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Author Topic: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere  (Read 9416 times)

Sigmetnow

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #50 on: July 17, 2017, 09:25:14 PM »
Tasmania's fisheries cooked by record-breaking marine heatwave
Climate change was almost certainly responsible for a marine heatwave off Tasmania's east coast in 2015/16 that lasted 251 days and at its greatest extent had an area of impact seven times the size of Tasmania, according to a new study published today in Nature Communications.

The marine heat wave reduced the productivity of Tasmanian salmon fisheries, led to a rise in Blacklip abalone mortality, sparked an outbreak of Pacific Oyster Mortality Syndrome and saw new fish species move into Tasmanian waters....
https://phys.org/news/2017-07-tasmania-fisheries-cooked-record-breaking-marine.html
People who say it cannot be done should not interrupt those who are doing it.

Archimid

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #51 on: August 01, 2017, 04:00:22 AM »
What City Ants Can Teach Us About Species Evolution And Climate Change

https://undark.org/article/urban-ants-evolution-climate-change/

Is the rapid evolution of a certain ant species to urban environments a preview of life on a warming planet? Some researchers are trying to find out.

I'm positive that in 20 generations humanity would have completely adapted to climate change.
I am an energy reservoir seemingly intent on lowering entropy for self preservation.

Forest Dweller

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #52 on: August 01, 2017, 07:15:11 AM »
Beckwith has some new videos discussing the book "Scale" and several related papers.



"For every 18 F (10 C) rise in temperature the metabolic rate doubles & thus the rate of living (pace of life) doubles.

The Paris agreement aims for a maximum 2 C (3.6 F) temperature rise, yet this change leads to a 20% to 30% increase in metabolic rate, and thus also growth & mortality rates. This is mind-boggling. The pace of almost all biological life across all size scales increases 20 to 30% from just a 2 C temperature rise.

This will wreak havoc on ecosystems; in fact the entire planetary ecology. Including global food supply."

Interesting stuff, i'm sure there will be controversy...

Andre

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #53 on: August 02, 2017, 05:08:07 AM »
Previous mass extinctions might help us to understand more about our current situation:

Underground magma triggered Earth’s worst mass extinction with greenhouse gases
There are parallels between today’s and past greenhouse gas-driven climate changes

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2017/aug/01/underground-magma-triggered-earths-worst-mass-extinction-with-greenhouse-gases?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

Abstract:

Coincidence doesn’t prove causality, as they say, but when the same two things happen together over and over again through the vast span of geological time, there must be a causal link. Of some 18 major and minor mass extinctions since the dawn of complex life, most happened at the same time as a rare, epic volcanic phenomenon called a Large Igneous Province (LIP). Many of those extinctions were also accompanied by abrupt climate warming, expansion of ocean dead zones and acidification, like today.

[...]

The more science learns of these past greenhouse gas-driven events, the more uncomfortable the parallels to today become. I asked Burgess if it was ridiculous to make the comparison.

"No, I don’t think the comparison is ridiculous at all, and I think that the timescales over which the environment changes associated with mass extinctions are frighteningly similar to the timescales over which our current climate is changing. The cause might be different but the hallmarks are similar."

Geologically fast build-up of greenhouse gas linked to warming, rising sea-levels, widespread oxygen-starved ocean dead zones and ocean acidification are fairly consistent across the mass extinction events, and those same symptoms are happening today as a result of human-driven climate change. Even though the duration of those past events was longer, and the volume of emissions was larger than we will produce, we are emitting greenhouse gases around 10 times faster than the most recent, mildest example – the PETM. The rapidity of today’s emissions prompted scientists Richard Zeebe and James Zachos to observe in a 2013 paper:

"The Anthropocene will more likely resemble the end-Permian and end-Cretaceous disasters, rather than the PETM."




sidd

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #54 on: August 02, 2017, 09:09:47 PM »
Whitebark pines disappearing. I recently saw massive decline of these and lodgepole and ponderosa in that region. The article gives a detailed analysis

https://www.counterpunch.org/2017/08/01/the-late-great-whitebark-pine/

AbruptSLR

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #55 on: September 07, 2017, 07:21:22 PM »
The Earth's ecosystems are likely more sensitive to climate change impacts than previously appreciated:

Title: "As many as one in three parasites could become extinct as a result of climate change by 2070, new research suggests."

https://www.carbonbrief.org/climate-change-drive-third-parasites-extinction-2070

Extract: "The destabilisation of ecosystems as a result of parasite loss could lead to waves of species extinction, he adds, affecting every level of the ecosystem, from plants to top-level predators. 

“It means extinctions might keep happening downstream, but more broadly it means ecosystems might change in pretty unexpected ways.”"

See also:

Carlson, C. J. et al. (2017), "Parasite biodiversity faces extinction and redistribution in a changing climate", Science Advances, http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/9/e1602422
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pileus

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #56 on: November 26, 2017, 08:59:47 PM »
This seemed like an appropriate thread for this turd (excuse my French).  Dr Mann and others have been piling on about what an irresponsible and terrible think piece the writer has laid out.  Sad to see this in my hometown paper, and doubly irritating as the author teaches as my post grad alma mater.  Bits of logic and affirmation of climate change mixed in with a horrible human centric coldness towards the animal kingdom and biodiversity.

We don’t need to save endangered species. Extinction is part of evolution.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/we-dont-need-to-save-endangered-species-extinction-is-part-of-evolution/2017/11/21/57fc5658-cdb4-11e7-a1a3-0d1e45a6de3d_story.html?tid=ss_tw&utm_term=.1770742a04a8

“There is no such thing as an “endangered species,” except for all species. The only reason we should conserve biodiversity is for ourselves, to create a stable future for human beings. Yes, we have altered the environment and, in doing so, hurt other species. This seems artificial because we, unlike other life forms, use sentience and agriculture and industry. But we are a part of the biosphere just like every other creature, and our actions are just as volitional, their consequences just as natural. Conserving a species we have helped to kill off, but on which we are not directly dependent, serves to discharge our own guilt, but little else.”
—————-
“Humans should feel less shame about molding their environment to suit their survival needs. When beavers make a dam, they cause the local extinction of numerous riverine species that cannot survive in the new lake. But that new lake supports a set of species that is just as diverse. Studies have shown that when humans introduce invasive plant species, native diversity sometimes suffers, but productivity — the cycling of nutrients through the ecosystem — frequently increases. Invasives can bring other benefits, too: Plants such as the Phragmites reed have been shown to perform better at reducing coastal erosion and storing carbon than native vegetation in some areas, like the Chesapeake.”
—————
“There is no return to a pre-human Eden; the goals of species conservation have to be aligned with the acceptance that large numbers of animals will go extinct. Thirty to 40 percent of species may be threatened with extinction in the near future, and their loss may be inevitable. But both the planet and humanity can probably survive or even thrive in a world with fewer species. We don’t depend on polar bears for our survival, and even if their eradication has a domino effect that eventually affects us, we will find a way to adapt. The species that we rely on for food and shelter are a tiny proportion of total biodiversity, and most humans live in — and rely on — areas of only moderate biodiversity, not the Amazon or the Congo Basin.”
—————
“We should do this to create a stable, equitable future for the coming billions of people, not for the vanishing northern river shark. Conservation is needed for ourselves and only ourselves. All those future people deserve a happy, safe life on an ecologically robust planet, regardless of the state of the natural world compared with its pre-human condition. We cannot thrive without crops or pollinators, or along coastlines as sea levels rise and as storms and flooding intensify.”


TerryM

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #57 on: November 27, 2017, 03:28:17 PM »
A cringeworthy philosophy indeed!


Taken just a little bit further, should we ask why Americans need the Congo to be populated? Do the very rich require the services of the very poor?


I wouldn't want this gentleman as a neighbor, he'd soon discover that the hood could do without my kind.


Terry

Archimid

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #58 on: November 27, 2017, 07:25:14 PM »
"we are a part of the biosphere just like every other creature, and our actions are just as volitional, their consequences just as natural.

This is only marginally true. Yes we are part of nature and everything we do is natural but because of our mastery of energy we can create disruption on the scale of supervolcanos and metorite strikes. We are natural biological entities with with the disruptive power of massive geological entities.

More to follow:
I am an energy reservoir seemingly intent on lowering entropy for self preservation.

Archimid

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #59 on: November 27, 2017, 08:03:00 PM »
Conserving a species we have helped to kill off, but on which we are not directly dependent, serves to discharge our own guilt, but little else.”

This absolute foolishness. For all we know our fate was sealed when the Dodo went extinct.  With every change we make we move towards a different state of the world. We should be extremely careful of what we break because we could be dependent on it.
« Last Edit: November 28, 2017, 02:35:31 AM by Archimid »
I am an energy reservoir seemingly intent on lowering entropy for self preservation.

Archimid

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #60 on: November 27, 2017, 08:23:55 PM »
But both the planet and humanity can probably survive or even thrive in a world with fewer species. We don’t depend on polar bears for our survival, and even if their eradication has a domino effect that eventually affects us, we will find a way to adapt.

Trivially true. If 99.9% of humanity was wiped out there still be 7,000,000 people and  you can accurately say humans adapted to climate change. Even without taking it to the extreme, "we" does not include the people that do depend on Polar bears. Sure it is a small minority but you can say the same thing about many extinctions. They all affect small parts of humanity. This aggregation of harm is ignored in the argument. To assume that the agreggation of failures to adapt will not have consequences is foolish.

Through the whole article the author uses adaptation and evolution as invisible process. Successful adaptation is usually costly . Unsuccessful adaptation is deadly. That's the part of natural selection that the author completely ignores.

He writes as if he he is conviced that he will sucesfully adapt. Poor fool. He wholeheartedly believes that his current position of strength wil give him the evolutionary advantage needed to  sucesfully adapt.
I am an energy reservoir seemingly intent on lowering entropy for self preservation.

Alexander555

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #61 on: November 27, 2017, 09:09:23 PM »
Probably funded by a lobby like the guys that grow these palm trees to produce palm oil. What els can you say after you wiped out already so many, and you know it's only going to get worse. Than you say "ohh , it's not that bad"

wili

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #62 on: November 27, 2017, 09:26:15 PM »
If 99.9% of humanity passenger pigeons was wiped out there still be 7,000,000 people pigeons and  you can accurately say humans pigeons adapted..."

Fixed that for ya!  ;D

Actually, that is probably wildly conservative.

"One flock in 1866 in southern Ontario was described as being 1.5 km (0.93 mi) wide and 500 km (310 mi) long, took 14 hours to pass, and held in excess of 3.5 billion birds" (wiki)

Large numbers of members in a species is no guarantee that it will not go extinct, even very quickly.
"A force de chercher de bonnes raisons, on en trouve; on les dit; et après on y tient, non pas tant parce qu'elles sont bonnes que pour ne pas se démentir." Choderlos de Laclos "You struggle to come up with some valid reasons, then cling to them, not because they're good, but just to not back down."

Archimid

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #63 on: November 27, 2017, 10:17:55 PM »
Probably funded by a lobby like the guys that grow these palm trees to produce palm oil. What els can you say after you wiped out already so many, and you know it's only going to get worse. Than you say "ohh , it's not that bad"
.

Not necessarily if their motive was profit, then climate change prevention would be a priority. the argument is backwards. Capitalists should be spending every resource available to preserve the current climate. it will make most of them lose everything. OTOH environmentalists should be rooting for no action and letting nature take its course. it will wipe out the modern humanity and it’s dominance over the world. In a few thousand years biodiversity will be back to normal levels.

Nah. Profits is not the reason, although I’m sure they very much believe that. ignorance induced fear and fear induced ignorance is the only reason they wear blinders.
I am an energy reservoir seemingly intent on lowering entropy for self preservation.

gerontocrat

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #64 on: December 05, 2017, 02:27:24 PM »
The Guardian newspaper really cheered me up today (black humour):-

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/dec/05/oceans-under-greatest-threat-in-history-warns-sir-david-attenborough

If you can find a way of seeing the last episode of Blue Planet 2 please do. There is an i-player
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04tjbtx

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/dec/05/red-list-thousands-of-species-at-risk-of-extinction-due-to-human-activity

Updates extinction list - also discusses threat to food crops and increasing effect of global warming.

"Para a Causa do Povo a Luta Continua!"

AbruptSLR

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #65 on: December 05, 2017, 04:58:32 PM »
Since people are part of the biosphere, I am posting the following sad news here:

Adam Isen et al. (2017), "Relationship between season of birth, temperature exposure, and later life wellbeing", PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1702436114

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/11/28/1702436114.abstract

Abstract: "We study how exposure to extreme temperatures in early periods of child development is related to adult economic outcomes measured 30 y later. Our analysis uses administrative earnings records for over 12 million individuals born in the United States between 1969 and 1977, linked to fine-scale, daily weather data and location and date of birth. We calculate the length of time each individual is exposed to different temperatures in utero and in early childhood, and we estimate flexible regression models that allow for nonlinearities in the relationship between temperature and long-run outcomes. We find that an extra day with mean temperatures above 32 °C in utero and in the first year after birth is associated with a 0.1% reduction in adult annual earnings at age 30. Temperature sensitivity is evident in multiple periods of early development, ranging from the first trimester of gestation to age 6–12 mo. We observe that household air-conditioning adoption, which increased dramatically over the time period studied, mitigates nearly all of the estimated temperature sensitivity."

See also the related article:

Title: "Climate Change Might Lower Salaries"

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/12/hot-weather-fetuses/547406/

Extract: "The more 90-degree days a fetus or infant endured, the lower his or her earnings in adulthood."
“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
― Leon C. Megginson

magnamentis

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #66 on: December 05, 2017, 06:30:59 PM »
Since people are part of the biosphere, I am posting the following sad news here:

Adam Isen et al. (2017), "Relationship between season of birth, temperature exposure, and later life wellbeing", PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1702436114

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/11/28/1702436114.abstract

Abstract: "We study how exposure to extreme temperatures in early periods of child development is related to adult economic outcomes measured 30 y later. Our analysis uses administrative earnings records for over 12 million individuals born in the United States between 1969 and 1977, linked to fine-scale, daily weather data and location and date of birth. We calculate the length of time each individual is exposed to different temperatures in utero and in early childhood, and we estimate flexible regression models that allow for nonlinearities in the relationship between temperature and long-run outcomes. We find that an extra day with mean temperatures above 32 °C in utero and in the first year after birth is associated with a 0.1% reduction in adult annual earnings at age 30. Temperature sensitivity is evident in multiple periods of early development, ranging from the first trimester of gestation to age 6–12 mo. We observe that household air-conditioning adoption, which increased dramatically over the time period studied, mitigates nearly all of the estimated temperature sensitivity."

See also the related article:

Title: "Climate Change Might Lower Salaries"

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/12/hot-weather-fetuses/547406/

Extract: "The more 90-degree days a fetus or infant endured, the lower his or her earnings in adulthood."

a vast amount of differences in so many fields like mentality, sun-hours, economic conditions, availability  of water etc etc. is so huge that even though the fact my be a fact indeed, it's totally unclear whether:

- one of the many other factors present in warm climate places ( with more hot days logically)
. is/are responsible for the said outcome.

- higher temps reduce the overall economical conditions due to more "siesta" like time etc.
.  less need for winter storage etc. that would make excessive work less necessary to survive etc.

- general conditions present in warm places is responsible for the smaller average income or if
.  what the article suggests is responsible for the general economical and environmental conditions.

what's the cause and what's the result, not that sure while either way the fact remains that people from warmer places who then as a result are exposed to more high temperature exposure as a fetus and/or early childhood earn less the warmer the climate is.

i'm a swiss citizen grown up and working in CH D, PRC, U.S., CND and many other countries in different climate zones before retirement and now living in souther spain and can easily tell that there indeed exists an at times huge difference of income and life style between the people living in countries situated up north and down south where temps are cooler, where winters are colder and longer etc. and i believe that it's the influence of natural conditions, clothing, hours spent outside houses, chances of having a good life without spending money or too much of it, vegetation and it's fruits etc. rather than the exposer to temps themselves. that may as well be a logical coincidence with all other factores, menionend or not mentioned above.

life conditions in parat help form the personality and that again plays a big role n eagerness and need to work and make (more) money.

further there are very cold places where the income drops significantly against people living in places with moderate temps and temp extremes due to other factors like difficulty to move ouside in winter, trouble to be highly productive (efficient) lack of light and reduced vegetation (growth)

i'm quite certain that the same study for temps below -30C exposure as fetus and early chilldhood would procude a simiilar or even worse result.

hence, fact remains but the sugggested cause is not the or at least not the only and or main cause.
« Last Edit: December 05, 2017, 06:53:15 PM by magnamentis »
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TerryM

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #67 on: December 05, 2017, 08:01:50 PM »
Since people are part of the biosphere, I am posting the following sad news here:

Adam Isen et al. (2017), "Relationship between season of birth, temperature exposure, and later life wellbeing", PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1702436114

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/11/28/1702436114.abstract

Abstract: "We study how exposure to extreme temperatures in early periods of child development is related to adult economic outcomes measured 30 y later. Our analysis uses administrative earnings records for over 12 million individuals born in the United States between 1969 and 1977, linked to fine-scale, daily weather data and location and date of birth. We calculate the length of time each individual is exposed to different temperatures in utero and in early childhood, and we estimate flexible regression models that allow for nonlinearities in the relationship between temperature and long-run outcomes. We find that an extra day with mean temperatures above 32 °C in utero and in the first year after birth is associated with a 0.1% reduction in adult annual earnings at age 30. Temperature sensitivity is evident in multiple periods of early development, ranging from the first trimester of gestation to age 6–12 mo. We observe that household air-conditioning adoption, which increased dramatically over the time period studied, mitigates nearly all of the estimated temperature sensitivity."

See also the related article:

Title: "Climate Change Might Lower Salaries"

https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/12/hot-weather-fetuses/547406/

Extract: "The more 90-degree days a fetus or infant endured, the lower his or her earnings in adulthood."


As a Canadian I fully endorse and approve of this article. ;D
Terry

Archimid

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Re: Effects of Climate Change on the biosphere
« Reply #68 on: December 06, 2017, 02:51:35 AM »
Magnamentis. IMHO it's mostly due to 2 factors:

1. Thermodynamics. The human body is simply much less efficient at higher temperatures. Less work can be done and more water is needed. Less work translates into less goods and services created for the same energy spent.

2. Winter. This one is two fold. First society must prepare for winter or die. That entails planning and saving. Those two are key to monetary sucess. Second, during winter people tend to stay inside, were it's warm. This leads to time to read, plan, think and cultivate the mind.

I'm sure that there are many other factors, but I believe those are the most influential. At least they were the most influential but modern technologies like climate control and modern workforce may somewhat reduce the effects.

I am an energy reservoir seemingly intent on lowering entropy for self preservation.