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Freegrass

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Waste Management and Product Optimization
« on: May 18, 2023, 02:00:50 PM »
I've been watching some videos on pyrolysis, and that's actually an interesting technology to recycle plastics, wind turbine blades, tires, and other difficult to recycle waste products.
Here's video on blade recycling.

Can you change the name of this rarely used thread to "Waste Management and Recycling" Kassy? It's an important topic that needs some more debate here IMHO. What are we going to do with our waste? What's the best way to make it useful again?



Tire recycling with pyrolysis.

Quote
Presentation of Enviro's patented process through which End-of-Life tires are recycled and converted into valuable products such as high grade recovered carbon black, oil, steel and gas. Filmed in our demo plant in Åsensbruk, Sweden.

« Last Edit: May 20, 2023, 03:45:49 AM by Freegrass »
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Freegrass

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #1 on: May 18, 2023, 02:01:39 PM »
Best documentary on recycling I have ever seen. Amazing what they can do these days. So happy that we're doing this in Belgium too. Landfills should be made illegal.
Posted on October 20, 2022.
Duration 48 minutes
Definitely worth your time!

Gold-rush atmosphere in the recycling industry, waste as an economic engine. Every year, 40 million metric tons of waste end up in the trash cans of German households. Thanks to strict regulations and precise specifications for waste separation, this waste is turned into new raw materials.

According to official statistics, the German recycling industry has generated sales of around 11.4 billion euros in recent years. The documentary provides insights into a booming industry and shows how raw materials are extracted from affluent waste.

« Last Edit: May 20, 2023, 03:46:07 AM by Freegrass »
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kassy

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #2 on: May 18, 2023, 07:32:26 PM »
The old one was a bit of a mix of things that later got other threads.
So we can use this to focus on Waste Management and Recycling.
Off course the best thing is actually reducing the overall waste...
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

Freegrass

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #3 on: May 20, 2023, 01:10:05 PM »
The old one was a bit of a mix of things that later got other threads.
So we can use this to focus on Waste Management and Recycling.
Off course the best thing is actually reducing the overall waste...
This is perfect, and I just added product optimization to the title after watching some of the videos on this amazing YouTube channel. Pretty amazing technologies they're explaining here. If you're into production and mechanical engineering, you're going to love these videos. Very interesting!

https://www.youtube.com/@Ressource-deutschlandDe/videos

But when I asked ChatGPT what Waste Management, Product Optimization, and Recycling was, it told me that recycling is a part of waste management. So I removed recycling from the title, and this was the new explanation when I asked; What is Waste Management and Product Optimization? And the answer is perfect.


Waste management and product optimization refer to the combined efforts of managing waste effectively while simultaneously improving product efficiency and sustainability.

Waste management involves the proper handling, treatment, and disposal of waste materials. It encompasses various practices such as waste collection, sorting, recycling, composting, and disposal in landfills or waste-to-energy facilities. The goal is to minimize the negative environmental and health impacts of waste generation and disposal.

Product optimization, on the other hand, focuses on enhancing the design, production, and performance of products to reduce waste generation and improve their overall sustainability. This includes analyzing and modifying product design, materials, manufacturing processes, and packaging to minimize resource consumption, energy use, and environmental impact throughout the product lifecycle. Product optimization may involve using more sustainable materials, reducing packaging waste, improving product durability, or implementing efficient manufacturing processes.

By combining waste management and product optimization, organizations aim to create a holistic approach that considers waste reduction and sustainability throughout the entire product lifecycle, from design and production to consumption and disposal. This integrated approach helps minimize waste generation, maximize resource efficiency, and reduce environmental impact.
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Freegrass

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #4 on: May 20, 2023, 01:10:45 PM »
This MUST SEE documentary is infuriating and an eye-opener on plastics. And I'm thinking while watching this; Why don't we put a price on plastics? Metals and paper have a price. You can bring in 1 kg of copper to the recycler, and you get money for it. If there would be a price on plastics, there would be loads of poor people in the world that could be collecting all the plastics to get money for it. Right now, most of the plastic pollution in our oceans comes from the poorest countries - because they don't recycle as much as we do here in the western world. So let poor people collect plastics all around the world to make a few bucks with it so that they can keep them out of our oceans and are able to buy some food with it. (I know how bad this sounds, but I've lived in the Philippines for more than 2 years. Reality is that eight people in the world own as much money as the 4 billion poorest people in the world).

And why do we have so many different kinds of plastics that aren't recyclable? Or are too expensive to recycle? Just make plastics that can be recycled easily. Make it a little more expensive, and give people money when they bring it in. Just like we did with paper in the seventies. I remember gathering paper in school when I was a kid. You received money for that, and so everybody started collecting paper for recycling so that they had a few extra bucks that they could use for events.

Today, paper recycling is as normal as eating an apple... Why can't we do that with plastics?

I know, I know... Let's get rid of all plastics because microplastics are in our food chain now. It's true... But it's not happening, is it? So let's do the Buddhist thing and find the middle way. Ban unrecyclable plastics, and give people money for 1 kg of recyclable plastics. I'm sure that'll get rid of loads of plastic in our oceans, and give us time to come up with better solutions...

Gonna finish watching this awesome documentary now. Maybe they have some solutions in it. I just had to write this down now while I was in the mood... I'll edit later... So don't approve it yet Kassy! Wait until I've finished watching this awesome documentary.

Just finished watching it...
I can't believe how evil the American oil industry is...  :-[

You can post this now, Kassy. I'm just too furious right now to write anything more about this. The fossil fuel plastic industry is just about as evil and threatening to our natural world than climate change...

No more words... 😡😢

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Sigmetnow

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #5 on: May 22, 2023, 04:54:26 PM »
Here’s a new U.S startup, “Twin Birch,” whose mission is, “To create clothing for a healthier, more sustainable planet.”
Quote
The Problem
Over the last 30 years, with the onset of “Fast Fashion,” the concept of inexpensive, mass-produced, and disposable garments in the conventional clothing industry has contributed to the largest amount of waste in its history. The industry’s approach is dependent on toxic materials, such as petroleum-based synthetic fiber, which contributes 8-10% of greenhouse gas emissions globally. In addition, the use of pesticides, dyes, and fabric finishers is fouling waterways with toxins (the fashion industry produces 20% of global wastewater), dumping microfibers into the ocean, and clogging landfills. About 85% of textiles end up in landfills or are incinerated.
 
If the clothing industry continues this trend, its negative environmental impact will continue to grow and progressively harm our planet.

 
Our Solution
To support the innovation of a more sustainable clothing industry.
 
We use organic and biodegradable materials, durable fabrics, timeless styles, local manufacturing and compostable packaging. Our brand aims to reduce the environmental impact from the start to finish of each product’s life cycle.
  
Through educating our consumers on the historically destructive practices of “fast fashion” and providing a more sustainable production model, we hope to contribute to the growth of a more environmentally-conscious clothing industry.

Twin Birch is available in the US & Canada, with future expansion plans.

Made In The USA
 
Local Production
Our manufacturers and operations are located in the Northeast.
 
Smaller Footprint
Local production naturally reduces our carbon footprint.

https://www.twinbirch.com/
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Freegrass

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #6 on: June 07, 2023, 06:11:36 PM »
How Old EV Batteries are Perfect for Energy Storage.

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Freegrass

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #7 on: June 27, 2023, 01:51:21 PM »
Another great video from Just Have a Think, about some projects that use plastic waste as a building material.

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neal

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #8 on: September 12, 2023, 12:53:29 AM »
waste plastic to pavers


Freegrass

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #9 on: September 23, 2023, 08:14:20 AM »
Antwerp to host large plant to recycle southern European plastics

https://www.belganewsagency.eu/antwerp-to-host-large-plant-to-recycle-southern-european-plastics

The Turkish-Belgian company Synpet Technologies and the Swiss Kolmar Group are investing 100 million euros to build a large recycling plant in the port of Antwerp. From 2025, it will import and process tonnes of plastic from southern Europe.

"Our first plant will be located in the port of Antwerp, in the heart of one of the largest chemical clusters in Europe," said Cem Ozsuer, CEO of Synpet Technologies, in a press release. "We are very proud to invest in the heart of Flanders, in one of Europe's most renowned and well-equipped ports."

The company had initially planned to set up in Genk. However, as Synpet will be importing a lot of southern European plastics, Antwerp, with all its facilities, was considered to be more suitable.



Existing technologies can only process certain wastes and require these wastes to be very clean, sorted or completely dried. Pre-treatment of waste is very costly and inefficient. TCP technology does not require any pre-treatment. Any kind of waste can be added to the feedstock unsorted and wet.

Besides, with current technologies, only certain wastes can be added to the feedstock and few useful outputs can be produced. With our patented TCP technology, all types of waste, including the toughest ones such as sewage sludge or hazardous waste, can be processed and high-quality, useful products can be produced.

https://synpet.com/waste-to-renewables/
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Freegrass

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #10 on: September 23, 2023, 09:42:32 PM »
With our patented TCP technology, all types of waste, including the toughest ones such as sewage sludge or hazardous waste, can be processed and high-quality, useful products can be produced.
Does anyone here understand how significant this technology is? More than 20 years ago, they were already talking about "anything into oil". Many companies have since been pursuing this dream, but none have ever succeeded into making this a commercially viable dream...

But now that dream is becoming a reality... Here in Antwerp...
WOW! WOW!!! WOW!!!!!!!!!
And they will use the gas they produce to keep their process going... Just feed waste...

It's a recycling dream, and nobody here said WOW!?
I don't get it...

I really want to find out more about the technology, but I can find anything about it... It's a well guarded Turkish mystery it seems...

Quote
Anything Into Oil
Technological savvy could turn 600 million tons of turkey guts and other waste into 4 billion barrels of light Texas crude each year.
By Brad Lemley and Tony Law
May 1, 2003
https://www.discovermagazine.com/environment/anything-into-oil
Isn't it ironic, that an inventor from Turkey invented this? 🤔
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #11 on: September 25, 2023, 04:09:38 PM »
On many Japanese toilets, the hand wash sink is attached so that you can wash your hands and reuse the water for the next flush. Japan saves millions of liters of water every year doing this.
⬇️ Image below from: pic.twitter.com/xYh0smEcSd 
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #12 on: October 09, 2023, 01:13:22 PM »
The ⁦‪@oceancleanup‬⁩ project completed their 3rd and largest system that has been put to the test in the Pacific Ocean, System 03 in the Pacific Garbage Patch

Here you see the 3D rendering design vs reality: ➡️ pic.twitter.com/ryL1mBQs7t  1 min.

10/9/23, https://x.com/rainmaker1973/status/1711264871902257316

read more: ➡️ buff.ly/46I6VU6 
Quote
The main new addition to System 03’s mitigation measures is what we call the MASH: the Marine Animal Safety Hatch. This is located inside the Retention Zone, which is monitored by underwater cameras. If an animal is spotted in the Retention Zone, the MASH is activated, blocking off any further entrance into the Retention Zone while opening an exit hatch and giving the animal a clear route out. This mechanism also means we can ensure any animals exit the Retention Zone without costing us a full load of plastic, further improving our efficiency. …
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morganism

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #13 on: December 25, 2023, 02:10:28 AM »
Uncontrolled chemical reactions fuel crises at LA County's two largest landfills

(...)
Although operators of the Castaic landfill say there's no full-blown fire, temperatures within the dump have climbed to more than 200 degrees, and area residents have complained of a burned garbage odor wafting through the neighborhoods.

Meanwhile, 12 miles to the southeast, Sunshine Canyon landfill has suffered water intrusion from torrential storms earlier this year. That seepage has fueled bacteria growth within the Sylmar landfill, giving rise to putrid odors that have nauseated students and staff at a local elementary school.

The highly unusual reactions at Los Angeles County's two largest landfills have raised serious questions about the region's long-standing approach to waste disposal and its aging dumps. These incidents have impaired pollution control systems, allowing toxic gases and polluted water to migrate into unwanted areas.
(snip)
"If temperatures get to a certain point, there isn't going to be much that can be done," said Sarah Olaguez, a Val Verde resident whose family lives less than a mile from Chiquita Canyon. "I feel like we're on the precipice right now. It's a train wreck waiting to happen. It's scary and I feel trapped."

The scorching temperatures within Chiquita Canyon Landfill have caused pressure to build inside the 639-acre facility and forced contaminated water to burst onto the surface.

Analyses by CalRecycle, the state agency that oversees solid waste and recycling facilities, described the situation as a "heating/ smoldering" event that has expanded in all directions since the summer. By November, the reaction area had grown by 30 to 35 acres, according to the agency.

Already, the heat has melted or deformed the landfill's gas collection system, which consists mostly of polyvinyl chloride well casings. The damage has hindered the facility's efforts to collect toxic pollutants.

"When there are high temperatures in the landfill gas, that can melt or deform some of the landfill gas collection system components," said Angela Shibata, senior air quality engineering manager with the South Coast Air Quality Management District. "You can imagine when you have very hot temperatures and you have plastic materials as conveyance mechanisms for extracting and vacuuming out that gas, that can cause all kinds of issues."

Abnormally pungent odors began drifting into neighboring communities last spring and intensified over the summer. In Val Verde, an unincorporated community of around 3,000 residents, some say they have suffered headaches, dizzy spells and difficulty breathing.

"The odors were so bad that my wife and I were getting sick inside our house—with the doors and windows closed," said Steven Howse, a longtime Val Verde resident. "My kids can't go outside, and my son loves to go and jump on the trampoline or ride his bike. But he'll come in saying, "Oh, my stomach hurts, Dad. I don't feel good.'"

According to the South Coast Air Quality Management District, the odors are the result of a rare chemical reaction in a closed portion of the landfill that no longer receives trash.

The reaction may have started when oxygen entered the well system, which is designed to pump out landfill gases like methane.

"Think about if you've ever lit a campfire and then tried to blow on it to get it going," said Morton Barlaz, professor of civil engineering at North Carolina State University. "When you blow on it, you get more flame."

The landfill recorded elevated oxygen levels in hundreds of its gas wells over the past two years, according to CalRecycle. As temperatures rose to near-boiling heights this year, carbon monoxide levels climbed to more than 1,000 parts per million, which CalRecycle considers positive indication of an active underground landfill fire.
(more)

https://phys.org/news/2023-12-uncontrolled-chemical-reactions-fuel-crises.html

Sigmetnow

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #14 on: December 25, 2023, 05:54:40 PM »
Completely recyclable! :)
Quote
‬⁩This is how home-made freezers are created in Mongolia
➡️ pic.twitter.com/aSs8yLYp5t  1 min.
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morganism

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #15 on: December 26, 2023, 10:33:01 PM »
(I put a story about this in the food section, but will drop this older one here for cross ref.)

Zapping municipal waste helps recover valuable phosphorus fertilizer

One of humankind's most precious fertilizers is slipping away.

Phosphorus, which today comes mostly from nonrenewable reserves of phosphate rock, typically winds up in municipal waste streams. In the best cases, wastewater treatment plants sequester about 90% of that phosphorus in "sludge" and decompose that sludge into something known as digestate. Engineers hope to establish a more sustainable cycle for reusing phosphorus, but toxic compounds in digestate limit the possibility of recycling it as fertilizer—it's hard to recover phosphorus from solid waste like digestate.

"Existing phosphorus recovery technologies mostly target the liquid," said Zhen (Jason) He, the Laura & William Jens Professor in the Department of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering at the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis. "Sludge contains a lot more phosphorus compared to the liquid. How can we recover that?"

His lab develops technologies to recapture resources like phosphorus from wastewater. Recently, the team explored using electrochemical devices—the fundamental system at work inside batteries—to split water molecules and pull solid, usable phosphorus out from digestate. It was the first effort to simultaneously remove and recover phosphorus from solid municipal waste without adding chemicals. And it met its goal with surprising efficiency.

"Phosphorus is a compound of high interest because it's a limited resource," He said. "You can potentially save a lot of money."

The team, which also included doctoral candidate Zixuan Wang and undergraduate Daran Anand, published details of their experiment online June 26 in Environmental Science & Technology.

In a separate review paper published earlier this year in Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, He, Wang and Fubin Liu, another doctoral student in the lab, analyzed the ways in which electrochemical devices could remove phosphorus. This "leaching" occurs when an electrical current flowing through the anode side of an electrode acidifies a slurry surrounding it.

But leaching alone doesn't solve the broader problem: "For removal, you spend a lot of time and money and eventually you still dump it," He said. "Can we recover it instead?" He noticed an opportunity to combine removal and recovery in one electrochemical device.

The idea was to have two chambers that operate at different pH. Sludge enters the anode chamber, in which current separates phosphate into liquid solution. The team transferred the phosphorus-rich liquid to the less acidic cathode chamber. And here, free-floating phosphates, calcium and iron from the original sludge should combine into whitish solids that precipitate to the bottom.

To test their prototype, He's team obtained real digestate from the Missouri River Wastewater Treatment Plant in St. Louis. After tinkering with the electrical current, they identified conditions where the device leached phosphorus with over 93% efficiency and precipitated approximately 99% of it into solid form. Over 42 cycles, the device averaged nearly 80% efficiency in recovering phosphorus.

https://phys.org/news/2023-06-zapping-municipal-recover-valuable-phosphorus.html

Sigmetnow

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #16 on: January 06, 2024, 09:20:29 PM »
Unleashing the power of nature, this is a traditional washing machine that uses flowing water to cleanse clothes.
https://x.com/rainmaker1973/status/1741818674535702793
 
➡️ pic.twitter.com/XE770OGdEY  9 sec.
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morganism

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #17 on: January 31, 2024, 07:13:15 PM »
An enzyme used in laundry detergent can recycle single-use plastics within 24 hours

(...)
Scientists at King's College London have developed an innovative solution for recycling single-use bioplastics commonly used in disposable items such as coffee cups and food containers.

The novel method of chemical recycling, published in Cell Reports Physical Science, uses enzymes typically found in biological laundry detergents to "depolymerize"—or break down—landfill-bound bioplastics. Rapidly converting the items into soluble fragments within just 24 hours, the process achieves full degradation of the bioplastic polylactic acid (PLA). The approach is 84 times faster than the 12-week-long industrial composting process used for recycling bioplastic materials.

This discovery offers a widespread recycling solution for single-use PLA plastics, as the team of chemists at King's found that in a further 24 hours at a temperature of 90°C, the bioplastics break down into their chemical building blocks. Once converted into monomers—single molecules—the materials can be turned into equally high-quality plastic for multiple reuse.

https://phys.org/news/2024-01-enzyme-laundry-detergent-recycle-plastics.html


A general route to retooling hydrolytic enzymes toward plastic degradation

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666386424000031?via%3Dihub

To demonstrate this approach, we have solubilized and stabilized the commonly available lipase B from Candida antarctica in ionic liquids. In doing so, we unlock the ability of the enzyme to hydrolytically depolymerize post-consumer poly(lactic acid) plastic, demonstrating full degradation within 24 h and full conversion to monomer within 40 h at 90°C. This facile and scalable modification strategy allows for elevated operation temperatures in combination with the superior solvent capabilities of ionic liquids, providing a blueprint for enhancing the capability of any hydrolytic enzyme for plastic recycling.

Freegrass

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #18 on: February 03, 2024, 07:54:40 AM »
Excellent find Morganism!

Here's an excellent video from Rosie about turbine blade recycling. I think she's covered it all.

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Freegrass

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #19 on: February 06, 2024, 02:58:49 AM »
PBS story about plastic recycling with enzymes.

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kiwichick16

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #20 on: March 14, 2024, 12:15:12 AM »
not rare earths  as such  .....recycling wind turbine blades ..... is this actually workable ? and if so why do most of us still think it can't be done ??

https://www.energy.gov/eere/wind/articles/carbon-rivers-makes-wind-turbine-blade-recycling-and-upcycling-reality-support

sidd

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #21 on: March 14, 2024, 04:44:35 PM »
Thanks for the link. The process used pyrolysis, so energy consumption will be significant. I didnt see a number for energy consumption in there ...

sidd

kiwichick16

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #22 on: March 15, 2024, 02:43:20 AM »

kassy

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #23 on: March 15, 2024, 07:36:34 PM »
This should go in the Waste Management thread

Indeed, moved it.
Þetta minnismerki er til vitnis um að við vitum hvað er að gerast og hvað þarf að gera. Aðeins þú veist hvort við gerðum eitthvað.

kassy

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #24 on: March 18, 2024, 03:46:45 PM »
In Cleveland, mushrooms digest entire houses: How fungi can be used to clean up pollution

In the struggle to combat pollution and fight climate change, a growing number of scientists are beginning to look to one of nature’s oldest biotechnologies: fungi.

The city of Cleveland faces an epidemic of abandoned houses. Crumbling homes number in the thousands. These ramshackle structures are riddled with toxins like lead and dilapidated to the point of no return. And if tearing down and safely disposing of the waste of one such home sounds daunting, imagine thousands of them.

Among the numerous issues that arise, one essential question involves waste. What do you do with the waste material from so many teardown structures, when so much of it is toxic?

"All of the material from demolition – the studs, the floors, cellulosic mass [the primary structural component of plants], and even things like ceiling tiles and asphalt material like roof shingles, can be mixed into substrate that then becomes good for growing fungus," says Chris Maurer, founder of Cleveland-based architect firm Redhouse Studio. Through his firm, Maurer has been advocating for the use of substrate to address Cleveland's housing crisis, which is also a health crisis for the city's inhabitants.

Substrate is any material that mycelium – the thready, vegetative part of fungi – uses for nourishment. In other words, fungi can eat the noxious waste from the abandoned homes. Heavy metals and other toxins are extracted and captured in the mushrooms that grow, while the substrate leftovers, including the mycelium, are compacted and heated to create clean bricks for new construction. The resulting "mycoblocks" have a consistency akin to hardwood and, depending on the specifics of the manufacturing process, have been shown to be significantly stronger than concrete.

This is Redhouse's Biocycler program, which is one of many diverse efforts around the world aiming to eliminate pollution, combat climate change, and mitigate its already-looming effects via one of nature's oldest biotechnologies: fungi.

"Effectively what we're doing is diverting tonnage from landfill," says Joanne Rodriguez, founder and chief executive of a similar organisation called Mycocycle, which works to recycle construction waste for corporate clients. "[Because] 11% of the world's carbon comes from materials in the built environment. By 2027, just from Mycocyle's waste diversion, Rodriguez anticipates carbon reductions "of close to 160,000 metric tons."

more:

https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20240314-fungi-can-be-used-to-clean-pollution-and-combat-climate-change
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Freegrass

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #25 on: April 21, 2024, 09:26:30 PM »
Excellent 10-minute video on bamboo as a plastic and paper alternative. I had no idea all this was already possible. Why aren't we doing this?

When factual science is in conflict with our beliefs or traditions, we cuddle up in our own delusional fantasy where everything starts making sense again.

morganism

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #26 on: April 29, 2024, 01:02:39 AM »
Mixing water and oil: no surfactants needed   
(truly a biodegradable packaging solution, plastic replacement)


Oil and water famously don’t mix – at least, not without adding a surfactant such as soap to coax them into a stable combination. Now, however, researchers in France and US have turned this conventional wisdom on its head by showing that they can, in fact, mix without a surfactant. The finding could have wide-reaching implications for industries that make heavy use of such mixtures, including food, cosmetics, health, paints and packaging to name just a few.

A mixture of two immiscible liquids such as water and oil is known as an emulsion. When an emulsion is shaken vigorously, one of its component liquids may disperse into small droplets within the other. But if the emulsion is left to stand, its components invariably separate out again.

The main driver of this separation is that as droplets of each liquid move closer to each other, they coalesce into ever-larger droplets. To prevent this, a third component may be added that is amphiphilic, meaning that it has an affinity for the interface between the mixture’s two components. Today’s industrial emulsions rely on the use of such materials, which are termed surfactants. However, many surfactants are toxic for both humans and the environment. Reducing their use (or doing away with them altogether) would therefore be highly beneficial.

A counter-intuitive phenomenon

In the latest work, researchers from the Colloïdes et Matériaux Divisés Laboratory at the ESPCI in Paris, France; the French company Calyxia, which specializes in the design and manufacture of biodegradable microcapsules; and Harvard University in the US studied mixtures composed solely of water and various types of oil. Within these normally immiscible mixtures, they observed ultrathin but abnormally stable films of oil spontaneously appearing between the dispersed droplets of water.

“This phenomenon systematically induces adhesion between the droplets while preventing them from coalescing, so allowing us to disperse large proportions of water (80% by volume or more) in oil,” explains Jérôme Bibette, the chemical physicist and ESPCI laboratory director who led the research.
Stable over several weeks

The phenomenon, which is detailed in Science, works best for highly polar oils that contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components and have a high molecular weight. These criteria exclude aliphatic hydrocarbons such as methane and polyethylene, for example, but include oils containing alternating oxygen and carbon atoms – a category that encompasses all vegetable oils.

The researchers found that these oils can change their configuration as soon as they are confined between two drops of water by “choosing” to preferentially locate their hydrophilic parts towards the water and the hydrophobic parts away from it. “The ultrathin adhesive film induced by the affinity of the hydrophobic parts develops spontaneously as soon as the two interfaces approach,” Bibette says. “The film then acquires an enormous viscosity while reducing the free energy of the interface – something that manifests itself by the water and oil drops adhering together.”

Such spontaneous gelling between two immiscible liquids had never been observed before, he adds.

Since most vegetable oils can be polymerized, combining them with water could allow researchers to make perfectly biodegradable polymeric materials. For Bibette, one of the most obvious applications that springs to mind is biodegradable capsules for industries such as cosmetics and fragrances.

The technique could also allow researchers to create new types of plastics comprising biodegradable polymers and up to 90% water by volume, he tells Physics World. “Both phases could be made (and controlled to be) homogenous throughout the entire mixture, which could allow us to produce a unique bi-continuous, coexisting hydrophilic and hydrophobic material,” he says. “This could have applications in areas as diverse as tissue engineering, biodegradable packing and materials for replacing plastics in general.”

https://physicsworld.com/a/mixing-water-and-oil-no-surfactants-needed/

Freegrass

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #27 on: May 08, 2024, 12:51:34 PM »
World’s first wooden wind turbine blades installed in Germany

https://reneweconomy.com.au/worlds-first-wooden-wind-turbine-blades-installed-in-germany/

The world’s first wooden wind turbine blades have been installed in Germany, which promise to be able to produce than 78% fewer CO2 emissions during construction and reduce production costs by 20% compared to current turbine blades.

Designed and manufactured by Voodin Blade Technology, a German pioneer in wind turbine blade manufacturing, the laminated veneer lumber blades are a more sustainable construction material than current materials and allows for easier recycling of decommissioned blades.

While many wind turbine blades are buried underground at the end of their useful lives, there are increasing efforts to make them recyclable. Danish wind energy giant Vestas unveiled a new method of recycling epoxy-based wind turbine blades in early 2023 that is capable of breaking down epoxy resin into virgin-grade materials.

Similarly, another Danish company, Continuum, unveiled plans in January 2023 to build six industrial-scale wind turbine blade recycling factories across Europe and began taking end-of-life blades at the end of the year.

Despite these efforts, Voodin’s laminated veneer lumber offers a completely biodegradable wind turbine blade that is nevertheless made from one of the preferred choices for structural applications.

With a 20% reduction in costs and a 78% reduction in CO2 emissions, Voodin Blade Technology’s wooden blades could revolutionise the circularity of the wind energy industry.

The first 19.3-metre wooden blades have been installed on an existing wind turbine in Breuna, Germany. Voodin is also building new prototypes including bigger 60-metre and 80-metre-blades.

These wooden turbine blades are made using CNC milling machines that are particularly effective in creating complex 3D shapes, which allows for a high level of automation as no mould is needed in the manufacturing plant – another advantage over traditional fiberglass and epoxy resin blades.

According to Voodin, being able to increase the level of automation in the construction of these blades reduces the need for labour, resulting in lower labour costs and allowing for production of the blades closer to the wind farms where they will be installed, which subsequently also reduces transportation costs and emissions.

As yet another benefit of laminated veneer lumber, the blades are even more durable than currently used composite materials, able to survive in even the toughest conditions of onshore energy production.

“We have conducted hundreds of laboratory tests during the past two years to perfect the blade material,” said Jorge Castillo, co-founder at Voodin Blade Technology.

“According to all our tests, our blades are even more durable than the existing fiberglass blades, as they show fewer fatigue characteristics and are proven to endure all kinds of onshore weather conditions extremely well.”
« Last Edit: May 08, 2024, 03:01:53 PM by Freegrass »
When factual science is in conflict with our beliefs or traditions, we cuddle up in our own delusional fantasy where everything starts making sense again.

kassy

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #28 on: May 08, 2024, 02:48:32 PM »
Nice. Lets hope this catches on.
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Sigmetnow

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #29 on: May 08, 2024, 07:50:31 PM »
World’s first wooden wind turbine blades installed in Germany

Quote
“According to all our tests, our blades are even more durable than the existing fiberglass blades, as they show fewer fatigue characteristics and are proven to endure all kinds of onshore weather conditions extremely well.”

Love the sustainability and lowered emissions.  But I would like to know the difference in weight, if any, and whether there is any tendency for wooden blades to warp.  Because if they need to be replaced more often than fiberglass, those additional energy and emission costs need to be added to the equation.
People who say it cannot be done should not interrupt those who are doing it.

kassy

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #30 on: May 08, 2024, 11:01:17 PM »
If they are more durable they probably need less replacing.
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kassy

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #31 on: May 14, 2024, 12:23:01 PM »
Cow dung's key role in India's energy industry

Every day, with bare hands, Rukmini Baburao Kumbhar, collects around 50kg (eight stone) of fresh cow dung.

She is part of a spiritual group that runs a small ashram (a religious retreat) in a village in the north-western Indian state of Maharashtra.

Collecting cow dung is not, primarily, an effort to keep the place tidy. Instead, the cow dung is used to make biomethane.

"Fuel has become extremely expensive. Biogas was a good option. The only requirement was space and cows. We had both,” explains Ms Kumbhar.

Once collected, the cow dung is mixed with water and put in the bioreactor, where it produces enough methane for the ashram's kitchen.

Installed in March, it has replaced the 20 litres of natural gas that Ms Kumbhar used to buy every month.

It does involve collecting the cow dung, but she doesn't mind.

"In most of the rural parts of India, agriculture is the main occupation. So, touching the cow dung is not a big deal," she says.

...

Indian cattle produce around three-million tonnes of cow dung a day, according to data from the government' s policy body NITI Aayog.

The government wants more of that dung, and other agriculture waste, to be made into methane.

Biogas plants do that using a process known as anaerobic digestion, which involves feeding waste into airtight tanks where naturally occurring bacteria break down the organic matter.

The process produces a mixture of gases, primarily methane (around 60%) and carbon dioxide.

At the moment, India imports around half of its natural gas needs - money flowing abroad, which the government would rather see spent at home. And as the economy grows, India's demand for energy is only going to rise.

To spur the biogas industry, from 2025 the government has ordered gas suppliers to blend natural gas with 1% biomethane, rising to 5% by 2028.

As well as reducing India's imports of gas, biogas can also cut air pollution, as stubble that was previously burnt, can instead be sent to bioreactors.

In addition, the material left after the bioreactor has done its work can be used as fertiliser.

...

Asia's biggest compressed biogas (CBG) plant is in Lehragaga, in the northern Indian state of Punjab.

Opened in late 2022, it can turn 300 tonnes of paddy straw into 33 tonnes of biogas every day.

At the moment it is only producing eight tonnes a day, as there's not enough demand for the fuel.

That's partly due to its location - far from any big towns and major roads.

Location presents a different problem in Ludhiana, Punjab, where cow dung is a menace. With around 6,000 cows in the surrounding area, the city is a centre of dairy production, but dairy owners have been dumping waste straight into the public sewers, causing river pollution.

The situation would probably be worse, if dung was not being diverted to a large biogas reactor at the Haibowal Dairy Complex, which can process 225 tonnes of dung a day.

It was built in 2004, but demand is such that there are plans to more than double the output of the biogas facility.

Rajiv Kumar is responsible for collecting cow dung from the surrounding area. He remembers the early days when farmers could not really understand why he wanted the waste.

"It was hard to convince them to sell cow dung to us. They used to look at us with suspicion. But now waste has created a source of income for them and they don’t have to do anything, so its win-win situation for them,” he says.

The work is difficult, but valuable to the local community.

“This cow dung is a mix of cows and buffalos, so, the smell is repulsive, but we all need money at the end of the day to survive.”

Baljit Singh is one of those who has embraced the opportunities in biogas.

He comes from a family of farmers in Punjab, growing wheat and rice. When he saw the biogas plants being built he realised that there was an opportunity. Mr Singh started by collecting the stubble left over from his family's harvest and selling it to the plant.

Then he went and tried to persuade other farmers to give him their husk.

"It was not an easy journey. As the pressure on farmers is high to clear the land for the next sowing, they preferred burning the husk. I convinced them that it is a money-making opportunity for them," he explains.

But it has become a sizeable business. Today Mr Singh has around 200 people working from him collecting farming waste from 10 villages.

"It’s a labour-intensive job. Before the harvest begins, I visit most of the villages to convince the farmers to sell me their agriculture residue. It has to be dry so we have to be very quick.

“Residues are chopped or shredded to a specific size for efficient digestion in the biogas plant. During collection we are very careful about the moisture content and contaminants.”

https://www.bbc.com/news/articles/c254ggrry45o
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kassy

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #32 on: May 14, 2024, 12:25:41 PM »
Pioneering shell concrete could help prevent floods

A pioneering project is making an eco-friendly concrete from crushed shells that would otherwise be set for landfill - and could help prevent flooding.

A team at the University of Central Lancashire (UCLan) have developed the sustainable concrete which is made from crushed scallop and whelk shells sourced from Fleetwood.

By using the shells, which would usually be discarded by fishmongers, the concrete would allow water to drain through it, and could be used for footpaths, car parks and gardens to alleviate flooding.

It is being tested in the garden of People's Pantry, a community food initiative, in Blackpool, which is prone to flooding.

Scallops and whelks are often removed from their shells by fishmongers before they are sold.

Usually, these shells are then crushed and sent to landfill, but the project would give them another use.

Prof Karl Williams, who is leading the project, said: "When it rains, the water will permeate through and then will dissipate into ground so stopping flooding and this particular garden area was very prone to flooding."

"We have to wash them and crush them and then we have to sieve them to the right size, so that they can go into the concrete."

UCLan wants companies to look at using this as a way of preventing flooding and also stop millions of tonnes of shells discarded by the seafood industry going into landfill.

As well as the community garden at the People's Pantry in the Bostonway area of Blackpool, extensive trials are being done at the university in test tanks.

Arts company Leftcoast designed and built the People's Pantry which has a community pantry and garden space where residents can grow their own produce.

"We needed a flooring that would be something which would be slip and trip proof," Helen Jones of Leftcoast said.

"We've also got waterlogging locally, or was prior to sorting out the garden now, so it needed to tick that box as well."

She said they also needed a ramp for accessibility.

"The fact that it also takes shells from a local fishing industry and stops it going to landfill and repurposes it fits with everything else we've been doing inside."

Maggie Gregson, a Bostonway resident, said the shells had made a big difference to the community garden.

"It was bad before because it kept flooding - we were walking about in mud.

"We were doing some tests the other week and we were pouring water in... and it works.

"I think it's an absolutely brilliant idea."

https://www.bbc.com/news/articles/c3g8y14r28go
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Freegrass

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #33 on: May 14, 2024, 04:47:53 PM »
Cow dung's key role in India's energy industry
.........
https://www.bbc.com/news/articles/c254ggrry45o
I think I've posted this here on the forum before somewhere. I love this idea for biogas, and a good thing for this guy is that it's taking off. (more videos on his YouTube Channel)

But the better way is to use Thermal Plasma Electrolysis from Hiiroc to convert that biogas into hydrogen and black carbon. This way it's a carbon negative technology. We'd be getting rid of organic waste and CO2.

When factual science is in conflict with our beliefs or traditions, we cuddle up in our own delusional fantasy where everything starts making sense again.

kassy

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #34 on: May 14, 2024, 10:56:29 PM »
There is enough for all uses and replacing normal gas is arguably more urgent. Using the stubble instead of burning it in the fields is a direct win for air quality.
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vox_mundi

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Re: Waste Management and Product Optimization
« Reply #35 on: June 07, 2024, 03:59:03 PM »
Feds Expect to Decide This Year On Mosaic's 'Radioactive Roads' Plan In Florida
https://phys.org/news/2024-06-feds-year-mosaic-radioactive-roads.html

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency informed Mosaic in a May 20 letter that the agency is reviewing the company's proposal to blend 1,200 tons of its mildly radioactive waste byproduct, called phosphogypsum, into a test roadway at the company's New Wales plant in Mulberry. An agency spokesperson told the Tampa Bay Times they expect a decision by the end of the year.

Phosphogypsum is the material left behind when Mosaic mines phosphate ore across Central Florida's Bone Valley and turns it into an ingredient for fertilizer. The byproduct contains radium-226, which emits radiation during its decay to form radon, a potentially cancer-causing, radioactive gas, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Right now, Mosaic stores its phosphogypsum in several "gypstacks" across Florida. Mosaic in 2022 asked the feds for the test road on the company's property to be 1,200 feet long with up to 500 tons of phosphogypsum, but last year expanded its proposal to make it 3,200 feet with up to 1,200 tons under the advice of Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis' state transportation agency.

DeSantis last year signed a controversial bill that allowed the Florida Department of Transportation to study using phosphogypsum in roadways and release a report by April. The measure, dubbed the "radioactive roads" bill by critics, was lobbied by Mosaic. The company also hosted and paid nearly $25,000 for a fundraising event for the state lawmaker who sponsored the bill, Rep. Lawrence McClure, R-Plant City.


... As for the risks? "There are quite a few," Shi said. For one: If it isn't treated, gypsum is sensitive to moisture.

"When you have a road base in Florida with heavy rain, there may be some significant risk if this moisture sensitivity is not mitigated," Shi said in an interview. The phosphogypsum could leach heavy metals out of roads over time, which could seep into soil and groundwater. The studies reviewed by the Florida Department of Transportation had little mention of the long-term ecological consequences or how to manage leaching risks, Shi noted.

... "Just because they're reusing waste doesn't make that project all of a sudden a 'green' project," Shi said. "You have to look at the life cycle and whether this project is truly 'green.'"

While the waste may be a "misplaced resource," the benefits of using it, if not properly managed, could have unintended consequences, Shi said.

... "The phosphate industry's desire to make money off its toxic, radioactive waste changes nothing," he said.

Whitlock and his nonprofit claim that it's misleading when the phosphate industry points to other countries reusing phosphogypsum.

"Another nation's willingness to expose its citizens to corporate pollution is not a justification for the United States to disregard the well-known health and environmental consequences," Whitlock said.
There are 3 classes of people: those who see. Those who see when they are shown. Those who do not see

Insensible before the wave so soon released by callous fate. Affected most, they understand the least, and understanding, when it comes, invariably arrives too late

Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus