanol, etc.), and insoluble in organic solvents.[9] TC is dissolved in dilute acid and dilute alkali. TC antibiotic is stable in the air, but it is easy to absorb moisture. The case of sunlight can change the color of TC. The efficacy of TC will be significantly reduced or even produce toxicity. TCs have similar physicochemical properties, such as the similar chemical structure and molecular weight. The differences among TCs are the groups of R1 and R3, which are shown on Table 1. The main physical and chemical properties of TCs are shown in Fig. 1. TC mainly consists with four carbocycles, which contains dimethylamino group (N(CH3)2), acylamino group (CONH2), phenolic hydroxyl group (C-OH), a ketone group (C = O) and an enol group conjugate double bond system at the same time. TC is a kind of quaternary weak acid, there are four kinds of forms in aqueous solution. When the pH is less than 3.3, the dimethylamino group in the TC molecular structure is protonated, mainly in the presence of cation TCH3+. When the pH value is 3.3–7.7, the TC molecules in the phenolic ketone group lost protons, with zwitterions TCH2±. When the pH value is more than 7.7, the TC molecules is in the form of anion TCH2− or the divalent anion TC2-.[12,13] The different forms of TC according to pH are shown in Fig. 2.

Table 1. The molecular weight and molecular formula of tetracycline antibiotics.

CSVDisplay Table
Figure 1. The structural formula of tetracycline.


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Figure 2. The presence of TC in different pH conditions.


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The source and pollution conditions of TC
The amount of TC was not clearly defined in the initial. Therefore, the abuse of TC has emerged in the world. China’s total antibiotic production reached 21000 tons in 2009, accounts for about half the world’s consumption.[14,15] Because of the broad spectrum of antibacterial and stable naphthalene ball structure, TC was difficult to degrade.[16] A small fraction of TC came into the body to produce inactive products through metabolic reactions such as cleavage and glucuronidation.[17] The antibiotic metabolites that excreted from the body were still biologically active, and they could form a matrix in the environment and even produce more degraded substances than pre-degraded.[18,19] About 69–86% of the TC antibiotics were excreted through the urine and feces of the human body and animals, then they were released into the environment in an active form.[18] TC has a high degree of hydrophilicity and low volatility, with significant persistence in water environment. The inappropriate use of TC poses a threat to human health and ecological security. TC carried in the feces contacts the soil and further enters the surface water. In the long run, TC in surface water penetrates into groundwater. At present, the control of the groundwater environment is still not perfect. TC entering the groundwater is difficult to detect. It is difficult to identify the pollutants and sources when groundwater is contaminated. Therefore, it is imperative to study the source of TC and its pollution in groundwater.[20]

The source, the use, and the pollution situation of TC
The source of TC contamination is mainly from human and veterinary drugs. The main source of TC contamination is shown in Fig. 3. As for human drugs, TC enters into human body through the way of injection and oral consumption. However, due to the lack of restraint mechanisms, antibiotics were used without abstinence. The antibiotics were discharged randomly, and made the adverse effect. There are three main sources of antibiotic pollution. The first source is the unused expired antibiotic used from the medical institution. Secondly, medical institutions have left antibiotics in discarded medical devices. Thirdly, the excrement of patient’s also carries raw antibiotics and metabolized antibiotics.[21] These unused antibiotics discharge into the environment through the urban sewage system. On the one hand, the antibiotics in treated wastewaters infiltrate in soils and surface waters, and enters into the groundwater indirectly. On the other hand, they enter the urban sewage treatment system. The existing sewage treatment technology can not completely remove the antibiotics. The biochemical treatment of wastewater in the microbial growth has a strong inhibitory effect, so the antibiotics are difficult to degradation.[22,23] Once the antibiotic into the surface water, they will cause pollution of the water environment.

Figure 3. The migration of antibiotics in water environment.


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As for veterinary drugs, TC is often used as feed additives into animal. The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry and aquaculture are the two main sources of veterinary antibiotics. These antibiotics will also be into the water environment in the form of the animal excretion. According to the statistics, most of livestock and aquaculture exist in rural areas. Sewage treatment system is lacked in rural areas, so the fecal matter goes directly into surface water. TC issued from veterinary drugs does not reach directly groundwater. On the one hand, wastewaters containing TC are discharged in surface waters. Then, TC migrates to hyporheic zone and finally reaches groundwater. On the other hand, wastewaters can be discharged on soils and then they penetrate in the non-saturated zone. In consequence, TC infiltrates through the vadose zone before to reach groundwater.

In 1950s, the US Food and Drug Administration (UFA) formally approved the application of TC antibiotics to animal feed additives at first.[16] Because of the broad-spectrum and low prices, TCs has been widely promoted in the animal husbandry.[24,25] Statistically, the European Union annual production of antibiotics is about 5,000 tons, accounting for 46–50% of the total antibiotics.[9] Britain produces 438 tons of antibiotics each year, the production of TCs is 228 tons, accounting for 52% of the total antibiotics.[9] As for China, the production of TCs is about 97,000 tons, accounting for 46% of the total antibiotics.[9]

Antibiotics have created enormous economic benefits in human health and the development of animal husbandry.[26] TCs are widely used in veterinary drugs and treated for gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin infections, and sepsis and other diseases.[27,28] Taking TC veterinary drugs as an example, the total amount of TC antibiotics around the world is shown in Fig. 4. In recent years, people have found some new uses of TC antibiotics, especially non-antibacterial effects.[29] TC treatment of type Ⅲ prostatitis infected by Nanobacteria.[30] Injection of TC hydrochloride as a hardening agent, adjuvant treatment of malignant pleural effusion, treatment of liver and kidney cysts and other diseases.[31] TC and minocycline can be used as anti-osteoporosis drug.[32] Dr. Maria Amy (a medical researcher in New York State University) reports that Periostat (doxycycline monohydrate) is effective in the treatment of chronic gingivitis.[33]

Figure 4. The total amounts (tons) of TCs used for veterinary purposes around the world.


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The water pollution by antibiotics is a combination of point source and surface source emissions.[34] Because antibiotics are hydrophilic and low volatility, their main migration in the environment is through water and food transfer.[35,36] For instance, in China, most of groundwater pollution problems exist in the livestock and poultry breeding and aquaculture of rural China. There are several common problems, for example, the selection of farm site is not standardized, animal feces, and sewage discharge is not up to standard pollution prevention and control. The average content of residual TC in pigs is 9.09 mg/kg.[37] The Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China indicated that China’s annual livestock and poultry manure production is about 3.80 billion tons in 2016, however, the comprehensive utilization rate is less than 60%.[38] High levels of fecal waste might bring huge pollution problems once they come into the groundwater. These problems are superimposed on causing serious damage to TC antibiotics in surface water and groundwater of rural areas.[39]

At present, most countries and regions of the groundwater TC antibiotic pollution have not been systematically detected. And the literature of detection is very little. The researchers in Beijing Normal University, (2015) had a test to part of the surface water sampling in China.[40] They found that antibiotic content is amazing. The detection results of 19 kinds of sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, TC, and macrolide in the Jianghan Plain in the surface water and groundwater in the dry season and the wet season shows that, the maximum concentrations of chlortetracycline in surface water and groundwater are 122.30 and 86.60 ng/L, respectively.[41] The contents of TC, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, and erythromycin in surface water and groundwater are more than 100.00, 135.10, 134.20, and 381.50ng/L, respectively.[41]

Toxicity
Effects of TC on aquatic animals in water environment
TC is difficult to cause acute toxicity, however, the long-term exposure to antibiotic in the environment may be the potential for chronic toxicity to non-target organisms. The widely use of TCs has caused the effect of micro-organisms in the terrestrial environment and plant growth.[42] The bacteria in natural environments can transmit antibiotic-resistant genes, which has the potentially threatens in ecosystem and human health.[43] on the other hand, the antibiotic resistance gene is found in the environment and it was characterized as a new type of contaminant. Zhu et al. (2017) published an essay in Science.[44] This article described the antibiotics as a pollutant during the water and soil microbial migration process. In order to resist antibiotics and other pollutants “threat”, the microbes had to occur gene mutation or gene lateral transfer. They gradually produce “resistance” to take the initiative to respond to a changing environment.[45] Therefore, the global antibiotic resistance problem has reached an urgent point.

Wollen-berger et al. (2000) conducted acute and chronic toxicity tests on freshwater crustacean large fleas in fisheries according to the standard protocol (ISO, 1989b) of the flea acute toxicity test.[46] This experiment used 9 kinds of antibiotics including TC antibiotics. The results showed that TC NOEC50 (No observed effect concentrations) was 340 mg/L (the highest effective concentration for parent animals and propagation was considered as NOEC). In acute toxicity experiments, the antibiotics had a mass concentration that affected the reproductive performance of large fleas, several times lower than the acute toxicity concentration. In the chronic toxicity test, the EC50 (concentration for 50% of maximal effect) of TC was 44.80 mg/L and the EC50 of oxytetracycline was 46.20 mg/L.[46]

Ferreira et al. (2007) conducted a toxicity test on the use of microalgae Tetraselmis chuii and the crustacean Artemia parthenogenetica.[47] TC can cause toxic effects on aquatic organisms. The results showed that IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of TC at 24 and 48h were 870.47 mg/L (95% confidence interval: 778.83–983.66 mg/L) and 805.99 mg/L (95% confidence interval: 650.71–1129.00 mg/L), respectively. And the NOEC and lowest observed effect concentration values were 637  and 828 mg/L, respectively.[47]

The research results above are mostly based on acute toxicity experiments, and they cannot fully feedback TC antibiotics toxicity. In recent years, due to the impact of experimental costs and ethics, the researchers use alternative research methods for acute toxicity test. Researchers try to reduce the use of larger animals such as fish and shellfish.[48] This is a method of innovation in TC antibiotics for aquatic animals. Sanderson et al. (2003) used quantitative structural relationships and compared the lowest predicted concentration to the highest detection concentration with obtain the ecotoxicity data of the contaminants.[49] The risk factor of a series of antibiotics (the ratio of the detected concentration of the predicted toxicity) can be obtained in this way. For example, the risk factor of TC was 6.88 × 10−6, and the risk coefficient of oxytetracycline was 2.13 × 10−5. The European Commission has proposed using the risk factor to evaluate the potential environmental risk of a drug by responding to the ratio of predicted environmental concentration to predict no-effect concentration. When the ratio is bigger than 1, it indicates a high risk.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Ktb on February 07, 2020, 07:16:50 AM
CONTINUED 2/3

Another alternative research method is called as vitro testing,[50] which found that the enzyme activity as a sub-lethal toxicity test indicators could also provide ecological toxicity estimates.[51,52] Babin et al. (2005) tested the toxicity of TC antibiotics (mainly for oxytetracycline and TC) to fish, using fish RTG-2 and RTL-W1 cell lines for test tube toxicity testing.[10] This operation replaces the direct toxicity test. The activity of EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) and β-galactosidase activity were used as toxic endpoints, and the oxytetracycline and TC solutions were used in order. The test showed that TC and oxytetracycline inhibited the activity of EROD and β-galactosidase. The EC50 of EROD in TC was 167.63mg/L, and the EC50 of β-galactosidase in TC reached 84.59 mg/L.[10] So the toxicity of oxytetracycline was slightly lower than that of TC.

Effects of TC on plants in water environment
Holling-Sorenson et al. (2000)[11] and Holten et al. (1999)[53] used toxicological tests on Microcystis aeruginosa, Chlorella algae using TC antibiotics in different fisheries. The contents of TC in M. aeruginosa was higher than in green algae. Holling-Sorenson showed that TC drugs were toxic or medium toxic chemicals in aquatic algae.[11] In addition, Jiang et al. (2010) also studied the toxic effects of TC on the photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities of M. aeruginosa.[54] Authors thought that TC could hinder the photosynthesis of M. aeruginosa.[54] At the same time, the inhibitory effect increases with the increase of TC concentration. TC will destroy the antioxidant enzymes and inhibit the growth of algae eventually.

Effects of TCs on microbes in water environment
Dijek et al. (1976) studied the effects of 21 antibiotics including TC on 36 typical microbes in water.[55] The results showed that only 7 kinds of microorganisms were sensitive to antibiotics, and the other 29 species had natural resistance to common antibiotics. Back-haus et al. (1999) studied the five commonly used antibiotics using the long-term bioluminescence inhibition test of Vibrio spp.[56] The results showed that the above antibiotics were highly toxic, most of the EC50 are less than 1 mg/L. Tetracycline hydrochloride was the most potent in all 20 tested antibiotics. The EC90 (concentration for 90% of maximal effect), EC50 and EC10 (concentration for 10% of maximal effect) of TC hydrochloride were 0.0738 ng/L, 0.025 mg/L, 0.0046 mg/L, respectively.[57]

Degradation methods of TC
Photodegradation
Photodegradation refers that a molecule absorbs energy of lights into an excited state and causes various reactions. TC directly absorbs photons and leads to the light reaction which called direct photodegradation. Adding the light-absorbing substance, the light reaction is called indirect photodegradation.[58] Verma et al. (2007) studied the degradation of TC in sterilized water and found that the half-life of TC was 2 days under light conditions while 18 days under dark conditions.[59] This study had confirmed by other researchers, Garcia-Rodriguez et al. (2013) studied found that TC in water could be removed by photodegradation.[60] The molecular structure of TC determines whether the antibiotic can undergo photodegradation. TC molecules contain amido group (CONH2) whose carbon-nitrogen bond (C-N) is easily fracture into substances which called amino under the photodegradation reaction.[18] The efficiency of direct photodegradation of TC is low. Some researches had proved that under natural light and ultraviolet light the degradation ratio of TC after 1h were 27.2% and 73.2%, respectively.[61] Photosensitizer, as a light energy carrier, can change the light stability of compounds, thereby accelerating the photolysis. Strong photosensitizer can accelerate the photodegradation of TC by capturing free radicals in the TC reaction system that photosensitizer could catch ·O2−, H+ and ·OH. In nature environment, indirect photodegradation is the main way of the degradation of TC. There are widely photosensitizers in nature, such as humus, vitamin B2, NO2−, Fe3 +, Fe2 +, NaCl and TiO2. The mechanisms of photosensitizer how to accelerating the photodegradation of TC are similar, for example, TiO2 can rapidly improve the photodegradation rate of TC. Only under the ultraviolet light, visible light and long wave ultraviolet light irradiation, it is almost undetectable that degradation of TC. However, TC degraded 50% at 10min with TiO2(0.5g/L).[62] Under the sunlight and mercury lamp, the removal ratio of TC could achieve 80% after 30 min with TiO2 and ZnO at the same time.[63] TCs mainly adsorb on the surface of TiO2 and occur photocatalytic oxidation which conform the first-order reaction kinetic equation. This adsorption process plays a controlling role in the overall photodegradation.[64] In nature, the photodegradation of TC is greatly influenced by pH. At different pH conditions, the molecular structure of TC has dissociable functional groups that morphology is different. The negative ions are unstable so that they could easily absorb photons and occur photodegradation. With the increase of pH, the photodegradation of TC is enhanced and the alkaline conditions are more favorable for the photodegradation of TC.[65] Oxygen-free radicals are another important factor, which could affect the photodegradation of TC. TCs generate riboflavin (Rf) and superoxide radical anion (·O2−) by transfer of ground-state electron, stimulate the triplet (3Rf*), and then transfer the energy to the dissolved oxygen, at the same time produce singlet molecular oxygen, thereby promote TC degradation.[66] Besides, the photodegradation of TC is also affected by light intensity, light time, initial concentration and ionic strength.[67] Though photodegradation reaction is quick and efficient, making a large area of ultraviolet light and other light source is difficult and adding photosensitizers may have side effects. Therefore, the production and control of light sources, suitable photosensitizers and multi-component combinations to cope with wastewater are the focus in the future research.

Microbial degradation
Microbes can change the structure and physico-chemical properties of TC, which is degradation of TC from macromolecules into small molecule compounds until it converts to H2O and CO2.[68] In the degradation of TC, drug-resistant bacterium plays an important role that can directly destroy and modify the TC and make it inactivated. Several typical bacteria are shown in Table 2. There are about three kinds of degradation mechanisms of TC as follows.[72] First, hydrolysis, drug-resistant bacterium cause that TC lose their activities by enzymes eliminating chemical bong which are easily to hydrolyze and sensitive, such as the amide bond. Acetylation, acetylation is a common mechanism for bacteria to inactivate TC. Drug-resistant bacterium causes TC to lose target-binding ability and makes them inactivated by covalent modification of active groups of TC such as hydroxyl or amide groups of TC. Third, the redox is a vital mechanism for degradation of TC. TC can be oxidized by resistant enzyme, which called TetX. Related studies have shown that the addition of exogenous microorganisms into pig manure can improve the degradation of TC.[73] Microbial degradation, which is highly effective, is difficult to screening of microbial strain and control of combination conditions of compounds. At present, microbial degradation is widely used in the composting and wastewater treatment process.[74]

Table 2. Degradation of tetracycline by several typical plants.

CSVDisplay Table
Phytodegradation
Plants can degrade TC through direct absorption, exudate of root, and microbial transformation of root system.[75] There are typical plants shown in Table 3. Phytodegradation may be the most viable method to fundamentally remediate the wastewater contaminated by TC. The most common ways of phytodegradation are filter bed of aquatic plant and wetland remediation system.[83] Eichhornia crassipes could remove TC in water, and it can remove 80% TC when the concentration of TC was less than 2.5mg/L. However, the removal of TC in water by aquatic vegetables effects by season. In summer, the TC removal efficiency of cress filtration system was significantly higher than that of spinach filtration system, and the TC removal rates were 71.83 and 33.28%, respectively. While in winter, there was no significant difference in TC removal rates between them.[71] There are many advantages of aquatic plant filter bed, such as it could remove TC without chemical reagents and secondary pollution, low costs, and efficient. However, aquatic plant filter bed needs the large area and may produce stink. Therefore, this technology is more suitable for degradation of TC in wastewater in oxidation ponds around large scale farms and towns.[84] When using the constructed wetland to remove TC, the removal efficiency of TC by different wetland plants is different, and the accumulation of TC was different in different parts of wetland plants.[85] In addition, the matrix property of artificial wetland and its relationship with other structural elements should be considered.[86] Though there are several common matrix, such as slag, cinder, clay, and zeolite, the selection of artificial wetland matrices for TC removal is still to be studied in the future.

Table 3. Degradation of tetracycline by several typical fungus.

CSVDisplay Table
Table 4. Degradation of tetracycline by membrane processes.

CSVDisplay Table
Table 5. Degradation of tetracycline by adsorption processes.

CSVDisplay Table
Table 6. Degradation of tetracycline by advanced oxidation processes.

CSVDisplay Table
Table 7. Degradation of tetracycline by electrochemical process.

CSVDisplay Table

Sludge digestion technology
Li et al. (2013)[96] studied the removal of trace amounts of TC in activated sludge reactors and found that the vast majority of TC was removed by sludge adsorption with negligible biodegradability.[87] Lapara et al. (2011) found that the vast majority of TC is present in the sludge sedimentary facies, so there were still amount of TC in the wastewater which was treated.[88] Therefore, the sludge digestion process had a potential prospective to remove TC. According to the recent research on sludge digestion technology, TC removal efficiency is more significant under anaerobic conditions than that under aerobic conditions, the high temperature anaerobic system is better than the medium temperature anaerobic system, and the removal rate increases with the increasing temperature; in the same digestion system, the efficiency of removing TC increases with the higher sludge age.[89] How to adjust the influential factors, such as oxygen consumption, temperature and sludge age, to achieve a better removal result is worth to study in the future. Moreover, sludge bulking, single component, and low removing rate of TC are all problems of sludge digestion technology to solve in the future.

Membrane processes
Membrane technology is a new type of separation enrichment technology, which is the use of membrane for the selective permeability of mixture components, to achieve the separation and purification. The nanofiltration membrane (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology are the most promising methods removing TC. Nevertheless, RO, ultrafiltration, and nanofiltration techniques could remove to a lot of organic matter naturally occurring in the water matrix and the concentration of dissolved salts.[90] A electrocatalytic filtration membrane with high degradation efficiency about 96.50% after 6 h and low cost was fabricated by coating nano antimony-doped tin dioxide (Sb-SnO2) on a porous coal-based carbon membrane through sol-gel method.[91] Rejection of the examined TC is acceptably high for the selected RO and the tight NF membranes, in most cases, more than 98.50%.[92] H4SiW12O40 (SiW12)/cellulose acetate (CA) composite nanofibrous membrane was prepared by electrospinning in which CA was employed as the support of SiW12. Under ultraviolet irradiation, the as-prepared composite membrane exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in the decomposition of TC compared with pure and provided more contact area between SiW12 and the pollutant in TC photodegradation process. The optimal mass ratio of SiW12 to cellulose acetate (CA) was 1:4, and the corresponding degradation ratio for TC was 63.80%.[93] TC can be degraded by anaerobic/aerobic MBBR (A/O – MBBR) process bout 41.79%, but with increasing concentration of TC in the water, the system of TC removal ratio is declining, and fell more and more bigger.[94]

Adsorption processes
Adsorption is a process that contaminants shift from liquid to a solid surface. Granular activated carbon adsorbent is the most popular, however, expense of activated carbon is the major disadvantage at present.[95] In the investigation of the adsorption process of TC on anaerobic granular sludge during anaerobic digestion of animal wastewater, the effects of initial pH, humic acid concentration, and temperature on the removal of TC by anaerobic granular sludge from aqueous solution were investigated using the batch adsorption technique in 100mL flasks with 75 mL of work volume. The results showed that the highest removal ratio was 93% at pH 3 and the removal ratio at the neutral pH range (pH 6–8) was about 91.50%.[96] Adsorption characteristics of TC onto alumina were investigated according to series of adsorption experiments. The adsorption mechanism was dissected at molecular level by molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of radial distribution function showed that TC could be adsorbed effectively by alumina mainly through non-bond interaction. The results illustrated that the absorption was influenced by alumina dosage, temperature, and oscillating frequency. The optional temperature was 25℃. The removal ratio of TC increased from 53.73 to 86.44%, which the alumina dosage was from 0.10 g/L to 2.00 g/L. The removal ratio of TC increased by 28.78%,which oscillation frequency was from 90 to 200 r/min.[97] Adsorption of TC onto activated carbon prepared from lign in by H3PO4 impregnated was studied.[98] The maximum adsorption capacity of TC calculated by the Langmuir isotherm model was 475.48 mg/g. The unsaturated polyester resin can be used as an effective and low-cost adsorbent to remove TC from aqueous solution.[99] In order to increase the adsorption of TC from aqueous solution, Fe-incorporated SBA15 (Fe-SBA15) with different contents of Fe (III) was synthesized. The results showed that Fe-SBA15 had better adsorption capacity of TC than that of SBA15.[100] The adsorption of TC onto silica particles was studied. The results showed that the enthalpy and entropy of adsorption were approximately – 16  and – 25 J/mol, respectively.[101]

Advanced oxidation processes
Advanced oxidation processes based on the oxidation of free radicals reaction technology. The technology for processing hard biodegradable organic matter in water and wastewater have the characteristics of high efficiency and no secondary pollution. The oxidation degradation effects of TC residues in pharmaceutical wastewater with H2O2, HClO4, and NaClO were studied. The degradation ratios of TC by H2O2, HClO4, and NaClO were 80, 88, and 100%, respectively.[102] Degradation of TC with Fenton reagent showed that the optimum reaction conditions were as follows: H2O2/Fe2+ of 10:1, pH 3.0 and H2O2 dosage of 1.58 mmol/L. Under these conditions, using a two-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer to quantify TC at 360nm, finding that 0.10 mmol/L of TC degraded by 88.47% within 60 min of reaction.[103] In the experiment of ozone oxidation to remove TC from wastewater, the best process conditions are normal temperature, initial pH is 9.0 wastewater ozone dosing quantity is 400 mg/min, ozone oxidation time is 2h. Under this condition, the TC removal ratio is remarkable, TC concentration from 672 mg/L to below 50 mg/L.[104] The removal performance of the TC in water by using potassium ferrate was investigated. It was found that TC can be removed by ferrate efficiently and quickly, and the optimal pH value range for TC degradation is 9–10. The removal efficiency of TC and reaction ratio were increased with lager dosage of ferrate. During the first 60s, TC occurred the major degradation, over the next 10–20 min, TC occurred further degradation. At Fe (VI):TC molar ratios of 1:1 and 1:5, approximately 100% of the TC were removed after 60 s. Though conversion of TC is quick, TC only occurred a small reduction. It implicated that most of TC transformed into intermediate products without complete mineralization.[105]

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Ktb on February 07, 2020, 07:17:14 AM
CONTINUED 3/3

Electrochemical process
Nowadays, in the environmental field, the removal of TC by electrochemical technologies has received considerable attention.[15] By means of anodic oxidation, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube array electrodes were prepared in the electrolytes, respectively with HF acid solution and NH4F glycerol solution. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results show that TiO2 nanotube arrays are of uniform morphology. The length of TiO2 nanotube arrays prepared in organic electrolyte is 3 μm, while the length prepared in aqueous solution is 300 nm. At the bias potential of 4 V, the photocurrents are 1.37 and 0.83 mA/cm2, respectively. By using the electrode of 3μm, the removal efficiency of 50 mg/L TC reaches about 93% within 180 min.[106] Carbon base membrane coated with nano Sbdoped SnO2(Sb-SnO2) was fabricated through sol-gel and heat-treatment process. The removal ratio of carbon membrane for TC increased significantly after coating with Sb-SnO2 under the condition of 2.5 V DC field. The TC removal ratio was still as high as 92.30% even the operation time was up to 12 h. This indicated that there would be promising application prospects for electrocatalytic membrane in the field of treating antibiotic wastewater in the near future.[107] The SnO2/quartz column particle electrode was prepared by dipping-calcination method. The optimum calcination temperature and calcination time to prepare SnO2/quartz column particle electrode were 550°C and 5h. When the cell voltage was 15 V and the dosage of particle electrode was 32g, they performed a pretty good electrocatalytic property in TC degradation. 88.60% TC was degraded in 2h and it was 25.30% higher than that in two-dimensional system.[108] With a facile photochemical method, degradation of TC hydrochloride (TC-HCl) Ag2O/g-C3N4 p-n heterojunctions were successfully fabricated through enhanced visible-light photosynthetic activity of Ag2O/g-C3N4 p-n heterojunctions synthesized via a photochemical route. Under visible light irradiation, this method regards as a photocatalyst in the degradation of antibiotic TC-HCl.[109] Electrochemical processes seemed to be fit for treating high concentrations of antibiotics from manufacturing wastewaters. By using electrochemical technology, the removal of TC was advanced, but the applicability of this process was limited for large scale. The high operating cost caused the high-energy consumption. It is still the principal disadvantage, which limits the application of the electrochemical process.[110]

Hydrolysis process
Hydrolysis is the main way to degrade TC in the water environment.[111] The hydrolysis of TC is strongly influenced by pH and temperature. TC degradation ratio increased with the increasing of pH and temperature. Ionic strength does not affect the hydrolysis of TC.[112] The functions of biological treatment systems may be limited by high concentrations of TC in wastewater. Yi et al. (2016) established a pretreatment method for TC production wastewater by using an enhanced hydrolysis process under the optimization of temperature and pH conditions.[113] This research showed that the TC hydrolysis rate was accelerated by 2.22–2.74-fold with an increase of 10°C. When the pH value was increased from 3 to 11 at 85°C, the hydrolysis half-life of TC was shortened by 3.23-fold. The half-life of TC at pH 7 and pH 11 could be shortened from 5.5 to 0.93 h and from 3.7 to 0.59 h, by elevating the temperature from 65 to 85°C. Kang et al. (2012) measured the first order hydrolysis rate constants of TC at pH 5, 7, and 9 using batch tests. The value was highest at pH 7 for TC, indicating short environmental half-lives of TC. For TC, half-lives were approximately 7–10 days at pH 7. It also was found that the degradation ratio of TC was much faster when the solution was passed through a silica column or silica sand was present in a batch solution. This indicates that the silica surface may serve as a catalyst for hydrolysis and that the actual environment half-lives of TC could be shorter than those estimated from laboratory hydrolysis rate constants.[114] Hydrolysis time is longer and the effect is limited. It can be used as an auxiliary means of degradation of TC.

Others
Ultrasonic degradation
As new technology of water treatment, ultrasonic degradation has received wide attention in the removal of TC.[115] Ultrasonic degradation technology can generate instantaneous high temperature and instantaneous high pressure by using ultrasonic activation to activate the nucleate and break chemical bonds of pollutants in liquids. At the same time, vapors produce HO to oxidize organic pollutants in liquids at high temperature and high pressure. Then, those pollutants would become molecules and ions, which are easier to deal with. Researchers found that the average ratio of removal of TC by ultrasonic degradation technology was 63.89%.[116] Ultrasonic degradation technology has a wide range of application, but it needs more moderate degradation conditions, and higher cost and energy consumption, which have restricted the development of ultrasonic degradation technology.[117]

Low-temperature plasma technology
Low-temperature plasma technology is the use of a large number of ions generated by the active particle of ultraviolet light, ozone and electronic radiation as the conditions for the occurrence, thereby accelerating the degradation of pollutants in chemical reactions and to achieve the removal effect of the technology.[118] Under natural conditions, half-life of TC is 7.5 h.[119] However, TC removed by low-temperature plasma technology in a short time. Previous report deemed that the removal ratios of TC under the conditions that synergism of electron radiation, ozone and ultraviolet light which could accelerate the degradation of TC were higher than that under the individual conditions.[69,70,76–82,120,121] Low-temperature plasma technology is a simple and convenient operation, without adding chemical agents and other advantages, but its reaction condition, reaction rate and quantity are difficult to control, disinfection by-products produced in the process of reaction is also a problem to be solved.

Enzyme degradation
Li et al. (2016) chose the crude enzyme of lignin peroxidase (Lip) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium as the research object.[54] The results indicated that the limitation of carbon, nitrogen and low concertation of Mn2+ were important factors for enzyme production. Lip had a strong ability of TC degradation with initial concentrations of 10 , 25, 50, and 100 mg/L, the degradation rate being 62, 80, 82, and 90%, respectively. However, this method is limited by the industrial production of enzyme.

Conclusion and future directions in pollution control technology of TC
This review examines the contamination and control of TC in groundwater. Firstly, it elaborated on the livestock and poultry farming industry in rural areas where TC is the primary source of surface water. Secondly, the survey found that TC was commonly used in medicine and veterinary medicine. Thirdly, effects of toxicity of TC in groundwater and its biology were studied. Finally, the application conditions, mechanism, advantages, and disadvantages of various TC control technologies were summarized.

The above review shows that TC poses a threat to aquatic organisms, aquatic animals, plants, and microbes in groundwater. Therefore, this paper presents a variety of methods such as photodegradation, microbial degradation, phytodegradation, sludge digestion technology, membrane processes, adsorption processes, advanced oxidation processes, electrochemical process, and hydrolysis process to deal with the environmental risks brought by ex situ groundwater. Nevertheless, these methods could also be used to treat drinking waters issued from groundwater. There is no doubt that in situ treatment of groundwater is one of the most important is our future research direction. These methods have their shortcomings, and the treatment technology is not enough to fully remove TC currently. Therefore, the application and improvement of various detection techniques and treatment methods should continue to be strengthened. Combined with pollution situation of TC in groundwater, there are further research directions following aspects:

(1) Photocatalysts for the efficient removal of TC should be studied. As demonstrated by Hong et al. (2016) who applied photodegradation, it was possible to use entirely new Nb2O5/g–C3N4(niobium pentoxide/graphitic-like carbon nitride) heterojunctions made by a simple one-step heating strategy for removing TC, which would bring about potential application in removing of TC pollutant and solar energy conversion. It was found that the new heterojunction showed the highest photocatalytic efficiency for TC–HCl degradation and excellent photocatalytic recyclability.[122] Then, a new nano-photocatalyst of TC was born as recently exemplified by Omorogie et al. (2017), which enhanced its surface area/pore structure and photoactivity by decreasing the electron-hole pair recombination.[123] Moreover, the development of multiresponsive catalytic materials was a wonderful subject for forwarding to the understanding on catalysis and removing mechanism, which had already being studied by Tu et al. (2017).[124] They developed a series of different forms of Bi4Ti3O12 catalyst, including nanorods, flake assembled microspheres, hollow microspheres and cubic nested assembly. This catalyst had general photoreactivity for various contaminants and antibiotics such as bisphenol A, rhodamine B, chlortetracycline and tetracycline hydrochloride.[124]

(2) Biodegradable repair which is based on enzymatic degradation is a relatively recent field of research and a promising technology to remove TC from groundwater. Taheran et al. (2017) have been done a supernacular exploring who used enzymatic degradation with laccase to remove pharmaceutical compounds from aqueous media. In this study, laccase was immobilized on a homemade polyacrylonitrile-biochar composite nanofiber membrane and then biocatalyst was used to remove antibiotics from the water.[125] Conventional biological processes can still pose threat to groundwater. So the hybrid process combined with biological or physical technology will remove efficiently. Advancing biological technologies and Membrane Bio–Reactor hybrid systems are considered as one promising technology for removing TC. On the other hand, it is important to discuss the harm of microbial oxidative degradation products of TC. It is very promising to elucidate the degradation of degradation products in environment and their role in the formation of microbial communities. It’s necessary to analyze the ecological risk-assessment to reduce the risks we would cause.

(3) Standard removal process can remove most TC. It’s possible to focus on the treatment of trace TC. The minority pays attention to remove trace TC, Yang et al. (2017) have studied that the fate of trace organic contaminants.[126] The results of this report showed the pervasive presence of 17 trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in sewage sludge and highlighted the importance of evaluating TrOC removal through mass balance calculations. This calculation took into account the distribution and biodegradation between aqueous and solid phase. In addition, the substrate concentration required for advanced oxidation technology is generally higher than the actual concentration of antibiotic in water. Therefore, it is necessary to study the advanced oxidation method combined with traditional technology to avoid secondary pollution.

(4) The production of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has been considered as a rising contaminant which would be a pivotal danger to groundwater in worldwide. In order to further understand the migration and transformation of TC in environment, at the same time, improving the control of TC prediction model in groundwater, it is benefit to take different ways to deal with its diverse forms. Some heavy metals, fungicides, and TC have a co-selection effect on bacterial microbes, so the degradation of TC by resistant bacterial microorganisms in groundwater will also be the focus of future research. Zhou et al. (2017) thought that it was significant to control ARG spread in the agriculture sector within the globe.[127]
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: blumenkraft on February 07, 2020, 07:18:10 AM
Thanks so much, Ktb!.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on February 07, 2020, 01:45:14 PM
Thanks indeed! If you do add pictures i think figures 3 and 4 are the most interesting.



Climate change: Loss of bumblebees driven by 'climate chaos


"Climate chaos" has caused widespread losses of bumblebees across continents, according to scientists.

A new analysis shows the likelihood of a bee being found in any given place in Europe and North America has declined by a third since the 1970s.

Climbing temperatures will increasingly cause declines, which are already more severe than previously thought, said researchers.

...

Dr Tim Newbold of University College London (UCL) said there had been some previous research showing that bumblebee distributions are moving northwards in Europe and North America, "as you'd expect with climate change".

He added: "But this was the first time that we have been able to really tie local extinctions and colonisations of bumble bees to climate change, showing a really clear fingerprint of climate change in the declines that we've seen."

...

In the new study, researchers looked at more than half a million records of 66 bumblebee species from 1901 to 1974 and from 2000 to 2014.

They found bumblebee populations declined rapidly between 2000-2014: the likelihood of a site being occupied by bumblebees dropped by an average of over 30% compared with 1901-1974.

'Alarming' losses
Bees have been hardest hit in southern regions such as Spain and Mexico due to more frequent extreme warm years. And, while populations have expanded into cooler northern regions, this has not been enough to compensate for the losses.

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-51375600
 
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on February 13, 2020, 12:01:35 AM
Car ‘Splatometer’ Tests Reveal Huge Decline In Number of Insects
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/feb/12/car-splatometer-tests-reveal-huge-decline-number-insects

Research shows abundance at sites in Europe has plunged by up to 80% in two decades

Two scientific studies of the number of insects splattered by cars have revealed a huge decline in abundance at European sites in two decades.

The research adds to growing evidence of what some scientists have called an “insect apocalypse”, which is threatening a collapse in the natural world that sustains humans and all life on Earth. A third study shows plummeting numbers of aquatic insects in streams.

The survey of insects hitting car windscreens in rural Denmark used data collected every summer from 1997 to 2017 and found an 80% decline in abundance. It also found a parallel decline in the number of swallows and martins, birds that live on insects.

The second survey, in the UK county of Kent in 2019, examined splats in a grid placed over car registration plates, known as a “splatometer”. This revealed 50% fewer impacts than in 2004. The research included vintage cars up to 70 years old to see if their less aerodynamic shape meant they killed more bugs, but it found that modern cars actually hit slightly more insects.

Parallel declines in abundance of insects and insectivorous birds in Denmark over 22 years
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ece3.5236

Kent Wildlife Trust’s Bugs Matter survey
https://www.kentwildlifetrust.org.uk/bugs-matter
https://www.kentwildlifetrust.org.uk/sites/default/files/2020-02/Bugs_Matter_report_website_version.pdf

Complex and nonlinear climate‐driven changes in freshwater insect communities over 42 years
https://conbio.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/cobi.13477
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: gerontocrat on February 20, 2020, 06:48:52 PM
We are now beyond insect decline - we are well into insect extinction.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/feb/20/fates-humans-insects-intertwined-scientists-population-collapse

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320719317823?via%3Dihub#bb0910
Scientists' warning to humanity on insect extinctions

Quote
Current estimates suggest that insects may number 5.5 million species, with only one fifth of these named (Stork, 2018). The number of threatened and extinct insect species is woefully underestimated because of so many species being rare or undescribed. For example, the IUCN Red List (version 2019-2) only includes ca. 8400 species out of one million described, representing a possible 0.2% of all extant species (IUCN, 2019). However, it is likely that insect extinctions since the industrial era are around 5 to 10%, i.e. 250,000 to 500,000 species, based on estimates of 7% extinctions for land snails (Régnier et al., 2015). In total at least one million species are facing extinction in the coming decades, half of them being insects (IPBES, 2019).

It is not only their vast numbers, but the dependency of ecosystems and humanity on them, that makes the conservation of insect diversity critical for future generations. A major challenge now and in the coming years is to maintain and enhance the beneficial contributions of nature to all people. Insects are irreplaceable components in this challenge, as are other invertebrates and biodiversity in general.

Here we build on the manifesto World Scientists' Warning to Humanity, issued by the Union of Concerned Scientists (1992) and re-issued 25 years later by the Alliance of World Scientists (Ripple et al., 2017). The latter warning was signed by over 15,000 scientists and claims that humans are “pushing Earth's ecosystems beyond their capacities to support the web of life.” (https://www.scientistswarning.org/the-warning/). As a group of conservation biologists deeply concerned about the decline of insect populations worldwide, we here review what we know about the drivers of insect extinctions, their consequences, and how extinctions can negatively impact humanity. We end with an appeal for urgent action to decrease our knowledge deficits and curb insect extinctions.

We are causing insect extinctions
Irrespective of the precise trends and their spatial distribution, human activity is responsible for almost all current insect population declines and extinctions. Yet, in order to act, we first need to identify and quantify the different ways we are acting upon them, recognizing that much is still to be understood, and more often than not, several factors contribute synergistically to decline or extinction
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on March 04, 2020, 04:07:09 PM
Pesticides cause ‘permanent and irreversible’ damage to baby bee brains

The pesticide imidacloprid causes baby bumblebees’ brains to develop abnormally.

When the larvae ate food contaminated with the pesticide, a key area of their brains underdeveloped.

The bees’ ability to learn was impaired as a result, and the effects lasted for their whole lives.

https://www.sciencefocus.com/news/pesticides-cause-permanent-and-irreversible-damage-to-baby-bee-brains/
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on March 04, 2020, 04:43:29 PM
Nice of them to publish such study. It's been quite difficult to get these neonictinoid stories out (imidacloprid is one)
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: prairiebotanist on March 10, 2020, 10:06:02 AM
Here's an essay regarding new research in PNAS that is at the heart of this thread.

https://theconversation.com/malnourished-bugs-higher-co2-levels-make-plants-less-nutritious-hurting-insect-populations-133051?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=bylinetwitterbutton
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on March 11, 2020, 02:57:15 PM
A gut feeling

What's happening to the microbes that call a bee's gut home?

...

While both humans and bees coexist with the microbes in their bodies, each organism has different requirements of their tiny friends. Dr. Eric Smith, previously of the Newton Lab at Indiana University (IU) and now a bioinformatician at CoreBiome, attempted to dive into the specifics of bee microbiomes with the help of the Carbonate computer cluster.

...

He continues, “We've also seen that insects that are raised without their microbiome end up being quite a bit smaller and more sickly than their counterparts that are raised with the microbiome.”

These effects may be especially important for honeybees. Specifically, honeybees are split into two factions – worker bees and the queen. While they start out as genetically identical eggs, the workers consume worker jelly while the queen is fed royal jelly, leading down two different developmental paths.

“The microbiomes of queens and workers differ quite a bit,” says Smith.  “Workers have anywhere between 8-10 different bacterial taxa which are the same among all workers, no matter which hives you sample from. You can sample a hive in Indiana and a hive in Europe, and they're going to have pretty much the same microbiome.”

“The queens have a very different microbiome,” Smith continues. “The queen's digestive tract is predominantly an acetic acid bacteria, which is actually one that provides fungal protection.”

This specialization of the queen bee’s microbial communities leads into one of the major problems facing bee populations: agricultural monoculture.

In 2017, more than 396 million acres of land in the US were devoted to crop farming. Of this, nearly 220 million acres were planted with corn, wheat, and soybeans. That’s around 55 percent of US cropland revolving around just three plants.

“Honeybees go out and forage, and they bring back pollen and nectar to the hive,” says Smith. “What comes back with them is microbes. You can imagine that microbes could be pretty specialized on the plants they happen to live on. And so, if they're not getting a big enough diversity of plants, they’re not getting big enough diversity of microbes coming back to the hive.”

https://sciencenode.org/feature/A%20gut%20feeling.php
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on March 17, 2020, 02:14:56 PM
Costa Rica caterpillar decline spells trouble for ecosystems

A new study in Scientific Reports suggests declines in caterpillar richness in a protected Costa Rican tropical rainforest, as well as in the parasite species that live off them.

Researchers examined data from 1997 to 2018 to identify long-term patterns of extreme weather events and the impact these have on insect diversity.

More than 40% of the 64 common caterpillar genera decreased, suggesting the decline of entire groups of caterpillars.

...

Scientists studied the Lepidoptera order of moths and butterflies by collecting all externally feeding caterpillars — those found on leaves and not the inner tissue of a plant. They also collected the parasites that live off their caterpillar hosts, known as parasitoids, including wasps (order Hymenoptera) and flies (order Diptera).

Parasitoids require a host for development, eventually leading to their host’s death. Many parasites are extremely specialized, meaning they only parasitize certain host species.

The researchers’ findings suggest the loss of entire groups of dominant caterpillar genera. More than 40% of the 64 common caterpillar groups collected were found to be in decline. A direct consequence of these declines are reductions in parasitism: the researchers expect a 30% drop in parasitism over the next century. The findings raise concerns about declining ecosystem services such as biocontrol, a method of relying on parasitoids to keep agricultural pests such as herbivorous insects in check.

...

Scientists conducted the study at La Selva, a biological research station on a 1,600-hectare (4,000-acre) patch of isolated forest on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica’s Cordillera Central range, bordered by plantations responsible for global exports of banana, pineapple, and palm oil.

Scientists say the declines are partly explained by climate change. While many studies examine the impacts of rising temperatures, here researchers investigated other features: specifically, rainfall in lowland tropical communities. They found that extreme weather was the most important factor associated with diversity declines, particularly heavy rainfall combined with rising temperatures.


Full article:
https://news.mongabay.com/2020/03/costa-rica-caterpillar-decline-spells-trouble-for-ecosystems/

Article:
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-57226-9
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Sebastian Jones on March 17, 2020, 07:13:40 PM
"Scientists conducted the study at La Selva, a biological research station on a 1,600-hectare (4,000-acre) patch of isolated forest on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica’s Cordillera Central range, bordered by plantations responsible for global exports of banana, pineapple, and palm oil."

Gee, I winder if the constant drenching of these mono crop plantations by poisons has anything to do with the decline in caterpillars?

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on March 17, 2020, 09:16:24 PM
You can not 100% unravel the effects but they show an effect by climate extremes.

Or another way to think of it. ´You´ hurt these animals by driving the car not just buying banana´s.

Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: bluice on March 18, 2020, 09:41:06 AM
There's probably more than one cause for the decline in populations. Land use, pesticides, climate change plus other factors all contribute to the overall stress that make insect populations decline worldwide.

This is how ecological disaster and rapid biodiversity loss look in real life.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on April 08, 2020, 07:10:16 PM
What’s Wrong With Butterflies Raised in Captivity?

A study suggests that monarchs bred by enthusiasts were less fit than those that started as caterpillars in the wild.

In an effort to boost the struggling insect’s numbers, some butterfly enthusiasts buy monarchs raised in captivity or breed their own, then set them free. But research published Wednesday in Biology Letters shows that captive-born monarchs are weaker than wild ones — adding evidence to the arguments of those who warn that releasing them does more harm than good.

Earlier research has shown that monarchs raised in captivity are less likely to reach Mexico. To find out why this might be, Andy Davis, an ecologist at the University of Georgia, and his co-authors raised 83 monarchs in two different indoor settings, using eggs from wild butterflies. They also caught 41 wild monarchs and brought them into the lab. Then — like a miniature NFL combine — they put the insects through a series of tests.

The scientists measured the monarchs’ wings, because larger, more elongated wings are known to help with migration. They also assessed the orange color of the butterflies, which can range from pale yellow to nearly brick-red. Monarchs with darker orange wings are more successful migrators, though this probably has to do with the butterflies’ overall fitness and not the color itself.

Finally, the scientists tested the monarchs’ strength. ... Wild butterflies dramatically outperformed those born in captivity. On average, captive-born monarchs were less than half as strong as wild ones. Though their wing size wasn’t significantly different, the captive-born monarchs had less elongated wings. They were also paler in color.

Something about rearing monarchs in captivity seemed to make them less fit for migration. Dr. Davis thinks the most likely explanation is that hand-raising caterpillars is too safe.

etc etc

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/08/science/monarch-butterflies-captive.html

Interestingly this ties in with something i posted recently about rats bred for labs and medical tests which changed fitness and thus test results. See second linked talk here:

x

Of course this basically has repercussions for all breeding programs although the effects are bigger for short lived creatures.

On the monarch...last year saw the murder of a number of people protecting the forest they overwinter in so when that goes all the breeding efforts don´t really matter anyway...  :(

ETA

A poor substitute for the real thing: captive-reared monarch butterflies are weaker, paler and have less elongated wings than wild migrants (open access)

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsbl.2019.0922
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Human Habitat Index on April 09, 2020, 02:31:41 AM
5G Towers EFFECT Bees, Birds, Trees & PEOPLE | FACT or FICTION ???

"Charles Malki, Biologist & Plant Expert for http://ivorganics.com/ has an educated discussion with Judy Frankel of https://www.judyshomegrown.com/ on the several studies on 5G (5th Generation) Cellphone Towers, and the approximately 10x more powerful (than the 4G Cell Tower) electromagnetic fields (EMF), and its effects on bees, birds, plants & people."

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jOGGUM1M508

"Conversation between the famous English physicist Barrie Trower and Sir Julian Rose . Barrie Trower is a former British Navy officer who has collaborated with the ... ... British Navy officer who has collaborated with the British Secret Service ."

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AAlMKN3qHPo&feature=youtu.be
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on April 25, 2020, 01:48:50 PM
Silent Spring Is Already Here': Global Study Shows Nearly 25% Drop in Insect Population Over 30 Years

The largest ever assessment of long-term insect abundance found that there has been a nearly 25% decrease of land-dwelling bugs like ants, butterflies, and grasshoppers over the past 30 years—a revelation that inspired fresh demands for urgent international action to tackle the decades-long, human-caused "bugpocalypse."

The Guardian reported on the new assessment, published in the journal Science:

The analysis combined 166 long-term surveys from almost 1,700 sites and found that some species were bucking the overall downward trend. In particular, freshwater insects have been increasing by 11% each decade following action to clean up polluted rivers and lakes. However, this group represent only about 10% of insect species and do not pollinate crops.

Researchers said insects remained critically understudied in many regions, with little or no data from South America, south Asia, and Africa. Rapid destruction of wild habitats in these places for farming and urbanization is likely to be significantly reducing insect populations, they said.

The researchers found an average annual decrease among terrestrial insects of 0.92%, "which may not sound like much, but in fact it means 24% fewer insects in 30 years' time and 50% fewer over 75 years," lead author Roel van Klink of the German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) and Leipzig University said in a statement.

and much more on:
https://www.commondreams.org/news/2020/04/24/silent-spring-already-here-global-study-shows-nearly-25-drop-insect-population-over

or

Nature crisis: 'Insect apocalypse' more complicated than thought

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-52399373
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on April 25, 2020, 02:21:00 PM
Dramatic loss of food plants for insects

Researchers from the Universities of Bonn and Zurich investigated the 100-year development in the canton of Zurich

...

A team of researchers from the Universities of Bonn and Zurich and the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL have now demonstrated for the first time that the diversity of food plants for insects in the canton of Zurich has dramatically decreased over the past 100 years or so. This means that bees, flies and butterflies are increasingly deprived of their food base. The study, which is representative for all of Central Europe, has now been published in the journal "Ecological Applications".

....

The food plants of specialized groups of flower visitors are particularly affected by the decline. For instance, the Greater Knapweed (Centaurea scabiosa) is pollinated by bumblebees, bees and butterflies, as their tongues are long enough to reach the nectar. The decline is particularly dramatic for plant species that can only be pollinated by a single group of insects. In the case of Aconite (Aconitum napellus), for example, this can only be done by bumblebees because the plant's toxin evidently does not affect them.

Overall, all plant communities have become much more monotonous, with just a few dominant common species. "It's hard for us to imagine what vegetation looked like 100 years ago," says Dr. Michael Kessler from the Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany at the University of Zurich. "But our data show that about half of all species have experienced significant decline in their abundance, while only ten percent of the species have increased."

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-04/uob-dlo042420.php

Open access:
Shifts in food plant abundance for flower‐visiting insects between 1900 and 2017 in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland

https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2138
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: Pmt111500 on April 25, 2020, 06:45:39 PM
Thanks Kassy, have witnessed a couple of such events in my life. Usually happens when suburban areas grow, the native plantlife is rather harshly replaced with lawns/foreign bushes, two years afterwards the biodiversity drops.
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on May 02, 2020, 03:02:33 PM
This is an important piece of science. Bit grim but that is the world we made.

Starving grasshoppers? How rising carbon dioxide levels may promote an ‘insect apocalypse’

Empty calories may be grasshoppers’ downfall. Many insect populations are declining, and a provocative new hypothesis suggests one problem is that rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are making plants less nutritious. That could spell trouble not just for insects, but for plant eaters of all sizes.

...

Just last week, for example, a meta-analysis of 166 insect populations found that although terrestrial species are indeed declining overall, aquatic insects seem to be doing fine. But a study on the Kansas prairie has convinced Michael Kaspari, an ecologist at the University of Oklahoma, that the decline is real—and that “nutrient dilution” in plants could be a major problem.

“The insect decline papers thus far haven’t been testing particular mechanisms for the declines they purport to show, so this proposed mechanism with concrete data is extremely powerful,” says Chelse Prather, a conservation biologist at the University of Dayton. Nutrient dilution “could be a global problem,” adds Roel van Klink, an entomologist at the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research, whose team did last week’s analysis of insect trends.

Ellen Welti, Kaspari’s postdoc, had been analyzing data on 44 species of grasshoppers at the Konza Prairie Biological Station, a 3487-hectare native tallgrass preserve in northeastern Kansas that is the site of a long-term ecological research (LTER) program. She tracked population trends in two surveys of grasshopper abundance, one done in undisturbed habitats from 1996 to 2017 and another done from 2002 to 2017 where bison grazed. Population booms and busts coincided with major climatic events, such as El Niño, a Pacific Ocean disturbance that alters temperature and rainfall. But when Welti factored out those events, it became clear to her and Kaspari that over the long term, the grasshoppers were declining, by 30% over 2 decades. “I was actually quite surprised,” Welti recalls.

She and other researchers have assumed that habitat loss and pesticides underlie most of the reported drops in insect numbers. But those factors are not thought to be in play on the Konza Prairie.

Kaspari and Welti wondered whether another global trend could be responsible. Increasing CO2 concentrations in the air speed plant growth. But as Harvard University planetary health scientist Samuel Myers and his colleagues demonstrated in 2014, plants including wheat, maize, rice, and other major crops grown under expected future CO2 levels accumulate less nitrogen, phosphorous, sodium, zinc, and other nutrients than they do under current CO2 levels. The thinking is that roots cannot keep up with the growth stimulated by the extra carbon and therefore don’t provide adequate supplies of other elements.

...

At the Kansas LTER, other researchers had collected and stored samples of the various grass species each year. So, Welti determined concentrations of 30 elements in those samples. The biomass of the grasses doubled over the past 30 years, but the plants’ nitrogen content declined about 42%, phosphorous by 58%, potassium by 54%, and sodium by 90%, Kaspari’s team reported recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. “This paper is a good red flag for the scientific community,” says biologist Arianne Cease at Arizona State University, Tempe.

...

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/04/starving-grasshoppers-how-rising-carbon-dioxide-levels-may-promote-insect-apocalypse

Article (pw) (but try Sci-Hub  ;) )

Nutrient dilution and climate cycles underlie declines in a dominant insect herbivore
https://www.pnas.org/content/117/13/7271/tab-article-info
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: vox_mundi on May 03, 2020, 12:16:36 AM
Tracking the ‘Murder Hornet’: A Deadly Pest Has Reached North America
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/02/us/asian-giant-hornet-washington.html

Sightings of the Asian giant hornet have prompted fears that the vicious insect could establish itself in the United States and devastate bee populations.

... With queens that can grow to two inches long, Asian giant hornets can use mandibles shaped like spiked shark fins to wipe out a honeybee hive in a matter of hours, decapitating the bees and flying away with the thoraxes to feed their young. For larger targets, the hornet’s potent venom and stinger — long enough to puncture a beekeeping suit — make for an excruciating combination that victims have likened to hot metal driving into their skin.

In Japan, the hornets kill up to 50 people a year. Now, for the first time, they have arrived in the United States.

(https://www.straitstimes.com/sites/default/files/styles/article_pictrure_780x520_/public/articles/2017/10/06/fa-hornet-20171006.jpg)

Time-Lapse Video Shows an Asian Giant Hornet Queen Building a Nest Over 3 Days
https://www.businessinsider.com/time-lapse-asian-giant-hornet-queen-building-nest-2017-9

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=V3sj6edu3Go
Title: Re: Decline in insect populations
Post by: kassy on May 14, 2020, 01:19:38 AM
Nature crisis: Moths have 'secret role' as crucial pollinators

...

New research suggests they play a vital role as overnight pollinators of a wide range of flowers and plants.

The study says that the moths' transport networks are larger and more complex than those of daytime pollinators like bees.

The authors believe there is an urgent need to stem declines in moth numbers.

...

To find out how vital a part the moths play, Dr Walton and colleagues monitored moth activity around ponds in agricultural areas of Norfolk.

They found that 45% of the moths they tested were transporting pollen, which originated from 47 different plant species, including several that were rarely visited by bees, hoverflies and butterflies.

The scientists found that while bumblebees and honeybees are critically important, they tended to target the most prolific nectar and pollen sources. Not so with moths.

"From what we see from our work, moths tend to be generalists, meaning they're not specifically visiting a narrow group of flowers," said Dr Walton.

"They're kind of visiting any type of flower that they can access. These tend to be the open cup-shaped flowers like bramble, they can access things from the legume family, the clover family was also very important."

Hairy bodies
Previous studies on moths have tended to focus on their ability to transport pollen via their proboscis or nose. This new work looked at the pollen collected on the moths' distinctly hairy bodies when they sit on flowers while feeding.

...

The vital role played by the moths has come under increasing threat as they have suffered steep declines in numbers since the 1970s. This is largely due to changes in land use and the increasing use of pesticides.

"This has a knock-on effect for birds that feed on moths, such as the cuckoo. Its decline is kind of tied to moth declines," said Dr Walton.

"Bats will feed on moths as well, so there's ties to other creatures having declines in their own populations, because their food supply, the moths, are going down as well. You can see this kind of linkage play out."

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-52630991